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mind about the petty superstition which would have made this an obstacle to his joining in the Lord's Supper. This rite was to him nothing but a simple remembrance of Christ's last supper and death." He thought the English Catechism wholly unfit for children, and vehemently disliked the dogmatic parts of it. His thoughts and opinions were not to be bounded or cramped by the regulations of any one sect built up by man. He looked forward to a day when there would be no priests, or rather when every man would be a priest, and all superstitious notions—such as is implied in the notion that only a clergyman ought to perform certain offices of religion—should be cast aside by Christian men for ever.

In practice, however, Lord John showed a greater tolerance than might be inferred from some of his opinions or writings. When he was in London he usually attended the services at St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, or at Belgrave Chapel. It would have been difficult to select two churches, within a reasonable distance of Chesham Place, representing more opposite poles of thought. But he did not confine himself to places of worship within the pale of the Church. Lady John and he went sometimes to hear the great Nonconformist preachers; while occasionally, like most men of deep religious feeling, he recognised that public worship does not constitute the highest form of devotion. Sitting one Sunday among his trees and his flowers, with his daughter and his grandchildren around him, he said to Lady Russell, ‘It conduces much to piety not to go to church sometimes.’

Such is a rough sketch of Lord Russell's religious views. But his opinions on the highest subjects were modified by his political judgment. Few Tories—who had resisted the emancipation of the Roman Catholics which he had done so much to secure—had so genuine a dread of the political consequences of the spread of Roman Catholicism. Through the greater part of his life he hoped to find an adequate barrier to Rome in the Church ; and for this reason, even if it had stood alone, he would have desired to maintain the Establishment. But he was also throughout his early and middle life impressed with the notion that the clergy of an endowed Church were more likely to profess liberal views than the ministers of voluntary sects, who were dependent for their livelihood on the subscriptions of their congregations. The experience of a long life perhaps convinced him that a Stateendowed clergy would not extricate itself from the trammels of Creeds and Articles; and so, as years rolled on, he became less earnest in defence of the cause, and would often laugh as he brought out the well-known arguments. Writing early in 1870, the year of Mr. Forster's Education Act, from San Remo, he said— The prospect of obtaining a national unsectarian education, founded on the exclusion of all catechisms and formularies, is, in the present temper of the nation, so fair a one that I think the country may well wait a year for the accomplishment of so great a blessing. My wish and hope is [so he wrote a year afterwards], the rising generation may be taught to adopt, not the Church of Rome, or the Church of England, but the Church of Christ.

| Writing to Lady Victoria Villiers in 1866, Lord Russell said, ‘About his and your views on the Eucharist, every one must judge for himself how far he

- believes in the spiritual presence of Christ in the Holy Communion. Without

questioning your belief, I am inclined to think that every act of kindness and love and charity to our fellow creatures obtains the special blessing of God and Christ —that the merciful shall obtain mercy ; and those who forgive trespasses of others may hope forgiveness of their own.’


These few remarks may possibly help the reader to supply the lights and shadows of an imperfect portrait, and to gather some idea of the nature and character of the man whom the author has endeavoured, however vainly, to draw. It is a pleasure to recollect that his long life was, on the whole, a very happy one. His childhood was, indeed, clouded by the death of his mother, his middle years by the loss of his first wife, his old age by the deaths of his eldest son, his daughterin-law, and their child; as well as by the afflicting illness of another son.

Yet, in the children who were still left to him, in the children's children who were brought to his home, in the memory of the part which he had played in the past, in the interest which he was taking in the present, in the hope which he felt for the future, in the consciousness of his own integrity, in the respect of his fellow-countrymen, in faith in his God, Lord Russell may have found some consolation for his trials, and have reflected that, if his old age was clouded with sorrow, his grey hairs were descending with honour to the grave,

