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Situation and Area. The colony of New Zealand consists of three principal islands, called respectively the North, the Middle, and the South (or Stewart's) Island. There are several small islets (mostly uninhabited) dependent on the colony; the chief of these are the Chatham Isles and the Auckland Isles. Tho entire group lies between 34° and 48° S. lat., and 166° aud 179o E. long. The three principal islands extend in length 1,100 miles, but their breadth is extremely variable, ranging from 46 miles to 250 miles ; the average being about 140 miles.
· 100,000 or 64,000,000
• 44,000 or 28,000,000 Ditto of Middle Island
55,000 or 36,000,000 Ditto of Stewart's Island
1,000 or 640,000 It will thus be seen that the total area of New Zealand is somewhat less than Great Britain and Ireland.
Climate, From its healthy and salubrious climate, from its great extent of coast line, and from its position with regard to the neighbouring continent of Australia, New Zealand is often called “the Great Britain of the Southern Hemisphere.” The temperature is, however, much more equable than in the British Isles. While the summers are as cool as those of England, the winters are as warm as those of Italy. The mean annual temperature at Auckland is nearly the same as at Rome; at Wellington, nearly the same as at Milan ; at Dunedin, nearly the same as at London. The official reports of the Medical Department show that whereas the annual mortality from all diseases out of every 1,000 British soldiers quartered in the United Kingdom was 16, it was only five out of every 1,000 in the troops quartered for more than 25 years in New Zealand.
History. New Zealand was discovered in 1642 by the Dutch navigator, Tasman, who, however, did not land upon its shores. In 1769 it was first visited by Captain Cook, who in that year, and during subsequent voyages, explored its coasts. The country subsequently became a resort for whalers and traders, chiefly from Australia, as well as a field for the labours of the Missionary Societies. In 1840, the native chiefs ceded the sovereignty of New Zealand to the British Crown by the Treaty of Waitangi, and the islands were erected into a British colony.
The aborigines, called Maoris, are a remarkable people—a branch of the Polynesian race. According to their own traditions, their forefathers came about 600 years, or 20 generations ago, from Hawaiki, which was probably Hawaii in the Sandwich Islands, or Savaii, in the Navigator or Samoa group. They are divided into about 20 different clans, analogous to those of the Highlands of Scotland. There have been two Maori wars; the first lasted from 1845 until 1848 ; the second lasted from 1860, with little intermission, until 1870. But fully half the clans have always been friendly to the English ; and many of them have fought on the side of the Colonial Government against their own countrymen. Permanent tranquillity appears to have been established in 1871 throughout the country. It was estimated, on 1st June 1874, that the Maoris (including half-castes) amounted to 46,016, all of whom dwell in the North Island, with the exception of 2,608 scattered over the other islands.
The control of native affairs, and the entire responsibility of dealing with questions of native Government were transferred in 1863 from the Imperial to the Colonial Government. In 1864, the seat of the general Government was removed from Auckland to Wellington, on account of the central position of the latter city.
Revenue (Ordinary and Territorial).
£ 1865 1,525,827 1870 1,384,639
1864 1866 1,978,711 1871 1,342, 116
1865 1867 1,864,155 1872 1,967,854
1866 1868 1,620,835 1873 2,753,181
1867 1869 1,454,995 1874 3,063,811
1869 Public Debt of New Zealand on 30 December 1874,
1870 was 18,000,0001., of which 4,208,4631. had been
1871 expended on Native and Defence purposes.
Imports and Exports.
