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199

Algarrobo

Cactus heptagonus Cæsalpinia Coriaria

Dividivi Guallulo Barbasco Inagua Sardino blanco

Jacquinia armillaris

Miconia prosina
Sponia
Ratonia Americana

Polygoneæ. Cactaceæ. Leguminoseæ. Piperaceæ. Myrsineæ. Myrtaceæ ? Melastomacea. Urticacea. Sapindaceæ. Meliaceæ. Cordiaceæ. Polygonaceæ.

Maraquire Aquirire

Cordia sp. (red flowers)* Ruprechtia, sp.

211

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200 Cactus

Cactus 201 Dividivi

Dividivi 202

Bois mal d'estomac 203 204 205 206

Bâtard bois l'orme 207 208 209 210

Avocat Marron

Moricyp rouge. 212 Cherry Wood (from Cerisier

ChacachacareoIsland.) 213 214 215

Bois lesserre 216

Raisinier 217 218 Jackwood

Jacquier 219 Chigoewood

Bois négresse 220 221 222 Supple Jack

Liane persil 223 224 i 225

Quinquina pays 226 227 228 Mangotin

Mangotine 229

Aspidosperma

Apocynæce. Solanum Callicarpifolium Solanaceæ. | Palo morocoi. Cuchape Coccoloba, sp.

Polygonaceæ. Calliandra, sp.

Leguminoseæ. Artocarpus integrifolia* Artocarpeæ. Mangle dulce

Bravaisia floribunda Acanthaceae. C. de verasco Tabernaemontana

Apocynaceæ.

Myrsineæ.
Bejuco Mulato
Seriana, sp.

Sapindaceæ.
Lagerströmia indica* Lythraceæ.
Citriosma

Monimiaceæ. Coutarea speciosa

Cinchonaceæ.
Randia, sp.

Id.
Melastoma, sp.

Melastomaceæ.
Mangotina
Mangifera, sp.

Terebinthaceæ, Ebenacea, sp., from Caroni | Ebenaceæ.

and Chaguanas. Quiebra hacha

Copaifera hyminifolia* Leguminoseæ. Bucare or madre del Erythrina

Papilionaceæ.
Posoqueria Longiflora Cinchonacere.

Alchorneo.
Timite -
Manicaria saccifera

Palmaceæ.
Casuarina Equisetifolia* . Equisetaceæ.

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cacao.

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CI. 623.

CI. 666.

Prestoe, Hy. Esq., Government Botanist. Nutmegs, 1 bottle fresh, perfect fruits ; do., 1 bottle prepared, do. ; Cloves, 1 bottle fresh, flower buds ; Cloves and Nutmegs, bottle mixed, fresh ; Mace, 1 bottle prepared.

Somes & Co., Nariva Cocal. Sample of fibre extracted from the husks of the Cocoanut, adapted for making Brooms, Brushes, &c., value about $250 per ton ; Sample of ditto, adapted for Upholstery and Bedding, value about $110 per ton; Coil of the above spun.

Devenish, Syl., Esq., Surveyor General. Samples of fibre of Agave Vivipara and of Mats made thereof.

Prestoe, Hy., Esq., Government Botanist.
Fibres, various kinds, in 20 samples, as
follow :-
No. 1. Sida carpinf olia, L. Malvaceæ.

2. Urena lobata, L.
3. Sida rhombifolia, L.
4. linifolia, Juss.
5. Pavonia bracteata, Benth. Mal-

Cl. 666.

CI. 666.

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vace.

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REMARKS.— These fibres-with one or two exceptions as specified—were all prepared in 1866. They are to be regarded as of two classes: First. Those obtained from the bark of

the plant, as in Hemp, Flax,

&c.; and Second.—Those obtained from the sub

stance of the leaves or leafstalks,

as in “ Manilla,” Hemp, &c. Nos. from 1 to 11, and No. 20 belong to the first class—the first four being obtained from the bark of the entire plant ; 5, 6, 7, 8, and 20 are obtained from the younger branches ; and No. 9 from the trunk of the tree.

Nos. 12 to 19 belong to the second-12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 being obtained from the leafstalks (forming the stem in the plantain), and 17, 18, and 19 being obtained from the leaves.

The colour and strength of the fibres depend much on the manner of preparing them, but with very ordinary care they can be brought out of extraordinary strength, and of snowy white, or golden yellow, by simple maceration.