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ARERcoRN, Duchess of (half-sister to
Lord John), i. 58 n
Abercorn, Luke of, Lord-Lieutenant
of Ireland, ii. 430
Abercromby, Lady Mary, i. 432 ; ii.
164, 276
Abercromby, Mr. (Master of the
Mint), i. 206, 207 ; declines the
Speakership, 215; becomes Speaker,
216 ; O'Connell's support of, 220 ;
resignation of the Speakership, 322;
made Lord Dunfermline, 322;
death of, ii. 433
Abercromby, Sir R. (afterwards 2nd
Lord Dunfermline), British minister
at the Hague, ii. 236
Aberdeen, Lady, letter to Lord John,
1. I52
Aberdeen, Lord, brings the dispute
with America in 1846 to a peaceful
issue, i. 422 ; disapproves of Prince
Leopold's selection as husband for
the Queen of Spain, ii. I ; memo-
randum from M. Guizot on the
Spanish marriages, 5 m ; his con-
ciliatory policy towards France, 13;
letter from Lord John on the Austro-
Italian conflict, 50 ; enjoined by the
Queen to submit all important drafts
to her before the despatches leave
the office, 54 m ; arranges with Lord
John a ministry based on unity
between the Whigs and the followers
of Sir Robert Peel, 124; reply to
Lord John's memorandum, 124;
Lord John's answer, 126; declines
further negotiation, 127 ; asked to
form a Ministry and declines, 128;
letter from Lord John, with an offer,
156; his reply, 157; sent for by the
Queen to form a Ministry, 160;
accepts office, 160; proposes ulti-
mately to retire from the Premiership
in Lord John's favour, 163; corre-
spondence with the Duke of Bedford
thereon, 163; completes his ministry,
164; difficulties because of the jeal-


ousies of Whigs and Peelites, 165;
misunderstanding with Lord John,
165; letters to and from Lord John
on the latter's tenure of office, 166–
169; letters from and to Lord John
on the latter's speech on the Irish
Church, 173; letter to Mr. Monsell
assuring him that Lord John's
opinions on the Irish Church are not
shared by many members of the
Government, 174; on the necessity
of circumspect instructions to Lord
Stratford de Redcliffe on his mission
to Constantinople, 178; does not
credit the Czar's alleged hostile in-
tentions towards Turkey, 180; con-
flict of views with Lord John on the
Russian difficulty, 180, 181, 182;
labours for peace, 183; hopes that
Russia will accept the Porte's modi-
fications of the Vienna Note, 185;
Lord John's memorandum on the
Eastern question laid before him,
186 ; letter to Lord John on the
situation, 188; desires to draw up a
new Note to be submitted to the
Porte by the four Powers, 194; ob-
jections to his handing over the
Premiership to Lord John, 194;
agreement with Lord John on Reform
and the Eastern question, 198, 199;
explains and defends Prince Albert's
action in public affairs, 203; against
the postponement of Lord John's
Reform Bill, 204; uneasy at the pro-
spects of war, 204 m ; on the further
postponement of the Reform Bill,
206; asks Lord John to postpone
same, 207; congratulates Lord John
on his speech on the postponement
of his Reform Bill, 2 Io; “Punch's '
cartoon of him and Lord John, 21 in,
divergence of policy between him
and Lord John in the Crimean War,
212 ; his treatment of the offer of an
Austrian alliance, 21.3; his dilatoriness
in the execution of the plan for the