COAL. 1. Parapara Iron and Coal Company, Nelson.-Block of 3. Kennedy Brothers, Nelson.—Coke, made from No. 2. coal taken from a 3-foot seam. A fair specimen of the general Value, 31. per ton. quality of the field. The coal occurs in a rugged mountain 4. Albion Coal Company, Nelson.-Block of coal, from range on the north bank of the Aorere River, and is tapped by Ngakawau, Seam 10 feet thick, ascends from the sea level to a drift or tunnel in the side of the hill between 800 and 900 ft. 1,400 in Mr. Frederic Range, 20 miles North of Westport with above the level of the sea. By actual survey the field has been which the Mine is connected by Railway. proved of considerable extent, and, in the drift alluded to 5. Nelson Committee.-Block of coal from Coalbrook Dale, above, five seams have been cut, varying in thickness from Mount Rochfort, Nelson. Two seams of 8 ft. and 18 in, respec18 in. to 3 ft., out of which 6 ft. of workable coal is found. It tively, at an elevation of 2,200 feet above the sea level. Estiis unsurpassed in the colonies for gas purposes, is an excellent mated area of field, 12 square miles. household coal, and very superior for steam use.
6. Nelson Committee.-Block of coal from Reefton, Nelson. 2. Kennedy Brothers, Nelson. --Block of coal from the 7. Alexander W. Reid, Canterbury.–Altered brown coal Brunner Mine, situated on the Grey River Neilson, seven miles from Kowai Pass, 3 ft. seam. Area of field, 108 acres. Value from the port of Greymouth. The seam now being worked is at pit's mouth, 1l. The pit is 6 miles from a railway, and 50 of a uniform thickness of 16 ft., all pure clean coal, and has miles from port of shipment. been worked on a small scale during the past 12 years. The 8. Dr. Hector, C.M.G., F.R.S., Director of the Geological output for the year ending July 1875 was 20,000 tons. A rail- Survey of New Zealand. way is being constructed by the Government to connect the mine with the port, and barbour improvements whereby a larger
TYPE SPECIMENS ILLUSTRATING THE CLASSIFICATION OF NEW class of vessels than at present will be enabled to enter are in
ZEALAND COALS. progress. The Company can now produce 2,000 tons per week. A. BITUMINOUS COAL (caking): Present price free on board at Greymouth is 15s. per ton. The Specimen from Brunner Mine, Nelson. Much jointed, small quantity of this coal hitherto obtainable in the New Zealand homogeneous, tender, and friable ; lustre pitch-like, glisand Australian markets has been eagerly bought up for gas- tening, often iridescent; colour black, with a purple hue ; works and iron foundries, who generally pay for it from 10 to powder brownish; cakes strongly; the best variety 20 per cent, more than for any other coal. Engineers of local forming a vitreous coke with brilliant metallic lustre. steamers esteem it 20 per cent. better than the best New Average evaporative power of several samples, 7} lbs. South Wales coal for steam purposes.
of boiling water converted into steam for each pound of 36714.
coal. Occurs with grits and conglomerates of upper desiccate much on exposure, nor is it absorbent of Mesozoic age. Buller, Grey, and Collingwood Coal
water ; burns freely, and contains resin disseminated Fields on the West Coast of Nelson. In seams from
throughout its mass. Waikato and Wangaroa, Auck2 to 20 ft. in thickness.
land; West Wanganui, Nelson ; Shag Point, Otago ; B. SEMI-BITUMINOUS COAL:
Morley Creek, Southland. Evaporative power 4.2 lbs. Specimen from Pakawau, Nelson. Compact, with laminæ
E. BROWN COAL: of bright and dull coal alternately; fracture irregular; Specimen from Kaitangata, Otago. Rarely shows vegelustre moderate ; cakes moderately, or is non-caking. table structure; fracture irregular, conchoidal, with Occurs in thin, irregular seams in sandstone of upper incipient laminations ; colour dark brown ; lustre feeble ; Mesozoic age. Kawa Kawa and Wangarei, Auckland; cracks readily on exposure to the atmosphere, losing Pakawau, Nelson; Mount Hamilton and Waikava,
5 to 10 per cent. of water, which is not re-absorbed ; Otago. Rarely cakes strongly. Evaporative power com
burns slowly ; contains resin in large masses. Occurs monly 62 lbs.
