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It must be carefully observed, that every falling, or every rising inflection, does not necessarily terminate upon the same key, or on the same note of that key; neither is every emphatic word pronounced with the same degree of force for, as various as inflections and emphases are in number, almost as varied should be the manner of pronouncing them. In these, however, and in many other circumstances, whereon the beauty of reading and speaking chiefly depends, the import of the subject, the nature of the audience, and the place the speaker occupies, must all be judiciously considered, in order properly to regulate his pronunciation and delivery.
General Rules and Observations on Reading and Recitation.
1. GIVE the letters their proper sounds.
2. Pronounce the vowels a, e, i, o, u, clearly, giving to each its proper quantity.
3. The liquids l, m, n, r, should be pronounced with a considerable degree of force.
4. Distinguish every accented letter or syllable by a peculiar stress of the voice.
5. Read audibly and distinctly, with a degree of deliberation suited to the subject.
6. Pause at the points a sufficient length of time; but not so long as to break that connexion which one part of a sentence has with another.
7. The meaning of a sentence is often considerably elucidated by pausing where none of the usual marks could properly be inserted. 8. Give every sentence, and member of a sentence, that inflection of voice, which tends to improve either the sound, or the sense.
9. Monotones, judiciously introduced, have a wonderful effect in diversifying delivery.
10. Every emphatical word must be marked with a force corresponding with the importance of the subject.
11. At the beginning of a subject or discourse, the pitch of the voice should, in general, be low:-to this rule, however, there are some exceptions in poetry, and even in prose.
12. As the Speaker proceeds, the tones of his voice should swell, and his animation increase with the increasing importance of his subject. 13. At the commencement of a new paragraph, division, or sub-division of a discourse, the voice may be lowered, and again allowed gradually to swell.
14. The tones of the voice must, in every instance, be regulated entirely by the nature of the subject.
15. In recitation, the speaker must adopt those tones, looks, and gestures, which are most agreeable to the nature of whatever he delivers: he must suit the action to the word, and the word to the "action" always remembering, that "rightly to seem, is tran "siently to be."
A KEY TO THE SOUNDS.
à fate, made, fame.
1. The Name Sounds.
Long, ä ē I б ū
i mine, time, wine.
ō lōne, tōne, bōne.
2. The Shut Sounds.
Short, a e io u
a man, than, scan.
à senate, prelate, pirate.
ù unite, unitedly, unition.
3. Occasional Sounds.
Long, â âû
â bâr, fâr, scâr.
wall, wârd, wârn. û rûde, rûle, rûth.
g is always hard (eg),
* LINES – and CIRCUMFLEXES A mark the long, and DOTS and BREVES the short quantity of the same sounds.
Initial w and y sound as in we, ye.-Ow and oy sound as in now, cloy.
ĕ amběr, cumber, soběr.
ă păss, căst, măst. A wĂnt, wǎs, wăn. ă păll, bush, făll.
as in-go, give, gone.
1. au, at the beginning of words, sounds â in au'burn, auction, auctionary, au'dible, au'dibly, au'dience, au'dit, au'ditor, au'ditory, au'ditress, au'ger, aught, augʻment, (noun), auʼgur,† au'gury, auʼgust, (n.), au'lic, &c. (au, sounds Ă in) auctioneer', auda'cious, audac'ity, augment' (verb), augmenta'tion, august', (adj) aure'lia, auricʻula, auric'ular, aurif'erous, auroʻra, auroʻra-borea'lis, &c.-aunt s. ânt. 2. ch. s. k, in chalcog'raphy, chalyb'eate, cham, chameleon, cha'os, chaot'ick, charʼacter, characteris'tick, charʼacterize, chasm, chil'iad, chiliaed'ron, chime'ra, chimer'ical, chimer'ically, chirogʻrapher, chirogʻraphy, chir'omancy, chirurgeon, chirurgical, chloro'sis, choir, chol'er, chol'erick, cho'ral, chord, chor'ister, chorog'raphy, chorus, chrism, chris'ten, chris'tendom, chris'tening, chris'tian, christian'ity, christ'ianize, chris'tmas, chromat'ic, chron'ical, chronʼick, chron'icle, chron'ogram, chronologʻical, chronology, chrysalis, chrysolite, chyla'ceous, chyle, chym'ical, chym'ist, chym'istrychart, s. kârt, or chârt; ch, in the beginning of most other words, sounds ch, as in chance, charge, &c.—in a few words, most of which are derived from the French, the ch sounds sh, as in chicane', chev. alier', &c.