division of the War and Colonial
departments, 217; against subsidising
Sweden, 217 ; prefers to subsidise
Austria, 217, 218 ; letters to and from
Lord John on changes in the minis-
try, 219 ; concurs in Lord John's
acceptance of the Presidency of the
Council, 220 ; reasons for avoiding
the introduction of Sir George Grey
into the Cabinet, 221 ; agrees gene-
rally to Lord John's proposed minis-
terial changes, 222 ; letter to Lord
John in reply to the latter's proposed
resignation, 225; declines to advise
the Queen to appoint Palmerston as
War Minister, 230; disclaims any
want of confidence in Lord John as
leader of the House of Commons, 232;
declines to concert with the French a
new plan of campaign, 236 ; letter in
answer to Lord John's resignation,
237; interview with Lord John re-
specting the latter being asked to
form a government, 287
Acheson, Lord, i. 458
Acland, Sir Thomas, i. 4 m, 169, 209,
3O5 or
Adair, Mr. (afterwards Sir Robert), i. 5o
Adam, Captain (afterwards Admiral
Sir C.), i. 7 I
Adam, Rt. Hon. William (Duke of
Bedford's agent), i. 20, 27
Adams, Mr. (astronomer), pension to,
ii. 146
Adams, Mr. (American minister to
England), his correspondence with
Lord John regarding the ‘Alabama,’
ii. 353; asks redress for the injuries
inflicted by that vessel, 356
Adams, President, i. 421
Adams, Serjeant, i. 282
Adrianople, Treaty of, ii. 192
Adye, Captain, i. 74
Aide, Hamilton, his poetical tribute to
the character of Lord John, ii. 397
‘Alabama' case, the, ii. 353
Albemarle, Lord, his doggerel Latin
lines on the Masters of Westminster
School, i. 6 m
Albert, Prince, ‘on vastly good terms
with Lord John,’ i. 434; interest in
the Cracow matter, ii. 8 ; distrust of
Lord Palmerston, S.; on the action
of the King of l'iedmont in the Italian
revolt against Austria, 39 : attitude
in the Austro-Italian conflict, 46 ;
objects to the wording of a despatch
to the Porte on the Hungarian re-
fugees, 54 ; letter to Lord John on
Palmerston's conduct in the Greek


dispute, 59; criticism of Lord John's
scheme of Reform, 129 ; difiers with
Lord Palmerston on the Schleswig-
Holstein question, 132 : charged
with interfering unconstitutionally in
foreign and domestic affairs, 202,
340 ; death of 347
Ali Pacha, Turkish Plenipotentiary at
the Vienna Conference, ii. 257
Alice, Princess, visits the Russells, ii.

Alien Acts, the, i. 73
Allen, Mr. , i. 42, 43, I 12, 1 13 ; letter
to Lord John, I 10
Althorp, Lord, undertakes conduct of
Lord John's Bribery Bill, i. 129, 131 ;
proposals for suppression of bribery,
133, 134; his rumoured ‘falling off,'
137 ; discourages Lord John's pro-
ject of a Central Association, 147 ;
becomes leader of the Whig party,
153 ; letter to Lord John, 153 or ;
wishes to settle the new civil list,
154; offers office to Lord John, 159;
not on the Reform committee, 165;
aids Lord John in passing a Reform
Bill, 17o ; coincides in coercive Irish
legislation, ISO ; introduces Bill for
Irish Church reform, 188, 192 ;
hoped, on Lord Grey's resignation,
that the King would send for Sir
Robert Peel, 204; succeeds to the
peerage, 207 ; letter to Lord John,
209 ; his principle in respect to
Church rates, 278 m ; ii. 196
Amberley, Lady, death of, ii. 449
Amberley, Lord (eldest son of Lord
John), i. 387, 402; Landseer's sketch
of, ii. I I 3 ; in private theatricals at
Woburn, 114; writes to his father
as to his future education, 279 ; his
marriage, 403; defeated at Leeds in
the general election, 406; birth of a
son, 406; begins his Parliamentary
career, 430; death of, 451
American Civil War, causes of, ii. 33S,

Ampthill, Lord ; see Russell, Lord Odo
Anglesey, Lord (Viceroy of Ireland), i.
183, 184, 197
Anti-Corn Law League, the, i. 366,
318; ii. 196
Antonelli, Cardinal, sends the Pope's
blessing to the young King of Naples,
11. 323
Antwerp, bombardment of, ii. 189
Apponyi, Count (Austrian minister to
England), ii. 321, 392, 393
Appropriation Clause, i. 246, 276, 297,
299, 30 I, 433

