Sivut kuvina
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22 uble

23 ile

24 stle

25 some

26 sume 27 ine

28 ire

29 sure


sounds ik ||30|ture sounds tur ||59) own sounds
ěr 60 ear

ïz 61 er
sheat62 or
lut 63 our

64 ass

iv 65 ous

t31 re
d 32 ise
ed 33 ciate

ōld 34 lute

ind 35 ue

ė 36 ive

ib 37 g
is 38 ing
ans 39 inging-

ens 40 ong
sens 41 ough

dus 42 th

id 43 cial

lūd 44 tial

ē 45 ful

aj 46 form
j47 en

ârj 48 sten

abl 49 ain

ebl 50 ain

ubl 51 ion

il 52 sion

sl 53 sion

sum 51 ssion

sum 55 tion

in 56 tion

ir 57 xion zhur 58 son

shal 72 ct

shal 73 ight ful 74 eight fârın 75 aught

n 16 ought

sn 77 scent
an 78 ow

in 19 ay

yun 80 fy

zhun 81 ly
shun 82 ably

shun 83 ibly

shun 84 ily

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66 ceous


ing 67 ious & cous s. yus ingin 68 cious & scious s. shus ong 69 tious

sounds shus

o 70 uous

uus ēt

th 71 eat









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tyun 85 iety
shun 86 ity

zn 87 osity


1. ic, at the end of words, sounds ik, in cub'ic, somnif'ic, sudorif'ic, magʻic, logʻic, public, angel'ic, academ'ic, astronom'ic, pan'ic, tyran'nic, fabric, rhetoric, emphatic, arc'tic, poet'ic, crit'ic, eclip'tic, elas'tic, domestic, &c.

2. d is pronounced like t when the ed is preceded by f, k, p, s, sh, ch, or any sharp consonant, thus, ingraff'ed, quaff'ed, cuff'ed, puff'ed, ingulf'ed; creak'ed, cloak'ed, track'ed, ran'sacked, attack'ed, deck'ed, help'ed, decamp'ed, cramp'ed, jump'ed, trump'ed, developed, depress'ed, oppress'ed, confess'ed, profess'ed, bless'ed, wit'nessed, abash'ed, refresh'ed, established. pub'lished, engʻlished, fam'ished, impeach'ed, encroach'ed, detach'ed, stretch'ed, enrich'ed, branch'ed, &c. (blessed, when an adjective, is, in grave subjects, pronounced in two syllables, thus-a bless'ed reward.) The ed is pronounced as a distinct syllable in learn'-ed, curs'-ed, wing'ed, when adjectives. The ed in aged always makes a distinct syllable, as an ag'-ed man; but when this word is compounded with another, the ed does not form a separate syllable, as a full-ag'd horse. The ed is pronounced as e

distinct syllable in the following adverbs, though it is contracted in the participial adjectives from which they are formed.-for'cedly, enfor'cedly, unveil'edly, deform'edly, feign'edly, unfeign'edly, design' edly, resign'edly, restrain'edly, refin'edly, unconcern'edly, undiscern'edly, prepar'edly, assur'edly, advis'edly, compos'edly, disper'. sedly, diffu'sedly, confu'sedly, unperceiv'edly, resolv'edly, deservedly, undeservedly, reservedly, unreservedly, avow'edly, perplex'edly, fix'edly, amaz'edly, fork'edly. The participial termination ed must never be pronounced as a distinct syllable, unless preceded by d or t, except in the language of Scripture.

3, in ed, a verbal termination, the e is not sounded, and the d is joined to the preceding syllable, in mov'ed, prov'ed, approv'ed, disapprov’ed, improv'ed, believ'ed, disbeliev'ed, imbib'ed, inscrib'ed, transcrib'ed, oblig'ed, disoblig'ed, engaged, incag'ed, convey'ed, sur. vey'ed, &c.

4. ed forms a separate syllable when preceded by d or t, in commended, recommended, mould'ed, fold'ed, disband'ed, command'ed, expand'ed, brand'ed, avoided, hat'ed, an'imated, abstract'ed, affect'ed, lim'ited, deposited, revolt'ed, anoint'ed, &c.

