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1550 April 10. The Duke of Somerset is again sworn in of the privy council.

May 2. Joan of Kent is burned in Smithfield for heresy. 1551 Aug. The chief officers of the household of the Princess Mary are committed to the

Tower. The chancellor and other members of the councii confer with her re.

specting the mass, which she refuses to relinquish.
Oct. 11. Warwick is created Duke of Northumberland.
Oct. 16. The Duke of Somerset is arrested for conspiracy and treason.
An indictment is presented and found against him, by the Grand Jury, at Guildhall.
Dec. 1. The Duke of Somerset is tried in Westminster Hall, is found guilty of felony,

and, on Jan. 22, 1552, is beheaded on Tower Hill. 1552 Jan. 23. Parliament meets; acts are passed for the enforcing the use of the books of

Common Prayer; for amending the law of treason; for the relief of the poor; for

legalising the marriage of priests, and for other purposes. 1553 May. Lord Guilford Dudley is married to Lady Jane Grey.

June 11. The king requires the crown lawyers to draw a bill, entailing the crown on

Lady Jane Grey.
July 6. Edward VI. dies at Greenwich.
July 8. The Lord Mayor of London, and others of the citizens, swear allegiance to

Lady Jane Grey.
July 19. The council proceed to Baynard's Castle, and declare for Mary.
July 21. Northumberland is arrested for treason, and conveyed to the Tower.
July 30. The Lady Elizabeth rides through London to meet Mary.
Aug. 3. Queen Mary enters London.
Aug. 18. The Duke of Northumberland, the Earl of Warwick, and the Marquis of

Northampton are arraigned for treason in Westminster Hall; they are all con

demned, and Northumberland is beheaded on the 22nd. Sept. 14. Cranmer is arrested and sent to the Tower. Oct. Gardiner assembles the convocation; the book of Common Prayer declared an

abomination ; they recommend the suppression of the reformed English Catechism. Nov. 13. Lady Jane Grey, her husband, and Lord Ambrose Dudley, with Cranmer,

are tried and condemned for treason; Cranmer is respited, but detained for heresy. 1554 Jan. 14. The Chancellor Gardiner announces the queen's intended marriage with the

Prince of Spain.
Sir Thomas Wyatt raises a rebellion in Kent against the Spanish match.
Feb. 12. Lady Jane Grey and her husband are beheaded.
March 15. The Princess Elizabeth is arrested, and sent to the Tower.
April 11. Sir Thomas Wyatt is beheaded.
April 14. Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, are questioned before the commissioners at


April 15. Sir Nicholas Throgmorton is tried and acquitted. 1555 Mary sends an embassy to the pope to confirm the reconciliation of England with

the church.
Feb. 9. Bishop Hooper is burned at Gloucester.

Oct. 16. Ridley and Latimer are burned at Oxford.
1556 March 21. Cranmer is burned near Baliol College, Oxford.
1557 March. King Philip II. of Spain revisits England.

June 7. Mary declares war against France.

July 6. Philip departs from England. 1558 Jan. 1. The Duke of Guise commences the siege of Calais; it is assaulted and taken

in a few days.
April 24. Mary, Queen of Scots, is married to Francis, the eldest son of the King of

Nov. 17. Queen Mary dies at St. James's.
Queen Elizabeth's accession is acknowledged by both Houses of Parliament; she is


Nov. 18. Sir William Cecil is appointed Secretary of State. 1559 Jan 12. The queen proceeds to the Tower before her coronation.

Jan. 25. She meets the parliament; they restore the first-fruits and tenths to the




crown; they declare the queen supreme head of the church; the laws of Edward

VI. relating to religion are restored; the book of Common Prayer re-established. 1559 Parliament exhort the queen to marry; she declares her intention to live and dia a

virgin queen. May 30. The oath of supremacy is tendered to Bonner; he refuses to take it; he is

deprived, as are others who refuse. The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity are

strictly enforced, and the Protestant religion established throughout England. July 10. Henry II. of France dies; is succeeded by Francis II., the husband of

Mary, queen of Scots. They assume the titles of King and Queen of France,

England, and Scotland. 1560 Feb. 27. Elizabeth concludes a treaty at Berwick with the Scottish reformers, for

mutual defence, to last during the marriage of Mary with the French king. July 7. The treaty of Edinburgh, by which the government of Scotland was vested

in a committee of noblemen. A separate peace is concluded between England and France, recognising Elizabeth's

right to the crown of England. Aug. 1. The Scotch parliament declare that the authority of the Roman church is an

usurpation; pass a declaration of faith, renouncing the tenets and dogmas of that

church, and disowning the authority of the pope.