The size, strength, and colour of the fibre appear not to vary in branches or steins of different ages in Nos. 1 to 4, but in Nos. 5 to 11 these characters vary in growths of different ages : being fine and silk-like in the younger, and coarse and easily separable in plaits as “bass” in the older branches and stems. In No. 9, the bark of the young branches reaches a maximum degree of coarseness, and is scarcely useful ; but the bark of the matured branch or trunk furnishes an exceedingly fine and abundant “ bass," well adapted for any purpose to which such an article is usually applied.

Of the foregoing, Nos. 1 to 6, and 9, 11, 17, and 20 are indigenous to Trinidad, and very hardy and abundant. The others are in. troduced plants, but all are completely naturalised; some, such as the variety of Musu Puradisiaca, known here as the “ Jumbec Plaintain," and Sansievera, have become wild plants.

Colonial Company's Agency. Sugar (1 box) manufactured at Usine (central factory) St. Madelaine, Trinidad, W.I. the property of the Colonial Company, Limited, 16, Leadenhall Street, London. Manufactured direct from canes cut on the same day. The juice is first treated with temper lime in the clarifiers, sub

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6. Do. racemosa,
7. Malvaviscus indicus, L.
8.

Sp.
9. Sterculia caribaa, R. B. Ster-

culiaccæ.

Bass from trunk. » 10. Hibiscus Rosa-simensis, Mal

vaceæ.
Bass from matured branchies.

Fibre from young brunches.
11. Musa paradisiaca, L.
Fibre from outer leafstalks-

uncombed. Do.

-roughly

combed. Ditto from inner leafstalks-un

combed. Do.

do. - roughly

combed. 12. Musa textilis, 13.

Sample--rough. 14.

Do. --combed. 15. Musa sapientum. 16. Do. do. variety · Yellow

Fig." 17. Do. cavendishii. 18. Fourcroya gigantea, sample pre

do.

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pared in 1866. do. do.

in 1875. 19. Bromelia karatas, L. » 20. Theoma brocacao, L.

CL 659.

9

CI. 657.
CI. 657.

Cl. 657.

CI. 662.
Cl. 254.

sided, passed through animal charcoal, then
evaporated to syrup in the “Triple Effet,”
passed a second time through the charcoal
boiled to sugar in vacuum pan, and finally
cured in Weston's (American) patent centri-
fugals.

Molasses sugar (1 box) manufactured at the
same " Usine” from the molasses obtained
from the above. The molasses is pumped as
fast as it proceeds from the centrifugals into
tanks, where it is heated and slightly reduced
in density by means of open steanı, and is then
boiled in vacuum pans and cured in centri-
fngals.

Siegert, Dr., Port-of-Spain. “Angostura
Bitters," manufactured by Dr. J. G. Siegert at
Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. (4 cases.)

Trinidad, Government of. Cassarip.
Flament, Mrs. Ch. Farine Manioc.

Jenny, Miss. Farine Manioc.

Flament, Mrs. C. Plaintain Flour ;
Cassada Starch.

Devenish, Syl., Esq., Surveyor General.
Carap Oil.

Somes & Co., Messrs. Cocoanut Oil.

Dovonish, Syl., Esq., Surveyor-General.
Walking Sticks.

Trinidad, Government of. Collection
of Baskets; 10 Indian Baskets ; nest of six
Fancy Baskets; Miniature Egg Baskets ;

“Guayares,” miniature strainers as used for preparing Cassava ; miniature “Guayares” used by men for carrying loads; miniature Cataures used by women for carrying loads; Mats ; Rice and Coffee Fans.

McAdam, Miss Venus. Baskets made of the Towel Gourd.

Cl. 254.

Fans ;

Cl. 660.

CI. 657.
Cl. 657.

Cl. 254.

VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA. VICTORIA, the most populous colony in Australia, is situated on the southern extremity of the continent, and extends from the 34th to the 39th parallel of south latitude, and from the 141st to the 150th meridian of east longitude. Its extreme length from east to west is about 420 geographical miles, and its greatest breadth 250 miles. The extent of coast-line is nearly 600 miles. The area of Victoria is 88,198 square miles, or 56,446,720 acres, or the thirty-fourth part of the whole surface of Australia, an extent about equal to that of England, Wales, and Scotland, which contain 89,644 square miles. Victoria is therefore very much smaller than any of its neighbours on the mainland of Australia, although its population is very nearly as large as all the others put together. The highest mountain in Victoria, Bogong, has an elevation of 6,508 feet, and there are several ranging from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. The Murray runs along the northern boundary for 670 miles, but the Goulburn, with a length of 230 miles, is the longest river which flows throughout its course entirely in Victoria.