generally throughout the Islands. Evaporative power C. GLANCE COAL:
4.2 to 5.6 lbs. Saddle Hill, Otago; evaporative power Specimen from Hill's Drive, Selwyn, Canterbury. Glance
5 lbs. coal is non-caking, massive, compact, or friable ; fracture cuboidal, splintery; lustre glistening or metallic ;
9. J.J. Oakden, Canterbury.-Anthracitic coal from Lake structure obscurely laminated; colour black; does not
Coleridge, Canterbury. Two seams of 5 feet each. Supposed
extent of field 100 acres. Contains 90 per cent. of carbon. form a caking coke, but slightly aclheres. A variety of
Pit is distant 28 miles from a railway and 70 miles from port brown coal, altered by faulting or by igneous rocks, and
of shipment. presenting every intermediate stage from brown coal to an anthracite. Preservation Inlet and Malvern Hills.
10. Taranaki Committee. -Lignite from Urenui North D. Pitch COAL:
Taranaki. Specimen from Upper Buller, Nelson. Structure compact ; 11. Rowley Wilson f Company, Otago.—Block of coal from
fracture smooth, conchoidal, jointed in large angular Shag Point, Palmerston, Otago. Value per ton at pit's moutb, pieces ; colour brown or black; lustre waxy; does not 12s.
GOLD, MINERALS, AND ORES.
986,750 oz$. £3,520,782 South ISLAND (chiefly obtained from the metamorphic rocks, by alluvial washing) - 6,888,926 , £27,152,052
Total Yield -7,875,676 , £30,672,834
GOLD SPECIMENS EXHIBITED BY THE NEW ZEALAND
GOVERNMENT. Cl. 100.
Alluvial Gold from the Province of Nelson and County of Westland. 1. Alluvial Gold from Moonlight Creek, Nelson, procured 6. Alluvial from Grey Valley, Nelson, obtained by slaicing. by washing the beds of creeks.
7. Alluvial Sluiced, from Duke of Edinburgh Terrace, 2. Alluvial Gold from Waimea, Westland, obtained by Greenstone Creek, Westland. The locality whence this sample washing beds of creeks. Samples taken from district through came is traversed by the extensive Greenstone and Eastern which the proposed Great Waimea Water Race would run. Hohonu Water Race.
3. Fine Sea Drift, Okarito, Westland, obtained by washing 8. Alluvial from the Ho-ho, Westland, obtained by sluieing and sluicing the sea beaches.
ground that had been previously worked by shafts and tunnels. 4. Alluvial from Ross, Westland, obtained by deep sinking,
9. Fine Alluvial Gold from iron-sand cement, Charleston, where the use of steam machinery is found to be necessary. Nelson. This sample of gold is usually saved by amalgamation
5. Equal parts of coarse and fine Alluvial from the Lyell, with mercury, and is most difficult to obtain in its present Nelson, obtained by washing the beds of water-courses.
10. Ruby Sand from Charleston, Nelson. This sand is Thompson's Claim, Boatman's Inangahua.-Shows a width found in granite, and the gold it contains is heavier and of of from 2 to 5 feet, and will yield from 1 to 2 oz. to the ton. better quality than that in cement.
El Dorado Company, Registered.-Several small specimens. 11. Gold-bearing Black Sand from the Black Lead, Charles
The reef where first opened was 3 feet in width. Further south ton, Nelson.
it was cut 5 feet in width. The gold is fine, and well dis12. Auriferous Cement from Mokihinui River, Nelson.
tributed throughout the stone. Zircons, garnets, cubical Obtained 50 feet below surface of river terrace.
pyrites, manganese, and sulphides of antimony are also found. 13. Auriferous Cement from Black Lead, Charleston,
Just-in-Time Company, Registered. The reef is 3 ft. 6 in. Nelson.
wide. Specimens taken 15 feet below the level of the tunnel. 14. Auriferous Sand from Addison Flat, Nelson. 15. Alluvial Gold. Wahamarino River, Marlborough.