Dec. 5. Francis II. of France dies, and is succeeded by Charles IX. 1561 Aug. 19. Queen Mary arrives at Leith; proceeds to Holyrood. John Knox has an

interview with her. 1562 Oct. Elizabeth proposes Lord Robert Dudley as a husband for Queen Mary. 1563 Parliament meets : addresses the queen as to her marriage; the Duke of Würtem

berg proposes for her hand. Sept. The plague rages in London.

Sept. 29. Lord Robert Dudley is created Earl of Leicester. 1565 July 28. Darnley is married to Mary, Queen of Scots, and proclaimed king. 1566 March 9. Rizzio is murdered by Ruthven and other conspirators.

June 19. Mary is delivered of a son, who is named James, Elizabeth being his god

mother at the christening. 1567 Feb. 10. Darnley is murdered.

April 12. Bothwell is arraigned for the murder of Darnley, and is acquitted.
May 15. Bothwell is married to the queen.
July 21. Mary resigns the crown to her son.

July 29. Murray is appointed regent.
1568 May 2. Mary escapes from Lochleven Castle; an army is assembled for her defence.

On the 14th takes place the battle of Langside; the queen's forces are defeated;

she flies into England, is conducted to Carlisle, and detained as a prisoner. Ulster is vested in the English crown, and is colonised by English.

July 16. Mary is removed to Bolton Castle.
1569 Feb. 3. Mary is placed in Tutbury Castle. Duke of Norfolk proposes to marry her.

Oct. 2. Norfolk is arrested, and committed to the Tower.
Nov. An insurrection breaks out in York, Durham, and Northumberland. The in.

surgents march to Durham, burn the Bible and Common Prayer-book, and celebrate

mass in the cathedral. 1570 Jan. 22. The Regent Murray is shot at Linlithgow. 1571 April 2. Parliament meets; supplies are granted; it is declared to be high treason to

claim a right to the succession of the crown during the queen's lifetime.
1572 Jan. 16. The Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason, convicted, and beheaded June 2.

Parliament declares the Queen of Seots incapable of succeeding to the English crown.
Queen Mary is removed to Sheffield Castle.

Aug. 23. The massacre of St. Bartholomew.
1573 Aug. Elizabeth sends aid to the Huguenots, and attempts the relief of Rochelle.
1577 Elizabeth, after rejecting the sovereignty of Holland and Zealand, sends aid to the

Netherlands. 1578 James, after the execution of the Regent Morton, assumes the government of



1580 Alençon, now Duke of Anjou, arrives at Greenwich, as a suitor to Queen Elizabeth. 1581 Anjou returns to the Netherlands, the queen refusing to marry. 1584 The Throckmorton plot; Francis Throckmorton is executed at Tyburn. 1585 Elizabeth sends a large army into the Netherlands, under the command of Leicester;

he is made governor-general of the Low Countries; he attacks Zutphen; is de

feated. Sir Philip Sidney is killed. 1586 Babington's conspiracy to assassinate Elizabeth is discovered; he is taken with

many of his adherents. Some of them are condemned and executed in Lincoln's

Inn Fields, on Sept. 20.
Elizabeth issues a commission for the trial of Queen Mary; who is removed to

Fotheringay Castle.
Oct. 11. Thirty-six English commissioners arrive at the castle; they announce to

Mary that she is to be tried for being accessory to Babington's conspiracy, and

other treasons.
Oct. 14. The trial commences; is adjourned to the 25th, at the Star Chamber at

Oct. 25. Mary is pronounced guilty of treason, and sentenced to death.
Oct. 29. Parliament assembles.
Nov. 12. Both houses address the queen, imploring her to order the execution of


Dec. 6. The order for her execution is proclaimed. 1587 Feb. 1. Elizabeth signs the warrant for her execution.

Feb. 7. The Earl of Shrewsbury, earl marshal, attended by the Earls of Kent, Cum

berland, and Derby, arrive at Fotheringay Castle, and read the warrant to Mary.
Feb. 8. Queen Mary is beheaded in the great hall of the castle.
Feb. 14. Davison, the secretary, is committed to the Tower; he is fined 10,0001.
Sir Robert Carey is sent to make excuses to King James for the execution of Mary.
April 19. Sir Francis Drake sails into Cadiz roads, and destroys thirty ships.
He takes or destroys 100 Spanish vessels; captures a large ship in the Tagus ; per-

forms other brilliant exploits.
Nov. Elizabeth summons a great council of war; Sir Walter Raleigh advises that the

expected invasion of the Spaniards be met at sea; a great camp is formed at

Tilbury Fort; the queen reviews the troops at Tilbury Fort. -588 May 29. The invincible armada, under the Duke of Medina Sidonia, sails from the

Tagus; it is dispersed by a tempest off Cape Finisterre.
July 20. It arrives in Channel. The battle commences, and is continued from the 20th

to the 26th of July; the Duke of Medina Sidonia sails for Spain; many of his

ships are wrecked at the Orkneys and the coast of Norway.

