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do so,— No, we had our courts and public offices, apply to them.' I again declared that I considered it his duty as a public officer, and also as a magis. trate, to notice my application, and inquired if a Frenchman had a protest to make would he receive it ? — Yes, but that was different, you must go to your own courts—we take cognizance only of offences between French subjects, and are not amenable to your courts, neither are you to ours.'

“ I inquired if he had been present at my first visit, would he have opposed my fishing ? plied, 'I cannot now say what I would have done; but suppose if I had not opposed there would be plenty of English vessels here next season, which would never do. He then entered into the affair at Cod Roy, respecting the salmon fishery, stating that Mr. Hunt's men beat off the French crew with their fish, and declared he would find means to punish them if they did so again. I replied that Mr. Hunt's men were salmon fishers, and that the French had not any right to that branch of the fisheries ; No comprehend what you say'-in fact, he would not, therefore I retired from the interview, and on the following morning abandoned all further attempt at a fishery there, and shaped my course towards St. John's, where I arrived a few days after.

From the numerous interviews I had with the merchants and the naval commanders, it was apparent that they considered the cod fishery on that coast as their own, and that they would not consent to any competition, unless an equivalent were granted

DISPUTED RIGHT OF FISHERY.

265

them : hence the orders issued by the ministers, the copy of which, handed me by the Commodore, was similar to that displayed by Captain Lavoe :-viz. That the Americans were to be driven from the coast, and the British not to be countenanced in greater numbers than were necessary for the security of the French property in the winter. The absolute right of salmon fishery did not appear to be so strenuously insisted on as that of the cod; indeed from the contest at Cod Roy, immediately within their own limits, and the evasive reply of the Commodore on the question respecting it, together with other circumstances, it did not appear to me, that they considered they had any right to the brooks, or the shores of the harbours, other than that of catching and curing cod fish thereon.

“ To the soil they had not any claim, further than that portion necessary for the purposes of their fishery. To insure sufficient space for that purpose they have invariably selected the best and most capacious situations in each harbour, and by occupying the whole front, preclude the possibility of any other person approaching the situation selected for this scene of their business.

The coast abounds with timber of description for the purposes of the fishery. The land is good, for the most part producing every species of grass spontaneously, and in great abundance, free from bogs, and not a rush to be found on it or any portion of it. Indeed I could not discover any that could be deemed marshy, or at all approaching to it.

“ A long period has since elapsed without any

very excellent

benefit resulting to this community, as the fruit of the expedition, which was sent forth at some considerable expense to the merchants at St. John's.

(Signed) Wm. SWEETLAND. To Geo. R. Robinson, Esq. M.P. London.”

The practical effect of the claims enforced by the French of exclusive rights on our coast, and which as justly may be claimed on the coast of Sussex, is the virtual cession of the larger and better half of Newfoundland to France, for from Cape Ray to the Quirpon Islands, not ten British settlers are to be found, although the land is well adapted for cultivation and pasturage.

It remains to be seen whether the vital interests of the nation are still to be subservient to party purposes and disgraceful petty squabbles. If a Cromwell now wielded the destinies of Albion, there would be no necessity to spend months and years in consulting law officers,—the British flag would have been protected by its artillery, and woe to the Frenchman or American who dare to insult it; indeed, I am ashamed of being necessitated to print the foregoing humiliating facts, and so will every true Briton be to read them.

CHAPTER II.

PHYSICAL ASPECT-COAST LINE-HARBOURS-ISLANDS-LA

BRADOR COAST--GEOLOGY AND CLIMATE.

LITTLE is known of the interior of this vast island, which stands on an immense bank, in length about 600 miles, with a breadth of about 200 miles, and with soundings varying from twenty-five to ninety. five fathoms; the base being a mass of solid rock, with abrupt fissures, &c. There are apparently two banks, the outer one lies within the parallels of 44° 10' and 47° 30' north latitude, and the meridians 44° 15' and 45° 25' west longitude, with soundings from 100 to 160 fathoms. This bank appears to be a continuation of the Great Bank, and a succession may be observed the whole way to Nova Scotia.

Newfoundland is in shape nearly triangular, the apex thereof being to the northward, and the base extending east and west from Cape Ray to Cape Race. Like the Nova Scotia shores, and for a reason similar to the one given under that chapter, the coast is everywhere indented, at intervals of two or three miles, by broad and deep bays, innumerable harbours, coves, creeks, and rivers. The island all round is rocky (with pebbly beaches), generally covered with wood down to the water's edge, and with some lofty headlands on the south-west side.

Beginning at the south-east part, Newfoundland is formed into a peninsula of twenty-six leagues in length, and five to twenty in breadth, by two large bays, the heads of which are separated by an isthmus not exceeding four miles in width. This peninsula has five large bays, and several smaller ones, and is that part of the island named by Sir George Calvert, afterwards Lord Baltimore, Avalon.

To the north of Avalon, and on the eastern side of the island, lies Trinity Bay, between 47° 53' and 48° 37' north latitude. This bay nearly divides the old province of Avalon from the rest of Newfoundland; separated from the Bay of Bonavista by a narrow neck of land; it has on the north side Trinity Harbour, Ireland's Eye, and Long Harbour : to the south-west, Bull's Bay and Islands, and Tickle Harbour ; to the south Chapel Bay; to the east and north-east Heart's Delight, Heart's Content, &c.; and from thence through the Harbours of New Pelican and Old Pelican, we pass Break-heart Point, leading to the Point of Grates.

Round this point, about three miles from Conception Bay, lies the small Island of Baccalao, an insulated rock, where an extraordinary number of birds congregate to hatch their young—these are called Baccalao birds; and from their continual scream being heard a considerable distance at sea, and serving as a warning to mariners during the constant fogs, the different governors (in former years) have issued proclamations imposing severe penalties on such as should molest them.

Conception Bay ranks as the first district in New

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