3. circum. s. ser-kum, in circumam'bient, circumam'bulate, cir'cumcise, circumcisi' on, circumduct', circum'ference, circumferen'tor, cir'cumflex, circum'fluent, circum'fluous, circumfuse', &c.
4. co-op, 8. ko-op, in co-op'erate, co-operation, co-op'erative, co-op'erator, co-optation, (co-or, s. kò âr, in) co-or'dinate, co-or'dinately, co-ordinateness, (co-or. s. kò-or, in) co-ordina'tion.
5. dis. s. dis, in disability, disadvan'tage, disaffec'tion, disagree', disallow', disappear', disapprove', disavow', discard', disclose', &c. 6. dis, s. diz, in disaʼble, disarm', disas'ter, disas'trous, disband', disbark', disbench', disbranch', disbur'den, disburse', disburse'ment,
These words may serve as useful exercises, not only in orthoepy, but also in orthography.-For this purpose a portion of them may be pronounced and spelled by the pupil each day, or as often as the Teacher may think proper.
+ Participles have the accent on the same syllable, as the verbs from which they are derived; thus the verb to in'terest has the accent on the first syllable, the participles in'teresting, in'terested, derived from it, have the accent on the same syllable.
discern', discern'ible, discern'ing, discern'ment, disdain', &c. (di, before s. sounds dè in) dishev'elled, dispread', (disme, s. dîm ) 7. ea, s. è in each, eaʼger, ea's erly, eaʼgerness, eaʼgle eyed, eaʼglet, ear, earʼless, ear'-ring, ear'shot, &c (earl, s. erl, in) earl, earl'dom, ear'liness, early, earn, ear'nest, ear'nestly, earth, earth'en, earth'ling, earth'ly, earth'quake, earth'y.
8. ex, s. egz, in exacerba'tion, exact', exactly, exac'tion, exact'ness, exaggerate, exaggera'tion, exagʻitate, exalt', exalta'tion, &c. (ex, in the beginning of almost all other words, sounds ex) ex'cellence, exception, exclaim', excommuʼnicate, excurʼsion, exhala'tion, &c. 9. h is silent in heir, heir'ess, heir'less, heir'ship, herb, herb'age, herb'y, hon'est, hon'estly, honesty, hon'orary, hon'our, hon'ourable, honourably, hosʼpital, hos'tler, hour. hourʼglass, hourly, hum'ble, hum'ble-mouthed, hum'bles, hum'bled, hum'bly, hu'morist, hu'morous, hu'morously, hu'mour.
10. or, s. âr in orb, orb'ed or'bit, or'chard, or'chestre, or'deal, or'der, orʼderless, orʼderly, orʼdinable, orʼdinal, or'dinance, or'dinary, or'dinate, &c. (or. s. òr, in) orien'tal, orig'inal orig'inally, orig'inary, originate, oracʼular, oracʼulous, oran'gery, oraʼtion, (or, s. or, in) or'acle. or'ange, orʼator, orato'rial, orator'ical, oratory, orba'tion, orbicular, orchestra, ordain', ordina'tion, &c. (or, s. ōr in) o'ral, ore, oʻrient.
11. ph, s. f, in pha'eton, phalanx, or phalanx, phan'tasm, phantom, pharmacy, phaʼros, pha'sis, phenom'enon, phi'al, philanthropy, philip'pick, philology, phil'omel, philosophy, phil'ter, phlebot'omy, phosphorus, phrase, physick, physiology, phytol'ogy, &c. phthisick, s. tiz'-ik, phthisis, &. thi'-sis.
12. pre, s. prē, in preach, preach'er, preach'ment, pre'cept, pre'dal, pre'dial, pre'fect, preʼfix, (n.), pre'mier, pre'mium, pre'science, pre'scient, pre'script, pre'tor, pre'vious, pre'viously. (preamble, 8. preambl, or pream'bl.-precinct, s. pre'-singkt, or presingkt'.-prey, s. prā—pre is shut in) preb'end, preb'endary, preceda'neous, prec'➡ edent, prec'ipice, pred'atory, pred'ecessor, pred'icable, &c. (presage, s. pres'-aj, or pre-sāj'.—in most other words the pre s. prè.)precarious, precede', precep'tive, precip'itate, precise', preclude', preconceit', predestina'rian, predict', predispose', predom'inant," pre-establish, prefer', &c.
13. ps, s. s, in psalm, psal'mist, psalmody, psalmogʻraphy, psal'ter, psaltery, pseu'do, pseudogʻraphy, pseu'dology, pshaw, psy'che, psychology, psychom'achy, psy'chomancy.-pt, s. t, in ptisan', pty'alism, ptylo'sis, ptys’magogue.