Sept. 4. The Earl of Leicester dies. 1591 Essex goes to France with a small army to aid Henry IV. 1597 July. A large fleet is fitted out to attack the coast of Spain; Essex captures three

Spanish ships; he returns, and is received by the queen with displeasure. 1598 June. The queen quarrels with Essex; he leaves the court.

Aug. 4. Lord Burleigh dies. 1599 March. The Earl of Essex is appointed to command in Ireland; he leaves London

with a large army; in September he returns to London, and appears at court

without leave. 1601 Feb. 8. Essex, the Earls of Southampton and Rutland, and others attempt an insur.

rection in London; they are sent to the Tower.
Feb. 19. Essex and Southampton are tried and condemned.

Feb. 25. Essex is executed privately in the Tower. 1603 March 21. The queen is confined to her bed.

March 22. She names James VI., of Scotland, as her successor.
March 24 She dies.




Arthur, son of Constance of Bretagne, a

competitor for the throne of England, 291;
murdered by his uncle John, 293 ; drama-
tic scenes of, 294 et seq.; Shakspere's
dramatic scenes of, 300; story of, by Holin.

shed, ib.
Arthur and Hubert, dramatic scenes of, 294

et seq.

Asers, from Asiatic Tartary, 42
Asser, the monk of St. David's, invited to

Alfred's court, 64
Athelstan, the Anglo-Saxon king, 74; de-

feats the Danes, 75 ; his victorious career,

Atbelwold, Earl, deceives King Edgar, and

espouses Elfrida, 85; assassinated by King
Edgar, 86


ACRE, arrival of the Crusaders at, 273
Adela, daughter of Wm. the Conqueror, 191 ;

her sons Stephen and Henry, ib.
Agincourt, battle of, 468 ; striking and stir-

ring pictures of, 472; dramatised by Shak.
spere, 475; on the slaughter of the French

prisoners at, 484
Agriculture of the Anglo-Saxons, 120
Aids, the levying of, prohibited by Magna

Charta, 265
Alban, St., account of, 34 ; persecutions of,

BABINGTON's conspiracy, 651 ; followed by

numerous executions, 652
Bannockburn, Sir Walter Scott's account of

the battle of, 368—371
Barbarians of the north, their invasions, 46,

Barnet, battle of, 512
Barons of England, their contentions with

King John, 309; their success, 312
Barns of Ayr, 358
Battle, trial by, 252
Battle Abbey, account of, 116; foundation

of, 117 ; desecration of, 119
Bayeux tapestry, account of the, 113; pre-

served in the hotel of the Prefecture at
Bayeux, 114; description of the, 114 et

Beaumont and Fletcher's tragedy of “Bon.

duca,” scene from, 22
Bede, “the Venerable,” biographical notices

of, 55 ; selections from his “Ecclesiastical

History,” 56
Bericus, the Roman, 15
Bertha, queen of Ethelbert, converted to the

Christian faith, 57
Bertrand de Guesclin, story of, 404

35; his martyrdom, ib. ; sonnet to, 36
Alfred, biographical notices of, 62 ; his strug-

gles and exalted character, 63 ; his abilities
ard wise policy, 66 ; his wise legislation,
67 ; the first scholar in his dominions, 67 ;
an elegant poet, 68 ; his varied accom-

plishments and qualifications, 69 et seq.
“ Alfred the Fugitive," a drama, 72 et seq.
Alfric, Bp., the best philologist of his age, 69
Aliens, quarrels with, 580 et seq.
Alnwick, castle of, 163
Anglo-Saxon literature, on the study of, 62
Anglo-Saxon period of British history, 42
Anglo-Saxons, anarchy among the, 86 ; op-

pressed by the Danes, 87 ; their slaughter
of the Danes, ib. ; industry of the, 120 ;
their fishing, 121; their clothing, 123 ;
their bread, ib.; their wine, 124 ; their
handicrafts, 126 ; chronological list of their
kings, 128; chronological history of the,
130 ; their contests with the Danes, 131,

Anne, sister of the Duke of Cleves, married

to Henry VIII., 573
Anne Boleyn, espoused by Henry VIII.,

572 ; trial and execution of, 573; the fall
of, as related by Hume, 585 ; her letter,

588 ; Milman's tragedy of, 589—598
Antoninus, makes a truce with the Britons,

Augustin, sent as a missionary to England,

57 ; appointed primate of all England, 58
Aquitaine, English power in, 380


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age, 235

Bible, translation of the, into English, 599 Carlisle, castle of, 163
Bishoprics of England conferred on foreigners, Cartismandua, queen of the Brigantes, 17

Cassibelan, the British king, 16
Bishops, considered in the double capacity of Cassiterides, of Britain, 2
clerks and barons, 236

Castles of the Norman kings, 144
“Bloody Statute," passed in the reign of Catherine Howard, married to Henry VIII.,
Henry VIII., 573

Bolingbroke, return of, dramatised, 416 Catherine Parr, married to Henry VIII.,
Bolingbroke and Mowbray, banishment of, 574
dramatised, 410 et seq.

