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mind about the petty superstition which would have made this an obstacle to his joining in the Lord's Supper. This rite was to him nothing but a simple remembrance of Christ's last supper and death." He thought the English Catechism wholly unfit for children, and vehemently disliked the dogmatic parts of it. His thoughts and opinions were not to be bounded or cramped by the regulations of any one sect built up by man. He looked forward to a day when there would be no priests, or rather when every man would be a priest, and all superstitious notions-such as is implied in the notion that only a clergyman ought to perform certain offices of religion-should be cast aside by Christian men for ever.

In practice, however, Lord John showed a greater tolerance than might be inferred from some of his opinions or writings. When he was in London he usually attended the services at St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, or at Belgrave Chapel. It would have been difficult to select two churches, within a reasonable distance of Chesham Place, representing more opposite poles of thought. But he did not confine himself to places of worship within the pale of the Church. Lady John and he went sometimes to hear the great Nonconformist preachers; while occasionally, like most men of deep religious feeling, he recognised that public worship does not constitute the highest form of devotion. Sitting one Sunday among his trees and his flowers, with his daughter and his grandchildren around him, he said to Lady Russell, ‘It conduces much to piety not to go to church sometimes.'

Such is a rough sketch of Lord Russell's religious views. But his opinions on the highest subjects were modified by his political judgment. Few Tories-who had resisted the emancipation of the Roman Catholics which he had done so much to secure—had so genuine a dread of the political consequences of the spread of Roman Catholicism. Through the greater part of his life he hoped to find an adequate barrier to Rome in the Church ; and for this reason, even if

1 Writing to Lady Victoria Villiers in 1866, Lord Russell said, “About his and your views on the Eucharist, every one must judge for himself how far he believes in the spiritual presence of Christ in the Holy Communion. Without questioning your belief, I am inclined to think that every act of kindness and love and charity to our fellow creatures obtains the special blessing of God and Christ —that the merciful shall obtain mercy ; and those who forgive trespasses of others may hope forgiveness of their own.'

it had stood alone, he would have desired to maintain the Establishment. But he was also throughout his early and middle life impressed with the notion that the clergy of an endowed Church were more likely to profess liberal views than the ministers of voluntary sects, who were dependent for their livelihood on the subscriptions of their congregations. The experience of a long life perhaps convinced him that a Stateendowed clergy would not extricate itself from the trammels of Creeds and Articles; and so, as years rolled on, he became less earnest in defence of the cause, and would often laugh as he brought out the well-known arguments. Writing early in 1870, the year of Mr. Forster's Education Act, from San Remo, he said— The prospect of obtaining a national unsectarian education, founded on the exclusion of all catechisms and formularies, is, in the present temper of the nation, so fair a one that I think the country may well wait a year for the accomplishment of so great a blessing. My wish and hope is [so he wrote a year afterwards], the rising generation may be taught to adopt, not the Church of Rome, or the Church of England, but the Church of Christ.

These few remarks may possibly help the reader to supply the lights and shadows of an imperfect portrait, and to gather some idea of the nature and character of the man whom the author has endeavoured, however vainly, to draw. It is a pleasure to recollect that his long life was, on the whole, a very happy one. His childhood was, indeed, clouded by the death of his mother, his middle years by the loss of his first wife, his old age by the deaths of his eldest son, his daughterin-law, and their child; as well as by the afflicting illness of another son.

Yet, in the children who were still left to him, in the children's children who were brought to his home, in the memory of the part which he had played in the past, in the interest which he was taking in the present, in the hope which he felt for the future, in the consciousness of his own integrity, in the respect of his fellow-countrymen, in faith in his God, Lord Russell may have found some consolation for his trials, and have reflected that, if his old age was clouded with sorrow, his grey hairs were descending with honour to the grave,

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INDEX

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ABE
ABERCORN, Duchess of (half-sister to

Lord John), i. 58 n
Abercorn, L'uke of, Lord-Lieutenant

of Ireland, ii. 430
Abercromby, Lady Mary, i. 432 ; ii.