Owing to its geographical position Victoria enjoys a climate cooler and more invigorating than any other Australian colony. The mean temperature of the air in Melbourne, derived from a series of observations extending over a period of 14 years, is 57°.6. Upon examining a chart showing isothermal lines, it will be found that the Victorian capital is situated upon or near the line corresponding with that on which, in the northern hemisphere, Marseilles, Bordeaux, Bologna, Nice, Verona, and Madrid are situated. The difference between winter and summer, between the hottest and the coldest month, is less in Victoria than in any of the places mentioned, and the European city the climate of which most resembles that of Melbourne is Maffra, 18 miles north-west of Lisbon, and 700 feet above the level of the sea.

The three months from September to November are considered to be the spring quarter, from December to February the summer, from March to May autumn, and from June to August winter. January and February are the warmest months, June and July the coldest. The observations taken for 17 years show that on 61 occasions the thermometer has risen above 100° Fahrenheit, and that there are 52 instances of its having fallen to or below freezing point. The mean temperature of the air during the two hottest months has been 66.7 in January and 65.6 in February, while the coolest, June, shows 49.0, and July 47.7. The above figures give the temperature of Melbourne. Some of the districts in the interior, which enjoy an elevation of from 1,000

36714.

сс

to 2,000 feet above the level of the sea, are rather cooler, while others are slightly warmer than the metropolis. The mean temperature of the air throughout the year at Ballarat, 1,438 feet above the level of the sea, is 530-9, as compared with 57° 6' in Melbourne, while at Sandhurst it is as high as 58°.6'.

The rainfall at Melbourne differs very considerably in different years. The year of the greatest rainfall wa 1819, in which 44.25 inches of rain fell; then 1863, with 36.42 inches, and 1870, with 33.77 inches. The year when least rain fell was 1865, with 15.94 inches. The rainfall is tolerably well distributed throughout the year, the mean number of days upon which rain fell during the past 35 years being 135.5, of which the spring quarter contributed 40.3, the summer 24:4, the autumn 28.9, and the winter 41.9. The mean anauza rainfall is 27.58 inches, compared with 49.95 in Sydney and 21.36 in Adelaide.

The hot winds of Victoria' form the peculiar feature of its climate which is most talked about in other countries and is most dreaded by new arrivals. They frequently set in about 9 a.m., and blow from the north with great violence, raising clouds of dust. Vegetation becomes parched up, fruit falls from the trees, and animals as well as human beings appear to be greatly oppressed. The time is a trying one for young childree and invalids. The wind often changes to the south towards evening, but sometimes continues to blow from thir north for two and even three days. When the welcome southerly wind sets in it frequently does so in a heary squall, accompanied with drops of rain and thunder and lightning, and the thermometer sometimes falls as much as 20 or 30 degrees in half an hour. According to Neumayer, the average number of hot winds for the colony amounts to eight or nine per annum, but the average is different in different localities, according to the following classification :

Average Number of Days of

Hot Wind per Annum.
Melbourne and Castlemaine

14
Sandhurst, Heathcote, and Portland

11 Beechworth, Ararat, and Swan Hill

8 Geelong and Ballarat

6 Alberton and Camperdown

3 The hot winds are not, however, by any means unmixed evils. The intense dryness produced by the acts as a powerful disinfectant, and the dampness which in the south of Europe produces such prejudicial effens is entirely unknown in Victoria.

The present population of Victoria is in round numbers 820,000. The latest census, taken in 1871, gav 731,528, of whom 401,050 were males and 330,478 females, residing in 158,481 houses. The increase wbra has since taken place from immigration and the excess of births over deaths has done much to reduce the difference between the sexes, and the numbers may now be set down at 430,000 males and 390,000 females.

The various censuses which have been taken since the first settlement of Melbourne give the accompanyiz, results. Population.

Of the present population of Victoria, about 1701 Date of Enumeration.

Number of

are Chinese, and 1,330 Aborigines. Persons. Males. Females.

Victoria contains 8.268 persons to the square mile, 25th May 1836 8th November 1836

rather less than in the empire of Russia, which has all 12th September 1838 2nd March 1841

and much less than the United States, which has 14 2nd March 1846

inhabitants. The population is very unevenly divul 2nd March 1851

10,935 26th April 1854

Melbourne, the capital of Victoria, has with its subur 7th April 1861 540,322

a population of 240,000, rather less than Boston, U'S. 2nd April 1871

or Sheffield, but more than Hamburg, while in county of Weeah, in the extreme north-west of the colony, there was not a single inhabitant on the night won.