Arguelles, Señor, ii. 48
Argyll, Duke of, i. 35 ; ii. 174, 200 ;
quoted, 243; letter to Lord John
respecting the detention of the
‘Alabama,’ 355 n
Armagh, Archbishop of, consulted by
Lord John on reforms in the Irish
Church, i. 299
Arms Bill, the, i. 388, 431, 467–469
Arnould, Sir J., quoted, i. 479
Arrouca, convent of, i. 60
“Arrow’ question, the, ii. 286
Ashley, Lord (afterwards Shaftesbury,
Earl of), his diary quoted, i. 399 ;
letter to Lord John, 455
Ashley, Mr. E., his publication of Lord
Palmerston's letters, ii. 158
Atherton, Sir William, his advice soli-
cited on the ‘Alabama’ question, ii.
Atkin, Mr., i. 5
Attwood, Mr., i. 173 m
Auckland, Lord, i. 4 II ; ii. 16; his
measures of national defence, 21 ;
letter from Lord John on the naval
estimates, 28 ; death of 80, 97
Augustenburg, Prince, his claim to the
duchy of Holstein, ii. 386
Australia, i. 338; French plan for in-
vading and holding, ii. 176
Austria, loses Milan, ii. 38–40 ; sug-
gested transfer of Ionian Islands to,
41 ; seeks a compromise with the
Italians, 45; refuses a conference on
Italian affairs, 49 ; suppresses the
Hungarian rebellion and demands
the extradition of Hungarian refu-
gees from Turkey, 54 ; action in the
Montenegrin difficulty, 177 ; propo-
sition to subsidise, in the Russian
war, 217, 219
Austria, Emperor of, his abdication, ii.
25 ; a fugitive, 49
Austrian alliance with England, pro-
posals of an, in the Russian war, ii.
213, 218
Aylmer, Lord, i. 268 m, 269
Azeglio, Signor, ii. 277

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Baring, Sir Francis, i. 178; in the
Cabinet, 335; at the Exchequer, 365;
Budget proposals of, 368, 369 ; asks
for a committee on the sugar duties,
374 ; succeeds Lord Auckland in the
Cabinet, ii. So ; relationship to Sir
Charles Wood and the Greys, So ;
a stern economist, 80 ; accepts the
Admiralty, 98; votes for the Militia
Bill, 150 m ; protests against Lord
John's supersession in the leader-
ship, 159; quoted, 210; consulted
by Lord John on a ministerial crisis,
Barker, Russell, quoted, i. Io
Barnes, Mr. (editor of the ‘Times'), i.
Barnstaple, writ suspended, i. 119
Barrymore (actor), i. 8
Bath, Lady, i. 27
Bath, Lord (uncle by marriage of Lord
John), i. 27
Bathurst, Lord, i. 133
Baxter, Sir David, ii. 402
Baynes, Sir Christopher, i. 30
Beaumont, M. de (French minister in
London), ii. 46
Beauvale, Lord, i. 425
Bedford, Duchess of (Georgiana, mother
of Lord John), letters of, i. 2, 4 ;
chronic ill health, 2, 3 ; death

of, 4
Bedford, Duchess of (Georgiana, step-
mother of Lord John), i. 5, Io, I 13 ;
ii. 113 ; death of, 174
Bedford, Duchess of (Lord Tavistock's
wife); see under Stanhope, Lady
Bedford, fourth Duke of, i. 2
Bedford, Francis, fisth 1)uke of, i. 2, 3
Bedford, Francis, seventh Duke of ; see
under Tavistock, Lord
Bedford, John, sixth Duke of, i. 2;
death of his wife (a daughter of Lord
Torrington), 4 ; second marriage to
a daughter of the Duke of Gordon,
5; made Viceroy of Ireland, 18;
his part in the fall of the Talents
Administration, 28 ; retirement from
the Viceroyalty, 28; on tour in Eng-
land, 30; visits Sir Walter Scott in
Selkirkshire, 31 ; opinion of English
universities, 44; pleasure at Lord
John's début at the Speculative
Society, 47 ; encourages him to con-
tinue the “Whig Register,’ 49 : sug-
gests to Lord John a tour through the
English manufacturing towns, 54 ;
discourages Lord John's going to Cam-
bridge University, 57; on the riots
and discontent in 1816, SS; continen-

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