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Temple; and William Crowne Temple purchased La Tour's share, re-established the different settlements, and expended 16,0001. in repairing the fortifications; but while the colony was emerging from distress and obscurity, it was ceded to France by the treaty of Breda in 1667.

For twenty years succeeding the treaty of Breda, the colony enjoyed repose, and some progress was made in establishing fisheries, and extending the fur trade, but upon the renewal of hostilities in 1689, it was still deficient in means of defence, and Port Royal was taken by Sir William Phipps', with a squadron from Massachussets; the French, as usual, still held themselves masters of the other parts of the peninsula; the English, however, retained a nominal possession, sometimes fighting for a district, at others ravaging the French settlements; but by the treaty of Ryswick in 1696 the colony was once more restored, or rather left unmolested in the possession of France ; but on the breaking out of the war again in 1701 preparations were made in England and Massachussets for the total subjugation of Nova Scotia to the British arms, with a distinct

· Sir William was born in 1650, at Pemaquid, in New England; he was the son of a blacksmith, and commenced life as a shepherd : at the age of eighteen he was apprenticed to a shipcarpenter, subsequently built a small vessel for himself, and in the course of time was successful in raising 300,0001. sterling from a Spanish wreck at the Bahamas. He was knighted by James II., and employed on several important expeditions by England, and by his compatriots, the colonists.

avowal on the part of the crown, that if again conquered it should not be restored to France.

The expedition for the capture of Nova Scotia sailed from Boston Bay on the 18th September, 1710, and after some fighting, Port Royal capitulated on the 29th : the other stations subsequently gave in their adhesion to the British government; and at the treaty between France and England in 1713, Nova Scotia was finally ceded to the latter power, who changed the name of Port Royal to Annapolis Royal, in honour of Queen Anne, made it a seat of government, and named a council of the principal inhabitants, for the management of the civil affairs of the province.

By the 12th article of the treaty between France and England, of the 11th April, 1713, all Nova Scotia, with its ancient boundaries, as also the city of Port Royal, and the inhabitants of the same, were ceded to Great Britain,“ in such ample manner and form, that the subjects of the most Christian king shall be hereafter excluded from all kinds of fishing in the said seas, bays, and other places on the coast of Nova Scotia, that is to say, on those which lie towards the east, within thirty leagues, beginning from the island commonly called Sable, inclusively, and thence stretching along towards the southwest.”

Little further remains to be stated respecting the acquisition of the colony 1 that would be interesting

1 See Cape Breton.

GENERAL HISTORY.

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to the general reader, or within the scope of my work; from 1713 to 1749 Nova Scotia was neglected by England, but the crafty designs of the French to acquire by fraud what they could not obtain by force, drew the attention of the British public to the importance of the colony, and encouragements were held out to retired officers, &c. to whom offers of grants of land were made; 3760 adventurers were embarked with their families for the colony; Parliament granted 40,0001. for their support, and they landed at Chebucto harbour, where the town of Halifax was soon erected by the new emigrants under the command of their Governor the Hon. Edward Cornwallis.

The French pretended to draw a distinction between Acadia and Nova Scotia ; and as the country was ceded under the former appellation, they endeavoured to maintain that Acadia was the name of the peninsula which they had alone ceded to Britain, and that the rest of the country, lying between New England and the Bay of Fundy, was a part of New France which, together with Canada, still belonged to them.

The French settlers (under the name of Neutrals) were still very numerous in the colony, and with the aid of the Indians, held the British in constant alarm, and murdered many of the settlers; after various contests, and much cruelty on either side, the ‘Neutrals' to the number of several thousands, were forcibly expelled from Nova Scotia, and carried in Bri. tish transports to Massachussets, Pennsylvania, &c. leaving nothing behind them but smoking ruins and

deserted villages. I agree with Mr. Haliburton, the talented historian of his native country', in deploring the cruel events which took place on this distressing occasion; but the blame is to be attributed to the crafty and jesuitical policy of the French Court at Paris, who instigated the Neutrals by every possible means to harass and annoy the English.

In 1758, a constitution was granted to Nova Scotia consisting of a House of Assembly for the Representatives—a Legislative Council and Governor representing the Crown : in the same year

the

capture of Louisburgh, in Cape Breton isle, gave addi. tional security to the colony, which now began to improve. In 1761, on the election of a new Parliament in Nova Scotia, on the accession of George III. to the Crown of Great Britain, the number of representatives returned were twenty-four, namely, two for each of the counties of Halifax, Lunenburgh, Annapolis and King's; four for Halifax township, and two for each of the townships of Lunenburgh, Annapolis, Horton, Cornwallis, Falmouth and Liverpool. By the treaty of Paris, 10th February, 1762, France resigned all further claims on any of her former possessions in North America.

New Brunswick and Cape Breton were separated into two distinct governments, in 1784; the latter was re-annexed to Nova Scotia (of which it now forms a county) in 1819. The several Governors,

| Mr. Haliburton, a native of the colony, has written an admirable history of Nova Scotia, which was printed and got up in a most creditable manner, at Halifax, in 1829.

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since the British acquisition, were :-At Annapolis Royal1710, Colonel Vetch, governor ; 1714, F. Nicholson, ditto ; 1719, R. Phillips, ditto ; 1722, J. Doucett, ditto ; 1725, L. Armstrong, ditto; 1739, J. Adams, ditto; 1740, Paul Mascarene, ditto. At Halifax-1749, E. Cornwallis, ditto; 1752, T. Hopson, ditto ; 1754, C. Lawrence, Lieutenant Governor ; 1756, C. Lawrence, ditto, and R. Monkton, Lieutenant-Governor ; 1760, J. Belcher, LieutenantGovernor ; 1763, M. Wilmot, Governor ; 1766, M. Francklin, Lieutenant-Governor ; 1766, Honourable Lord W. Campbell, Governor; 1772, M. Francklin, Lieutenant-Governor ; 1772, Lord W. Campbell, Governor; 1773, F. Legge, Governor, M. Franklin, Lieutenant-Governor; 1776, M. Arbuthnot, Lieutenant-Governor; 1778, R. Hughes, ditto ; 1781, Sir A. S. Hammond, ditto ; 1782, John Parr, Goyernor, and Sir A.S. Hammond, Lieutenant-Governor; 1783, E. Fenning, Lieutenant - Governor; 1792, J. Wentworth, Lieutenant-Governor; 1808, Sir G. Prevost, Lieutenant - Governor; 1811, A. Croke; 1811, Sir J. Sherbrooke, Lieutenant - Governor ; 1816, Lieutenant-General the Right Hon. George, Earl of Dalhousie, Lieutenant-Governor ; 1820, Sir J. Kempt, Lieutenant-Governor ; 1828, Sir P. Maitland; February 1834, Lieutenant-Governor Sir Colin Campbell.

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