164, 276
Abercromby, Mr. (Master of the

Mint), i. 206, 207 ; declines the
Speakership, 215; becomes Speaker,
216 ; O'Connell's support of, 220 ;
resignation of the Speakership, 322 ;
made Lord Dunfermline, 322 ;

death of, ii. 433
Abercromby, Sir R. (afterwards 2nd

Lord Dunfermline), British minister

at the Hague, ii. 236
Aberdeen, Lady, letter to Lord John,

i. 152

Aberdeen, Lord, brings the dispute

with America in 1846 to a peaceful
issue, i. 422 ; disapproves of Prince
Leopold's selection as husband for
the Queen of Spain, ii. 1; memo.
randum from M. Guizot on the
Spanish marriages, 511; his con-
ciliatory policy towards France, 13 ;
letter from Lord John on the Austro-
Italian conflict, 50 ; enjoined by the
Queen to submit all important drafts
to her before the despatches leave
the office, 54 n ; arranges with Lord
John a ministry based on unity
between the Whigs and the followers
of Sir Robert Peel, 124 ; reply to
Lord John's memorandum, 124;
Lord John's answer, 126 ; declines
further negotiation, 127 ; asked to
form a Ministry and declines, 128;
letter from Lord John, with an offer,
156 ; his reply, 157 ; sent for by the
Queen to form a Ministry, 160;
accepts office, 160; proposes ulti-
mately to retire from the Premiership
in Lord John's favour, 163; corre-
spondence with the Duke of Bedford
thereon, 163; completes his ministry,
164 ; difficulties because of the jeal-

ABE
ousies of Whigs and Peelites, 165 ;
misunderstanding with Lord John,
165; letters to and from Lord John
on the latter's tenure of office, 166-
169; letters from and to Lord John
on the latter's speech on the Irish
Church, 173; letter to Mr. Monsell
assuring him that Lord John's
opinions on the Irish Church are not
shared by many members of the
Government, 174; on the necessity
of circumspect instructions to Lord
Stratford de Redcliffe on his mission
to Constantinople, 178; does not
credit the Czar's alleged hostile in-
tentions towards Turkey, 180; con-
Alict of views with Lord John on the
Russian difficulty, 180, 181, 182 ;
labours for peace, 183; hopes that
Russia will accept the Porte's modi.
fications of the Vienna Note, 185;
Lord John's memorandum on the
Eastern question laid before him,
186 ; letter to Lord John on the
situation, 188 ; desires to draw up a
new Note to be submitted to the
Porte by the four Powers, 194 ; ob-
jections to his handing over the
Premiership to Lord John, 194 ;
agreement with Lord John on Reform
and the Eastern question, 198, 199;
explains and defends Prince Albert's
action in public affairs, 203; against
the postponement of Lord John's
Reform Bill, 204 ; uneasy at the pro-
spects of war, 204 n; on the further
postponement of the Reform Bill,
206; asks Lord John to postpone
same, 207 ; congratulates Lord John
on his speech on the postponement
of his Reform Bill, 210; · Punch's'
cartoon of him and Lord John, 20 n;
divergence of policy between him
and Lord John in the Crimean War,
212; his treatment of the offer of an
Austrian alliance, 213; his dilatoriness
in the execution of the plan for the

ACH

APP
division of the War and Colonial dispute, 59; criticism of Lord John's
departments, 217; against subsidising scheme of Reform, 129; difters with
Sweden, 217; prefers to subsidise Lord Palmerston on the Schleswig-
Austria, 217, 218 ; letters to and from Holstein question, 132; charged
Lord John on changes in the minis with interfering unconstitutiona?y in
try, 219; concurs in Lord John's foreign and domestic affairs, 202,
acceptance of the Presidency of the 346 ; death of, 347
Council, 220; reasons for avoiding Ali Pacha, Turkish Plenipotentiary at
the introduction of Sir George Grey

3051

the Vienna Conference, ii. 257
into the Cabinet, 221; agrecs gene. Alice, Princess, visits the Russeils, ii