5 old, s. öld, in bold, cold, scold, fold, blind'fold, bi'fold, infold', unfold', gold, hold, behold', withhold', inhold', uphold', sold, told, retold', untold', mistold', wold. (old, s. öld) three'fold, man'ifold, pin'fold, marigold, free'hold, house'hold, thresh'old, cop'yhold. (old, s. uld, in scaf'fold.)

6. ind, s. ind, in bind, find, hind, behind', kind, gav’elkind, mankind', wom'ankind, humankind', unkind', blind, pur'blind, mind, remind', rind, grind, wind (v.), unwind'. (ind. s. ind, in) abscind', rescind', prescind', discind', interscind', diffind', tam'arind, tind, whirl'wind, wind, or wind, (n.)

7. e final, s. ė, in ac'me, anem'one, dias'tole, epit'ome, extem'pore, le'the, nepen'the, parago'ge, sim'ile, u'tile, dul'ce, apostrophe, antis'trophe, hyperbole, syn'cope, syn'drome, synec'doche, tem'pore, sys'tole, prem'unire, enal'lage, hypal'lage.

8. ibe, s. ib, in imbibe', gibe, kibe, bribe, scribe, ascribe', misascribe' subscribe', describe', rescribe', prescribe', circumscribe', transcribe', inscribe', proscribe', superscribe', interscribe', tribe.

9. ice, s. is, in ad'dice, jaun'dice, bod'ice, cow'ardice, prej'udice, ben'efice, ven'efice, of'fice, ed'ifice, lan'ifice, or'ifice, pont'ifice, art'ifice, su'perfice, &c. (ice, s. is, in) ice, bice, dice, splice, slice, mice, nice, spice, bespice', rice, grice, thrice, price, trice, entice', vice, advice', device', twice. (ice, s. ïs, in) tice, cock'atrice. (ice, s. īz, in) suffice', sice, (ice, s. ïz, in) sac'rifice. (ice, s. és, in) police', caprice'. (oice, s. oys, in) choice, rejoice', voice, in'voice, outvoice'. -plaice, s. plas-juice, s. jûs—ver'juice, s. ver'jus-sluice, s. slūs. 10. ance, s. ans, in disturbance, guid'ance, attend'ance, abundance, bal'ance, appearance, remem'brance, fra'grance, en'trance (n.), &c. ance, accented, or in monosyllables, s. ăns, in) bechance', perchance', mischance', enhance', askance', elance', romance', finance', &c. dance, chance, lance, glance, prance, trance.

11. ence, s. ens, in in'nocence, acquies'cence, ca'dence, con'fidence, depend'ence, pru'dence, defici'ence, effici'ence, insuffici'ence, sci'ence, &c. 12. scence, s. sens, in connas'cence, crubes'cence, turges'cence, quies'cence, coalescence, invales'cence, convales'cence, adoles'cence, &c.

13. duce, s. dūs, in traduce', abduce', obduce', subduce', educe”, deducè', reduce', seduce', induce', superinduce', conduce', reproduce', introduce', produce' (v.) (uce, s. us) in the noun produce.

14. ide, s. id, in bide, abide', decide', incide', coincide', diffide', confide', hide, chide, elide', glide, collide', slide, &c. (ide, s. ïd, in) de'icide, reg'icide, stil'licide, hom'icide, tyran'nicide, lap'icide, soror'icide, parʼricide, matricide, fratricide, vat'icide, infan'ticide, su'icide, &c. 15. lude, s. lūd, in acclude', reclude', preclude'; seclude', include', conclude', interclude', exclude', elude', prelude' (v.) allude', illude', collude'. (lude, s. lud, in) prel'ude, in'terlude.

16. ee, s. ē, in bee, fee, refugee', kee, lee, flee, glee, appellee', assignee', knee, epopee', decree', free, agree', disagree', degree', three, tree, see, fricasee', foresee', oversee', lessee', fusee', legatee', guarantee', &c. (ee, s. è, in) cof'fee, feof'fee, ap'ogee, tro'chee, spon' dee, prith'ee, ju'bilee, ped'igree, commit'tee, lev'ee.