14. se, s. sẽ, in sea, sea'beat, sea'born, sea-boy, seacalf', sea'chart, (sea, s. sē, in all its other compounds) seal, seal'ingwax, seam, seam'. less, sear, sear'cloth, sea'son, sea'sonable, sea'sonably, sea'soning, seat, sea'ward, se'cant, se'crecy, se'cret, se'cretly, &c.
15. se, s. sè, in secede', secession, seclude', seclusion, secrete', secre'tion, secretory, secure', secure'ly, secur'ity, sedan', sedate', sedate'ly, sedate'ness, sediti'on, sediti'ous, seduce', seduce'ment, seduc'ible, &c. (ser, s. sâr, in ser'geant.-sew, s. sõ.)
sewer, s. sō'ěr, one who uses a needle.
sewer, s. sū'ĕr, an officer who serves up a feast.
sewer, s. shōr, a passage for water.
in most other words the e in se is shut or joined to the next letter-----thus-second, sec'retary, sed'ulous, sel'dom, sem'blance, sensa'tion, ser'mon, ser'vitude, set'tlement, &c.
16. sky, s. skyi, in sky, sky'ey, sky'colour, sky'coloured, sky'dyed, sky'ed, sky'ish, sky'lark, sky'light, sky'rocket. (kind, s. kyīnd, in) kind, kind'ly. kind'ness, unkind', unkind'lv, unkind'ness, gav'elkind, mankind', womʼankind, humankind', kine.
17. su. s. su, in supine (adj.), supine'ly, supine'ness, suprem'acy, supreme', supreme'ly, (su, s. sã, in) su’pine (n )
18. super, s. super, in superabun'dance, superadd', superan'nuate, superb', supercar'go, superceles'tial, supercilious, superem'inent, superer'ogate, superex'cellent, superfici'es, superfine', super'fluous, superintend', superiority, supe'rior, super'lative, supernatʼural, supernumerary, superscription, superstitious, superven'tion, supervi'sor, &c. (super, s. sūper, in) suʼperable, su'perfice, su'perflux. 19. th, s. th, in thane, thank, thank'ful, thank'less, thanksʼgiving, thatch, thatch'er, thaw, the'atre, theft, theoc'racy, theod'olite, theologian, theory, thermom'eter, the'sis, &c. (th, s. th, in) thence, thenceforth, thenceforward, there, there'about, thereby', thith'er, thith'erto, thith'erward, though, (thyme, s. tim.)
20. thr, s. thr, in thrall, thral'dom, thrap'ple, thrash, thrash'er, thrason'ical, thread, thread'bare, threat, threat'en, three, three'fold, threw, thrice, thrift, thrill, thrive, throat, throb, throe, &c.
21. trans, s. trans, in transact', transcend', transcribe', transfig'ure, transfuse', trans'it, transition, translate', transmit', transpire', transverse', &c. transi, s. tran'-shė, in) tran'sient, tran'siently, tran'.
22. un, s. un, in unalterable, unbound', uncer'tain, unconcern',
daunt'ed, undirect'ed, une'qual, unexplored, unfortunate, ungen'. erous, unhap'py, &c. u, s. ũ, before n, in) u'nicorn, u'niform, u'niformly, u'nion, u'nison, u'nit, u'nity, u'niverse. (u. s. u, before n, in) unanim'ity, unan'imous, uniformity, unite', unit'edly, uniti'on, univer'sal, universal'ity, univer'sally, univer'sity, univocal. (unc, s. ungk, in) un'cle, unc'tion, unc'tuous. (unguent, s. ung'gwent.)
23. x, in words from the Greek, where it is initial, is always pronounced like z, thus-xerocollyr'ium, xero'des, xeromi'rum, xeroph'agy, xerophthalmy, xero'tes, xiph'ias, xiphoi'des, xylobal'samum, xys'ter. In proper names also x sounds z when beginning a word or syllable; thus-Xan'the, Xan'tho, Xan'thus, Xan'ticles, Xantip'pe, Xantip'pus, Xenag'oras, Xenar'chus, Xen'ares, Xen'etus, Xeni'ades, Xenocle'a, Xen'ocles, Xenocli'des, Xenoc'rates, Xenod'amus, Xenodoʻrus, Xenoph'anes, Xen'ophon, Xenophonti'us, Xerx'es, Xeu'xes, Xu'thus, Xy'chus, Xyn'ias, Xynoich'ia, &c.