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Allowing for passengers, 960, the total would be 55,719.
The marriages within the year were 500, the births 1,800, and the deaths 750.
The number of French on our own coast of Newfoundland, and from which, thanks to the supineness of the British Government, Englishmen are excluded, is said to amount to 12,000.
When Newfoundland was first visited after the general discovery of the continent of America, it was found to contain two distinct races of men—the one termed Red Indian, the other the Esquimaux: both are now almost extinct; the former perhaps entirely so, as recriminating hostilities were waged between them and the early settlers, who shot and speared each other whenever an occasion presented itself, the narration of which would unnecessarily swell the bulk of this history, without attracting the attention of the general reader. Some Red Indians appeared at a creek in Exploits Bay during the past summer, but their number was small.
The destruction of the Red Indians was not, however, owing solely to the Europeans, but, in fact, mainly to the exterminating war carried on against the former by the Mic-Mac Indians, who arrived in the island in considerable numbers from Nova Scotia and Cape Breton.
From an interesting female of the Red Indians, named Mary March, who was taken to St. John's after her husband was shot at the Bay of Exploits in 1818, a vocabulary of the language used by the aborigines was collected by Captain Hercules Robin
son before referred to; the most prominent words of which were as follow :
Arms, memayet. Arrow, dogemat.
sel, adothe. Blood, izzobauth. Bite, bashudite.
Body, haddabothie. Back, possont. Clothes, ihingyam. Codfish, bobboosoret. Cat, abi
desook. Canoe, japathook. Come hither, kooret.
Cold, moidewsee. Chin, toun. Deer, osweet. Dog, mammasmeet. Duck, boodowit.
Dancing, budiseet. Eye, givinya. Egg, debine. Eat, odvit. Eyebrow,
marmeuck. Elbow, moocus. Ear, mooshaman. Fire, woodrat. Feathers, abobidress.
emamooset. Go out, enano. Hand, memet. Hair, dronna. House, mammateek.
Heart, begodor. Husband, zathrook. Head, keau
thut gonothin. Hatchet, thingaya. Ice, ozeru. Indian (red), bæothick. Iron, mowa.
zeenite. Knee, hodamishit. Kiss, widumite. Leg, aduse. Lip, coish. Lie down, bituwaite. Leaves,
madyna. Man, bukashaman. Mouth, mamesook. Moon, kius
and washewiush. Nose, geen Nails, quish. Neck and throat, iede
sheet. Oil, emet. Rain, bathue. Rat, gadgemish. Shoes, moosin. Smoke, besdic. Seal, bedesook.
Spoon, adadiminte. Sleep, isedoweet. Sword, bedi
soni. Salmon, wasemook. Swimming, thoowidgee. Singing, awoodet. Shoulders, momezemethon.
Sorrow, corrasoob. Teeth, bofomet outhermayet. Tickle, kaduishnite.
Thank you, thine. Tongue, memasuck. Thunder,
barodiisick. Thumb, pooeth. Woman, amamoose. Water, ebautho. Watch, ruis.
Wife, osuk. Walk, woothyat. Wind, gidgeathue.
Wolf, moisamadrook. Wood, adiab. NUMBERS.-One, gathet. Two, adasic. Three, shed
sic. Four, abodoesic. Five, nijick. Six, bigadosic. Seven, odosook. Eight, odoosook. Nine, yeoth odue. Ten, theant.
The Esquimaux, who are thinly scattered on the Labrador coast, are similar to the Greenlanders; the language of the latter affording a dialect for the former. In summer they live in tents prepared like those of the Greenlanders, but in winter their habitations are constructed in a different manner : choosing a large drift of snow, the Esquimaux digs a hole in it corresponding with the dimensions of the intended house ; pieces of snow, three feet long, two in breadth, and one foot thick, are then cut and placed in the form of an arch over the hole; instead of a window an aperture is cut in the arch, and a slab of clear ice admits sufficient light; the entrance to the dwelling is long, winding, and very low, and another slab of thick ice forms the door. In the middle of the house is an elevation of spow 20 inches high, covered with skins, and used as the sleeping place. Such is the extraordinary construction of
an Esquimaux's dwelling for nine months of the year.
Every reader is acquainted with the Esquimaux sledges, drawn by dogs, who are attached by thongs of unequal lengths to a horizontal bar, an old dog leading the way ten or twenty paces a-head, directed by the driver's whip, which is often 24 feet long. It is not a little singular, that when one of the dogs in harness receives a lash, he generally bites his neighbour, and the bite then goes round.
It is very probable that the number of the Esquimaux on the Labrador coast, notwithstanding the exertions of the philanthropic Moravians, are rapidly decreasing
GOVERNMENT.—The island affairs are administered by a House of Assembly, consisting of 15 members, chosen by the people, to which is added a Legislative and Executive Council, after the manner of Nova Scotia. The qualification for an elector is universal household suffrage; that of a representative, being a householder of two years' standing.
The laws are in English, and administered by Circuit Courts. There is no militia in the island, and the police are few in number.
MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT.—Return of the numbers
and distribution of the effective force, officers, noncommissioned officers, and rank and file, of the British army, including Colonial corps, in each year since 1815, including artillery and engineers.
FINANCE.-The revenue is derived from Custom duties amounting to about 15,000l. per annum, and licenses 1,0001.; the receipts and expenditure, together with the Parliamentary grant (now abolished) were for a series of
years thus :