Houses.

177

224 3,511 11,738 32,879 77,845 236,798 410,766

142

186 3,080 8,274 20,184 46,202 155,887 264,334 328,651 401,050

35 88 431 3,464 12,695 31,143 80,911 146,482 211,671 330,478

1,490
5,198

29th March 1857

102,001
134,332
158,481

781,528

329,597

28,669 164,287

6,614 56,210 100,468

3,870

165,573
14,308
97,796

4,189
31,475
49,198
2,641

164,024
14,361
66, 191

2,425
24,735
51,270
1,229

857

313

1,170
8,995

269

2,423

256 5,672 1,776 17,826

214

13 534 647

31 101

315

969

399,467

1,583

931

which the census was taken. Ballarat, the second city in Victoria, has 47,201 inhabitants, Sandhurst 28,577, Geelong, 21,459 ; then come Castlemaine with a population of 9,322, Clunes, 6,068, Stawell, 5166, and Daylesford, 4,696. The disproportion of the sexes is confined to the remoter districts, for in eighteen of the cities, boroughs, and towns, the females were in excess of the males.

The accompanying table shows the various nationalities of which the people of Victoria were comprised in 1871.

Numbers.

Of the whole population, 257,835 belong to the Church of
Where born.
Persons. Males. Females.

England, 112,983 are Presbyterians, 170,620 Roman Catho

lics, 94,220 Wesleyans, 18,191 Independents, 16,311 Baptists, British Possessions. Victoria

10,559 Lutherans, 3,571 Jews, and 17,650 Chinese are Other Australasian Colonies

returned as Pagans.
England
Wales
Scotland

Of every thousand persons over five years, the number who
Ireland -
Other British Possessions

could read and write was 804, and of those who could read Foreign Countries.

only, 128, leaving 68 totally uneducated. Of the population France and French Colonies Germany

6,591 2,404

over twenty-one, 871 could read and write, and 74 could Austria Other European countries

read only, leaving 55 per 1,000 of the adult population

6,206 United States of America

wholly uneducated. Primary education in Victoria is now China

17,857 Other countries

free, compulsory, and secular. At Sea. 2,061 1,093

Victoria was first discovered by Captain Cook in 1770, but Total specified

729,014

329,547 Unspecified

the first permament settlement did not take place until 1834, 2,514

when the Messrs. Henty established a whaling establishment Total Population 731,528 401,050 330,478

at Portland. In 1836 Batman aud Fawkner crossed from Allegiance.

Tasmania and took up their residence on the banks of the British subjects

369,228 326,704 Foreign subjects

31,415 3,439

River Yarra near the site of the present city of Melbourne. Allegiance unknown

The fact that, as throughout the greater portion of Australia, the land was well adapted for cultivation, that sheep and cattle could thrive upon the natural grasses of the country and could live in the open air throughout the year, attracted a large immigration ; and in 1851, when Victoria was separated from New South Wales and commenced an independent existence, the population numbered 76,000, the sheep 6,000,000, the cattle 380,000, the horses 21,000, and the land in cultivation 52,000 acres. In the preceding year the public revenue had amounted to 260,0001., the public expenditure to 196,0001., the imports to 745,0001., the exports to 1,000,0001. The ships which arrived numbered 555, of an aggregate tonnage of 108,030, and the ships which departed numbered 508, of an aggregate tonnage of 87,087. The wheat grown amounted to 550,000 bushels, the oats to 100,000 bushels, the hay to 21,000 tons. The wool exported amounted to 18,000,000 lbs., and the tallow to 10,000,000 lbs.

The discovery of gold which took place in 1851 enormously increased the population and revenues of the Yarra colony. For many years the principal export was gold, but the production of this precious metal is now of less importance than that of the great staple wool. Of the exports in 1874, amounting altogether in value to 15,441,1091., wool was valued at 6,373,641l, and gold at 4,053,2881.

The important position which the Australian colonies had obtained in consequence of the discovery of gold, and the influx of population consequent thereon, was the occasion of the Imperial Government determining in the latter end of 1852 that each colony should be invited to frame such a Constitution for its government as its representatives might deem best suited to its own peculiar circumstances. The Constitution framed in Victoria, and afterwards approved by the British Parliament, was avowedly based upon that of the United Kingdom. It provided for the establishment of two Houses of Legislature, with power to make laws, subject to the assent of the Crown as represented generally by the Governor of the colony ; the Legislative Council

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407

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