Celts, the great national family of, 3
Bonduca, the British queen, her resistance Christians, martyrdom of, in Britain, 34, 35

to the Romans, 18; her speeches, 19, 20; Chronology of the Anglo-Saxon kings, 128;
defeated by Paulinus, 21, 22 ; scene from of English history to the battle of Has.
the tragedy of “ Bonduca," 22

tinge, 129 ; of the principal events from
Bonner, Bp. of London, his sanguinary pero the accession of the Conqueror to the
secutions, 636, 637

death of Henry III., 343–348; from the
Bosworth Field, battle of, 525

accession of Edward III. to the death of
Bread, among the Anglo-Saxons, 123

Elizabeth, 671
Brigantes, the, 17

Civilization in France, Guizot's History of,
Britain, Cæsar's invasion of, 1 et seq. ; its 45

early_history, 1; first acquaintance of Claudius, his invasion of Britain, 15; re-
the Romans with, 2; minerals of, ib. ; ceives the surname of Britannicus, 16
tin of, ib. ; the Celtic inhabitants of, 3; Clergy, their greatness during the middle
conquered by the Romans, 3 ; invaded by
Claudius, 15; reduced to anarchy and dis- Clifford, Lord, his ferocious revenge, 510
tress, 42; arrival of the Saxons in, 43; Cloth of Gold, field of the, 574
the aboriginal inhabitants expelled, 44; Clothing, among the Anglo-Saxons, 122
record of events from the Anglo-Saxon Clovis, of France, 46
Chronicle, 44, 45

Cogidunus, a British king, 17
Britons, primitive history of the, 3; their Cornish insurrection, Lord Bacon's account

habits and customs, 6 ; their dress, ib. ; the of the, 538
Caledonians and the Mæatæ the greatest Cranmer, Abp., rise of, 572; martyrdom of,
among the, 30 : Herodian's description of 638
the, 32

Cressy, battle of, by Froissart, 385
Bruce, Robert, Earl of Carrick, his resistance Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of Essex, rise of,
to Edward J., 352

572 ; his great power, 572, 573 ; his trial
Brunan-burh, battle of, 75; Saxon song on and execution, 573; fall of, as related by
the, 75 et seq.

Hume, 608
Buckingham, Edward Stafford, Duke of, his Crusades, Hume's account of the, 174;

trial, dramatised by Shakspere, 556 ; be- under Richard I., 267; great preparations
headed, 571

for the, 268; the fleet for the prosecution

of the, 269 ; arrival at Acre, 273 ; fearful

loss of life, 273

Crusaders, divisions among the, 274 ; their
CADE, John, insurrection of, 506

departure for Jerusalem, 275, 277 ; op-
Cædmon, the Saxon poet, 60; selections posed by Saladin, 276
from, 61

Cymbeline, Shakspere's historical drama of,
Cæsar's invasion of Britain, 1 ; his prepara- 5-15; a powerful British king, 6

tions, 1, 2 ; his landing, 4; his depar. Cyprus, conquest of, by Richard I., 272

ture, 5
Calais, siege of, by Edward III., 388

Caledonia, invaded by Severus, 30 ; manners

and customs of the inhabitants, 30, 31 DANEGELDT, a tax levied for payment to the
Camulodunum, the capital of Cymbeline, 6 Danes, 87
Cangians, the, 17

Danes, their ravages in England, 64; the
Canute, the Danish king, 88; becomes king most accomplished warriors of the age,

of England, ib.; his greatness as a man 66 ; their augmented power, 86; impose
and a sovereign, 89 ; a patron of literature the Danegeldt, 870; slaughtered by the
and poesy, ib. ; his visit to Ely Abbey, 90; Anglo-Saxons, their revenge, 87; their
his letter to his Danish subjects, 91 ; his extortions, 87; become masters of Eng.
practical reproof to his courtiers, 92

land, 88 ; their power extinguished, ib.
Caractacus, the British king, captured by David, Prince of Wales, death of, 350

the Romans, 17 ; his noble speech, 17, 18 Days of the week, their Saxon origin, 59
Carausius, put to death, 33

Dermot, King of Leinster, 242

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