.
rally to Lord John's proposed minis-

439
terial changes, 222; leiter to Lord Alien Acts, the, i. 73
John in reply to the latter's proposed Allen, Mr., i. 42, 43, 112, 113; letter
resignation, 225; declines to advise 10 Lord John, 116
the Queen to appoint Palmerston as Althorp, Lord, undertakes conduct of
War Minister, 230; disclaims any Lord John's Bribery Bill, i. 129, 131;
want of contidence in Lord John as proposals for suppression of bribery,
leader of the House of Commons, 232; 133, 134; his rumoured • falling oti,"
declines to concert with the French a 137 ; discourages Lord John's pro-
new plan of campaign, 236 ; letter in ject of a Central Association, 147;
answer to Lord John's resignation, becomes leader of the l'hig party,
237 ; interview with Lord John re-

153; letter to Lord John, 153";
specting the latter being asked to wishes to settle the new civil lix,
form a governinent, 287

154 ; offers office to Lord John, 159;
Acheson, Lord, i. 458

not on the Reform committee, 10;;
Acland, Sir Thomas, i. 4n, 169, 299, aids Lord John in passing a Reform

Bill, 170 ; coincides in coercive Irish
Adair, Mr. (afterwards Sir Robert), i. 50 legislation, 186; introduces Bill for
Adlam, Captain (afterwards Admiral Irish Church reform, 188, 192 ;
Sir C.), i. 71

hoped, on Lord Grey's resignation,
Adam, Rt. Ilon. William (Duke of that the King would send for Sir
Beriford's agent), i. 20, 27

Robert Peel, 204; succeeds to the
Adams, Mr. (astronomer), pension to,

peerage, 207 ; letter to Lord John,
ii. 146

209 ; his principle in respect to
Adams, Mr. (American minister to Church rates, 278 n ; i. 196

England), his correspondence with Amberley, Lady, death of, ii. 449
Lord John regarding ihe · Alabama,' Anberley, Lord (eldest son of Lord
ii. 353; asks redress for the injuries John), i. 387, 402; Landseer's sketch
intlicted by that vessel, 356

of, ii. 113; in private theatricals at
Aslams, President, i. 421

Woburn, 114 ; writes to his father
Adlans, Serjeant, i. 282

as to his future education, 279: his
Jirianople, Treaty of, ii. 192

marriage, 403; defeated at Leeds in
Adye, Captain, i. 74

the general election, 406 ; birth of a
Aidé, Hamilton, his poetical tribute to

son, 406 ; begins his Parliamentary
the character of Lord John, ii. 397

career, 430; death of, 451
Alabama' case, the, ii. 353

Anierican Civil War, causes of, ii. 338,
Albemarle, Lord, his doggerel Latin

339
lines on the Masters of Westminster

Ampthill, Lord ; see Russell, Lord Odo
School, i, on

Anglesey, Lord (Viceroy of Irelano), i.
Albert, Prince, on vastly good terms 183, 184, 197

with Lord John,' i. 434; interest in Anti-Corn Law League, the, i. 366,
the Cracow matter, ii. 8; disirust of 318 ; ii. 196
Lord Palmerston, 8; on the action Antonelli, Cardinal, sends the Pope's
of the King of l'iedmont in the Italian blessing to the young king of Naples,
revoli against Austria, 39; artitude
in the Austro-Italian conflict, 46 ; Antwerp, bombardment of, ii. 189
objects to the wording of a despatch Apponyi, Count Austrian minister 10
to the Porte on the Hungarian re England), ii. 321, 392, 393
fugees, 54 ; letter to Lord John on Appropriation Clause, i. 246, 276, 297,
Palmerston's conduct in the Greek

299, 301, 433

ii. 323

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ARG

BED
Arguelles, Señor, ii. 48

Baring, Sir Francis, i. 178; in the
Argyll, Duke of, i. 35; ii. 174, 200 ; Cabinet, 335; at the Exchequer, 365;

quoted, 243 ; letter to Lord John Budget proposals of, 368, 369; asks
respecting the detention of the for a committee on the sugar duties,
Alabama,' 355 n

374 ; succeeds Lord Auckland in the
Armagh, Archbishop of, consulted by Cabinet, ii. 8o; relationship to Sir

