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he must, it seemed to me, have gone overboard, or capsized our crank bark. The light of the flambeau in the other canoes, as they came round the projecting points of leafy green, and the shade, as we again lost view of them behind the trees or rocks in the distance, was most imposing. Four hundred trout were thus speared in the canoe in which I was : some of them were of such a size, that they would have been taken, as they frequently are, in the salmon nets. In the five canoes, above 1000 were taken in little more than two hours. I had the curiosity to weigh six of them, which together weighed twenty-two pounds, and had a barrel of this night's catch salted, that I might take them with me to St. John's.”

Potatoes and cabbages are the most valuable productions of the island, growing in plots or gardens attached to the fishermen's houses. Turnips, carrots, parsnips, peas, radishes, and most garden roots yield abundantly. Red, black, and white currants, gooseberries, and strawberries, grow in great perfection ; and a smaller kind of strawberry is found wild in the woods : raspberries grow everywhere, and that species of cherry called the Kentish comes to great perfection ; other sorts, as well as damsons, grow abundantly in favourable seasons : besides these, apples and pears are sometimes raised in perfection.

The plains are almost covered with low stunted bushes, which bear a great variety of wild berries. The snake root, capilaire, and wisha capucoa, are indigenous; when in blossom, the latter plant is beautiful.

VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

295

It is made by the inhabitants into a decoction, and used after the manner of tea, and said to be extremely wholesome in spring. Another remarkable plant found in the woods is the Suracinia, a full description of which is given in Dr. Thornton's Temple of Flora. Sarsaparilla is also found in the island.

The swamps abound with a great variety of reeds and flowers, many of the latter extremely beautiful, such as wild roses, violets, &c.; but the season for enjoying them is short, for they all come together, and last but a few weeks, which gives rise to the saying common in Newfoundland, a short feast and a long famine.”

The timber grown on the island, though generally of no great magnitude, is rendered very useful for the purposes of the fishery, and vessels of considerable size, varying from 60 to 200 tons each, are built chiefly with native wood. The juniper (or hecma-tic) witch hazel, black birch and black spruce are the most esteemed for these purposes :

the common fir is not esteemed for building, but very well adapted for casks and other common uses in the fishery.

Kelp is abundant all round the coast, and, with other sea-weeds, is used for manure. Zoophytes, or animal flowers (forming the link between the animal and vegetable kingdom), may also frequently be met with.

CHAPTER III.

POPULATION-GOVERNMENT-FINANCES-COMMERCE-SHIP

PING, IMPORTS AND EXPORTS-FISHERIES-COD AND SEAL -VALUE OF DITTO-PROPERTY-SCHOOLS-THE PRESSSOCIAL STATE, &c.

In consequence of the extensive fisheries carried on along its coasts, the population of Newfoundland necessarily fluctuates, and it is difficult to obtain an exact census. In 1806 the number of mouths were estimated at 26,505. I have obtained two more recent censuses, the one for 1822 from the House of Commons' Library, the other for 1827-8 from the Colonial Office.

POPULATION OF NEW FOUNDLAND IN 1822-3, AND IN 1827-8.

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75,000. is of opinion that the population is now not far from rapidly the population is increasing. Mr. Brooking portion in number of births over the deaths, how

It will be readily conceived, by the great disproIn 1827, marriages, 442; births, 1879; deaths, 696.

In 1822, marriages, 516; births, 1675; deaths, 735.

St. John's, North
Conception Bay
Trinity
Bonavista
Twillingate and Fogo
Bay Bulls
Ferryland
Trepassy and St. Mary's...
Placentia
Burin
Fortune Bay ..................

8014
11130
2517
2500
1830
445
699
230
2217
1134
1030

4995
7670
1784
1678
975
367
607
192
924
524
695

13009
18800
4301
4178
2805

812
1306

422
3141
1658
1725

8958
10271
3017
2684
2181

650
1151

496
2017
1512
1680

6207
7588
2136
1987
1366
490
825
351
785
608
1128

1140)
1976

847
2802
2120
2808

POPULATION.

]
1
1

31746

20411

52157

34617

23471

58088

15

Add for persons distributed along many distant parts of the coast, which

those taking the census could not visit

2000

King's troops, 340. Supposed to be underrated.

60088

297

POPULATION OF NEWFOUNDLAND, AS PER CENSUS TAKEN

IN THE YEAR 1825.

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has increased. is a more abundant stock of capital afloat, population John's, where the soil is more fertile, and where there since the peace, but in the neighbourhood of St. all the southern districts the population has decreased Robinson, Brooking, & Co. It is thought that in indebted, along with other documents, to the firm of going was taken in 1825, and for which I am

A more complete census than either of the fore

145
93
24

368
144

39
715
1420
765
228
269

2767 14025

20 793
184 1498

800
201 3872

1339

365
317 4323
1701 16626

15 3502
180 4511
347 3105

1400
574
136
810
3770

740
1426
1000

334

4600

56
167
400
2900
676
100
4000
8300
3000
3384
2300

318
107

37
663
1390
769
317
466

1440
421

129
1484
5990
1100
1856
999

2355

113
504
24

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