Victoria Company, Registered.-Reef averages 3 feet in 16. 5 ozs., washed from the ocean beach below high-water
thickness. The specimens are taken from a level 360 feet mark.
below the highest point proved. 17. 5 ozs., obtained from a black sand lead about 50 yards All Nations.—This reef is making to the south-west and has inland from high-water mark.
an average thickness of 2 feet. 18. Sample of the ordinary obtained from sluicing claims United Band of Hope Company, Registered.-Specimen 1 about 12 miles inland.
was taken from the surface where the reef first opened. From 19. Sample nuggetty gold obtained from Moonlight Creek, this about 100 tons of stone crushed gave a return of 2 oz. rising in high ranges about 20 miles inland.
6 dwts. per ton. From this level to a depth of 140 feet, about Quartz specimens are from the Inangahua district. The gold eighty tons crushed gave at the rate of 18 dwts. per ton. No. 2 being fine is not easily seen in the stone.
is from a depth of 160 feet. From this last 31 tons crushed Enterprise Company, Registered.—These specimens were at Westland machine gave a gross yield of 41 oz. melted gold. taken from the middle tunnel, at a distance of 110 feet from
Golden Hill Company. The reef varies from 4 feet to 1 foot the mouth of the drive, at a depth of 85 feet from the surface.
6 inches, average 2 feet 6 inches. About 480 tons of stone Energetic Company, Registered. The stone was taken-(1) crushed at the Westland machine gave a yield of oz. to the from a shaft sunk 85 feet below a tunnel and 210 feet below
ton. the surface. A trial crushing in February 1872 of ten tons of North Star Company, Registered. The specimen was taken this stone gave a result of 43 oz. 1 dwt. retorted gold. (2)
from a level of 50 feet from the surface, a foot on the reef. The From No. 2 tunnel, 265 feet below the surface, and at a distance
reef is 5 feet in width, bearing about E. and W. of 298 feet from the mouth of the drive, at which place the reef
Invincible Gold Mining Company, Registered.—This speciis 4 feet 6 inches thick, and very solid.
men is from the surface, at a width of 2 feet on the reef, which Rainy Creek Company, Registered.—The width of the reef
is here 4 feet 6 inches thick. where discovered is 30 feet, and it carries this extraordinary width for 900 feet. Gold appears to be well distributed
Wealth of Nations Company, Registered.—Two large bodies throughout the reef, and at the lower level it is heavier than at
of stone have been intersected, each about 10 feet thick, showing the surface.
gold similar to that in the outcrop. Cl. 100.
Alluvial Gold from the Province of Otago. 1. Skipper's, Queenstown.—From upper terraces, Skipper's 6. Nevis.- Produce of sluicing claim about 1,400 feet above Creek, Shotover River, about 1,400 ft. above sea level. The creek sea level. empties itself into the Wakatipu Basin. Produce of sluicing claim. 7. Teriot.-Obtained by dredging the River Molyneux,
2. Arrowtown.-From Arrow River, about 1,200 feet above about 350 feet above sea level. Coarser gold is also got at the sea level. The river empties into the Wakatipu Lake Basin. different parts of the river. Produce of sluicing claim.
8. Blue Spur, Lawrence. From sluicing claim. The hill or 3. Queenstown.-From gullies adjoining and emptying into spur is about 150 feet high, and is an outlier of the Pliocene Wakatipu Lake, which is 1,000 feet above sea level. Produce gravels. of sluicing claim.
9. Manuherikia.--Sluicing claim about 500 feet above sea 4. Naseby (Mount Ida).-Produce of sluicing claim at foot level. of Mount Ida, on northern side of Maniototo Plains, about 10. Teviot.-Near the spot where these two nuggets were 1,400 feet above sea level.
got, another weighing 18 oz. was lately obtained. Produce of 5. Palmerston.-Produce of sluicing claim in Shag Valley, sluicing claim at an elevation of 600 to 700 feet above the sea. 50 to 100 feet above the sea level.
11. Specimen of Blue Spur Cement impregnated with gold.