Lord John on reforms in the Irish Charles Wood and the Greys, 80 ;
Church, i. 299

a stern economist, 80 ; accepts the
Arms Bill, the, i. 388, 431, 467-469

Admiralty, 98; votes for the Militia
Arnould, Sir J., quoted, i. 479

Bill

, 150 n; protests against Lord
Arrouca, convent of, i. 60

John's supersession in the leader-
• Arro:v ' question, the, ii. 286

ship, 159; quoted, 210; consulted
Ashley, Lord (afterwards Shaftesbury, by Lord John on a ministerial crisis,
Earl of), his diary quoted, i. 399 ;

287
letter to Lord John, 455

Barker, Russell, quoted, i. 10
Ashley, Mr. E., his publication of Lord Barnes, Mr. (editor of the “Times '), i.
Palmerston's letters, ii. 158

236
Atherton, Sir William, his advice soli. Barnstaple, writ suspended, i. 119

cited on the “ Alabama' question, ii. Barrymore (actor), i. 8
354

Bath, Lady, i. 27
Atkin, Mr., i. 5

Bath, Lord (uncle by marriage of Lord
Attwood, Mr., i. 173 n

John), i. 27
Auckland, Lord, i. 411; ii. 16; his Bathurst, Lord, i. 133

measures of national defence, 21; Baxter, Sir David, ii. 402
letter from Lord John on the naval Baynes, Sir Christopher, i. 30
estimates, 28 ; death of, 80, 97

Beaumont, M. de (French minister in
Augustenburg, Prince, his claim to the London), ii. 46
duchy of Holstein, ii. 386

Beauvale, Lord, i. 425
Australia, i. 338 ; French plan for in Bedford, Duchess of (Georgiana, mother
vading and holding, ii. 176

of Lord John), letters of, i. 2, 4;
Austria, loses Milan, ii. 38-40 ; sug. chronic ill health, 2, 3; death
gested transfer

Ionian Islands to,
41 ; seeks a compromise with the Bedford, Duchess of (Georgiana, step-
Italians, 45 ; refuses a conference on mother of Lord John), i. 5, 10, 113;
Italian affairs, 49 ; suppresses the ii. 113; death of, 174
Hungarian rebellion and demands Bedford, Duchess of (Lord Tavistock's
the extradition of Hungarian refu-

wife); see under Stanhope, Lady
gees from Turkey, 54 ; action in the Bedford, fourth Duke of, i. 2
Montenegrin difficulty, 177 ; propo-

Bedford, Francis, fifth Duke of, i. 2, 3
sition to subsidise, in the Russian Bedford, Francis, seventh Duke of ; see
war, 217, 219

under Tavistock, Lord
Austria, Emperor of, his abdication, ii. Bedford, John, sixth Duke of, i. 2 ;
25; a fugitive, 49

death of his wife (a daughter of Lord
Austrian alliance with England, pro Torrington), 4 ; second marriage to
posals of an, in the Russian war, ii. a daughter of the Duke of Gordon,

5; made Viceroy of Ireland, 18;
Aylmer, Lord, i. 268 1, 269

his part in the fall of the Talents
Azeglio, Signor, ii. 277

Administration, 28 ; retirement from
the Viceroyalty, 28 ; on tour in Eng.

land, 30 ; visits Sir Walter Scott in
BALACLAVA, ii. 228

Selkirkshire, 31; opinion of English
Ball, John, quoted, i. 233, 234 n

universities, 44 ; pleasure at Lord
Ballot, the, i. 286, 295, 325

John's debut at the Speculative
Bandon Bridge, borough of, i. 132

Society, 47 ; encourages him to con-
Bank of England charter revised, i. tinue the Whig Register,' 49 ; sug-
193 ; in the crisis of 1847, 459

gests to Lord John a tour through the
Bank Restriction Act of 1797, i. 82

English manufacturing towns, 54 ;
Bannister (actor), i. 7

discourages Lord John's going to Cam-
Barillon, M., despatches of, i. 103, bridge University, 57 ; on the riots
113

and discontent in 1810, 88; continen-

of, 4

213, 218

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