17. age, s. àj, in cab'bage, herb'age, ad'age, bondage, cord'age, vas'. salage, pil'lage, assemblage, dam'age, im'age, manʼage, spin'nage, patronage, &c. (age, s. āj, in) age, cage, incage', gage, engage', pre-engage', disengage', page, ti'tlepage, rage, sage, presage (v.) stage, assuage', wage. (iage, 8. ij, in) carʼriage, miscarriage, mar'. riage, intermarʼriage.

18. dge, s. j, in trudge, grudge, judge, budge, lodge, par'tridge, abridge', ridge, wedge, knowledge, sledge, pledge, fledge, hedge, &c.

19. arge, s. ârj, in barge, charge, recharge', overcharge', surcharge',

discharge', large, enlarge', overlarge'. (arge, s. ǎrj, in) lith'arge. 20. able, s. a-bl, in apʼplicable, for'midable, com'mendable, peace'able, agreeable, per'ishable, so'ciable, magʻnifiable, a'miable, pit'iable, &c. (able, s. abl, in a'ble, fa'ble, ga'ble, ena'ble, una'ble, sa'ble, disa'ble, ta'ble, staʼble, instaʼble, unstable.

21. ible, s. ė-bl, in evin'cible, invin'cible, doc'ible, forc'ible, iras'cible, deduc'ible, credible, exten'dible, au'dible, legʻible, &c. (ible, s. ibl, in bi'ble.-oible, s. oy-bl, in foi'ble.)

22. uble, s. u-bl, in soluble, res'oluble, irres'oluble, insoluble, dis'soluble, indis'soluble, voľ'uble. (ouble, s. ubl, in) double, redoub'le, sem'idouble, troub'le.

23. ile, s. il, in flab'ile, nuʼbile, fac'ile, crocodile, doc'ile, agʻile, ju’venile, fe'brile, pu'erile, vi'rile, tenʼsile, misʼsile, &c. (ile, s. ïl, in) rec'oncile, e'dile, cham'omile, se'nile, in'fantile, pan'tile, gen'tile, pen'tile, turn'stile, ex'ile (n.) (ile, s. īl, in) ile, bile, file, defile', while, awhile', some'while, erewhile', oth'erwhile, mile, smile, pile, compile', tile, stile, vile, revile', guile, beguile', wile, exile' (v.) (ile, s. il, or ēl, in) inhabile', imbecile', profile'. (ile, s. ēl, in) mobile'. ―ile, s. èle, in sim'ile, u'tile; when utile is used as an adjective, it is pronounced in two syllables, with the accent on the first.

24. stle, s. sl, in cas'tle, fore'castle, nes'tle, tres'tle, wres'tle, this'tle, whis'tle, epis'tle, bris'tle, gris'tle, jos'tle, pos'tle, thros'tle, bus'tle, jus'tle, nus'tle, rus'tle, (stle, s. stl, in pes'tle).

25. some, s. sum, in some, glad'some, whole'some, long'some, dark'. some, irk'some, toil'some, bur'densome, light'some, &c.

26. sume, 8. sum, in absume', desume', consume', assume', reassume'. (sume, s. zūm, in) resume^ and presume'.

27. ine, s. in-in sab'ine, med'icine, fes'tucine, smarag'dine, imagʻine, engine, myrr'hine, amaran'thine, terebin'thine, hyacin'thine, &c.

(ine, s. in, in) can'nabine, car'abine, wood'bine, columbine, jacʼobine, car'bine, &c. (ine, s. în, in) combine', vic'ine, calcine', saline', decline', recline', incline', disincline', underline', interline', undermine', countermine', canine', repine', opine', supine' (adj.) divine', provine". (ine, s. in, in monosyllables and words compounded of, or derived from them) wine, swine, twine, untwine', intertwine', nine, pine, sine, shrine, shine, moon'shine, outshine', fine, define', refine', &c. (ine, s. ēn, in) fascine', gabardine', haberdine', sordine', machine', chioppine', tambarine', marine', ultramariné', submarine', transmarine', tabourine', quarantine', colbertine', routine', magazine', (essoine, s. essoyn'.)

28. ire s. ir, in ire, dire, fire, hire, mire, admire', bemire', quagmire, spire, aspire', respire', transpire', inspire', conspire', perspire', &c. (ire, s. ïr, in) wild'fire, bon'fire, pis'mire, em'pire, um'pire, ac'rospire, grand'sire. (ire, s. ir, in) cam'phire, sam'phire, sapph'ire.-sa'tire, s. sā'tĕr-solitaire', s. sol-e-tar'-shire, s. shīr or shēr-conge-d'elire', 8. kōn-je-de-lēr′-escargatoire', s. es-kar-ga-twâr'-scrutoire' s. skrůtōr'.

29. sure, s. zhur, in pleas'ure, displeas'ure, meas'ure, outmeas'ure, treas'ure, intreas'ure, incis'ure, expo'sure. (ssure, s. shur, in) press'ure, impress'ure, sciss'ure, fiss'ure, contrafiss'ure, commiss'ure. (sure, s. zhăr, in) ra'sure, lei'sure, clo'sure, enclo'sure, disclo'sure, compo'sure, discompo'sure, dispo'sure, clau'sure. (sure, s. shăr, in) cen'sure, ten'sure, ton'sure, compress'ure, coun'terpressure, express'ure. (sure, s. shûr, in) ensure', unsure', assure'.

30. ture, s. tur, in ju'dicature, du'plicature, fea'ture, crea'ture, ligʻature, min'iature, abbreviature, entablature, prel'ature, legʻislature, na' ture, &c. (ture, s. tur, in) mature', premature', immature'. 31. re, preceded by a consonant, s. ĕr. in sa'bre, ver'tebre, fi'bre, om'bre, a'cre, wise'acre, mas'sacre, lu'cre, the'atre, amphitheatre, elec'tre, spec'tre, me'tre, &c.—parterre', s. părtār'.

32. ise, s. ïz, in crit'icise, cir'cumcise, ex'ercise, ex'orcise, mer'chandise, meth'odise, cat'echise, mon'archise, eter'nalise, nat'uralise, &c. (ise, s. iz, in) demise', premise', surmise', presurmise', despise', rise, (v.) arise', sun'rise, reprise', &c. (ise, s. iz, in) fran'chise, affran'chise, enfran'chise, disfran'chise, amor'tise. (ise, s. is in) prom'ise, break'promise, an'ise, tor'toise, trea'tise, prac'tise, diver'. tise, mortise. (ise, s. ïs, in) par'adise, impar'adise. (ise, s. is in) precise', rise (n.) concise'. (oise, s. oyz, in) noise, poise, e'quipoise, coun'terpoise, o'verpoise. (aise, s. āz, in) chaise, fraise, praise, appraise', dispraise'.-bruise, s. brûz.—chevaux-de-frise, s. shev-ò-defrēz'.

33. ciate, s. sheat, in gla'ciate, congla'ciate, ema'ciate, depre'ciate, offi'ciate, provin'ciate, enun'ciate, annun'ciate, conso'ciate (v.), associate (v.) disso'ciate, cru'ciate, excru'ciate. (ciate, s. sheat in) consociate (n.), associate (n. or adj.)

34. lute, s. lūt in lute, salute', elute', flute, dilute', pollute', volute', (lute, slut, in) ab'solute, res'olute, irres'olute, dis'solute.

35. ue is silent in league, colleague, plague, vague, intrigue', fatigue', harangue', tongue, pedagogue, dem'agogue, syn'agogue, di'alogue, cat'alogue, prol'ogue, rogue, &c. (ue, s. u, in) a'gue, ar'gue, redai'gue, value, undervalue, overvalue, avenue, rev'enue, detin'ue, ret'inue, contin'ue, discontin'ue, stat'ue, vir'tue. (ue, s. ū, in)

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blue, flue, glue, unglue', mue, sue. (ue, s. û, in) rue, congrue', true,
untrue'. (ue, s. ŭ, in) con'strue, miscon'strue, iss'ue, tissue.
36. ive, s. iv, in give, forgive', olive, to live, outlive', eva'sive, suaʼsive,
dissua'sive, adhe'sive, deci'sive, repul'sive, expanʼsive, defenʼsive,
apprehen'sive, pen'sive, &c. (ive, s. iv, in) five, hive, bee hive,
live (adj.), alive', slive, connive', rive, drive, overdrive', derive',
shrive, thrive, deprive', arrive', contrive', strive, revive', connive',
supervive, survive', wive (v.).

37. g before n in the same syllable is silent in impregn', campaign',
champaign', deraign', arraign', deign, indign', condign', feign, reign,
sov'ereign, for'eign, inter-reign', malign', benign', sign, &c.
38. ing, s. ing, in amaʼzing, dy'ing, say'ing, know'ing, deserv'ing,
bring, last'ing, writing, bless'ing, hearing, mourn'ing, mornʼing,
o'pening, alarm'ing, change'ling, lord'ling, &c.

39. inging, 8. ingin, in clingʻing, flingʻing, ringʻing, springʻing, string'.
ing, wringing, singing, sting'ing, wing'ing, swing'ing, slingʻing,

40. ong, s. ong, in thong, diph'thong, triph'thong, long, along', ob'long,
head'long, end'long, &c. (ong, s. ung, in) tong, among', amongst'.
41. ough, s. o, in furlough, borough, head'borough, third borough,
her borough, thorough. (ough, s. ō, in) dough, though, although,
(ough, s. ow, in) bough, clough, a cleff; plough, slough, a deep
mire; sough. (ough, s. of, in) cough, hooping-cough, chin'cough,
clough, an allowance in weight; trough. (ough, s. uf, in) chough,
slough, a cast skin; enough', rough, tough. (ough, s. ok, in) hough,
shough, lough-ough, s û, in through—ough, s. up, in hic'cough.
42. th, s. th, in death, heath, sheath (n.), breath, wreath (n.), path,
wrath, breadth, fifth, length, strength, ze'nith, herewith', there
with', wherewith', forthwith', &c. (th, s. th, in) sheath (v.), un-
sheath', beneath', underneath', seeth (v.), with, booth, tol'booth,
smooth, sooth (v.), mouth (v.)

43. cial, s. shal, in speci'al, judicial, benefici'al, offici'al, artificial, su-
perficial, provincial, so'cial, commercial, fidu'cial, &c. (cial, 8.
sheal, in) gla'cial, cru'cial.

44. tial, s. shal, in initiʼal, solstiti’al, substanʼtial, circumstanʼtial, creden'tial, providenʼtial, prudenʼtial, &c. (tial, preceded by s, sounds tyal in) bes'tial, celes'tial, subceles'tial, superceles'tial.

45. ful, s. fŭl, in dreadful, need'ful, hand'ful, peace'ful, grace'ful,
change'ful, venge'ful, revenge'ful, guile'ful, tune'ful, hope'ful, &c.
46. form, s. fârm, in form, deform', reform', efform', tri'form, len'ti
form, multiform, inform', misinform', conform', perform', trans-
form', platform.-form, s. fârm, in uʼniform.

47. en. s. n, in deaf'en, * beech'en, rough'en, ash’en, fresh'en, heath'en,
length'en, weak'en, takʼen, sick'en, &c. (en, s. en in monosyllables)
as fen, hen, then, when, ken, glen, men, pen, tren, wren, ten, wen;
and in such words as twig'gen, kitch'en, hy'phen, aʼlien, wool'len,
a'men', &c.of'ten and sof'ten, s. ofn and sofn.
48. sten, s. sn, in has'ten, fas'ten, unfas'ten, chas'ten, lis'ten, glis'ten,
mois'ten, chris'ten. (sten, s. stn, in burʼsten.
49. ain accented, or in a monosyllable, s. ān, in ordain', disdain', regain”,
• When a vowel is not sounded in the verb, it is silent also in the
participles derived from it.

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