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the taxes. It began with declar-' of opinion. Some dissented from ing that–The rentes acquired by the principle of the measure as too the sinking fund from its establish- anti-revolutionary; others conceive ment up to the 22nd of June, ed that it did not go far enough ; 1825, should not be annihilated the ultra royalists thought, that nor diverted from their application the emigrants were only half comto the purchase of the public debt pensated, if what they received before the 22nd of June, 1830: but was not taken from those who had the rentes, which should be acquir- been gainers by their spoils; and ed by the sinking fund from the all who disliked the financial al22nd of June, 1825, to the 22nd of teration with which it was coupled, June, 1830, were to be cancelled wished for its failure. The debates, for the benefit of the State, as they though protracted, were of little were purchased, and also the cour interest; and M. de Villèle carried

: pons of interest attached to them; his scheme triumphantly through and after the 22nd March, 1825, both chambers. The most strenuthe sums accruing from the sinking ous opposition which was made to fund were not to be applied to the it, was upon an amendment propurchase of public stock, when the posed by M. Roy, the late minister price was above par. This was of Finance. He moved to subthe first part of the law. The other stitute the sum of 37,000,000 of partof it provided thatthe proprietors francs arising from a five per cent of 5 per cent rentes should have, till stock, as the amount of the inthe 22nd of June, 1825, the faculty demnity, instead of the 30,000,000 of demanding from the Ministry of from a three per cent stock. This Finance their conversion into 3 per amendment was lost, after a long cent rentes, at the price of 75, and discussion, by a majority of 27 till the 22nd of September, 1825, against 100. the faculty of requiring their con- After the law was passed, the version into 41 per cent stock at king appointed a commission, who par, with a guarantee in both cases were to investigate the demands of against being paid off till the 22nd those who claimed compensation, of September, 1835.

and to determine what sum ought The rentes so converted were to to be allotted to each. The comcontinue to bear interest at 5 per mission was sub-divided into five cent, till the 22nd of December, sections; each consisting of five 1825.

members, and charged with the The sums arising from the dimi- liquidation of the claims in a cernution in the annual charge of the tain number of departments. The debt were to be applied to the Marshal Duke of Tarentum was reduction, from the year 1826 of President. Count Mollien, presithe land-tax, poll-tax, and taxes on dent of the commission of superinmoveables, doors, and windows tendence of the Caisse d' Amor(contributions fonciere, personelle, tissement, Messrs. Olivier and Lemobiliaire, et des portes et fene- roy, of the chamber of Deputies, tres).

and Baron Guilhermi, president of The settlement of the civil list one of the chambers of the Court did not produce much discussion: of Accompts, were among the the law of indemnification, on the members. contrary, gave rise to great variety M. de Villèle was equally suca




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cessful in carrying his great fi- dend. The 5 per cents converted nancial measure, in spite of the into 4 per cents amounted to violent opposition which it met 1,080,345 francs : the 4 per cents with. Pasquier and M. de Cha- inscribed in their stead amounted teaubriand were violent in their hos- to 972,228 francs. tility to it. On one amendment The diminution thus produced which was proposed in the Cham- in the annual charge of the debt ber of Peers, he prevailed only by a was to be applied to the reduction majority of 123 to 103; but, upon of the land-tax, the poll-tax, and the final division, the law was the taxes on moveables, and on adopted by 134 against 92. The doors and windows. According to period allowed to the holders of a report on this subject, presented rentes for demanding their con- to the king by M. de Villèle, version into a 3 per cent stock at The diminution effected 75, was extended to the 5th of in the interest of the August. Those proprietors of in

debt amounted to....

6,223,108 0 scriptions in the 5 per cents, who The taxes in question

amounted to ........ should not demand their conversion

194,727,934 63

A diminution of these at into either 3 per cents or 4 per the rate of 3 cents in cents, were to retain the enjoy- the franc would make ment of the actual interest and only..

5,841,838 4 the power of transfer, under the Leaving unemployed 381,359 96 same forms, and at the same pe- On the other hand, a diminution riods of payment as before ; sub- of another cent would, it was object, however, to any future enact- vious, greatly exceed this overplus; ment which the government might but it would suffice to diminish by make with respect to them, and six cents, instead of three, the door unprotected by that guarantee and window-tax, which was the against being paid off, which the most onerous of all the direct taxes two new species of stock possessed. to the poorer contributors.

After the law was passed, great The whole reduction would doubts were entertained, whether then be for the land-tax, its practical operation would not poll-tax,and tax on housebe baffled by the refusal of the

hold furniture, at 3 cents Francs. Cents. holders of rentes to any

5,457,464 5 consider

On the door and windowable amount to accept the newly- tax, at 6 cents per franc 768,747 98 created stock. Unfortunately for M. de Villèle, this scheme had

Total ..... 6,226,212 3 scarcely passed into a law, when This, therefore, was the scheme the aspect of the money market of reduction which the minister throughout Europe began to be recommended ; and which was somewhat unsettled; and, finally, adopted accordingly. the amount of rentes, which were Thus, the diminution which converted, was very limited. The France effected in the annual intotal amount of 5 per cents con

terest of her debt, and in the amount verted into 3 per cents of her taxation, was only about 30,574,116 francs of rentes, and the 250,000l.; and had the plan been amount of 3 per cents arising from delayed a few months longer, even this conversion was stock yielding this benefit could not have been 24,459,035 francs of yearly divi- gained ; for, before the end of the

. ,

per franc



year, the 3 per cent stock, which Another ministerial measure had been accepted at 75, fell as low which excited considerable interest, as 65 and 63; and even the 5 per especially in England, was a law cents fluctuated between 94 and 98. introduced for the punishment of

In opening the budget, M. de sacrilege, breathing a spirit of barVillèle gave a very flattering pic- barous bigotry worthy of the ture of the financial state of darkest age. This law first deFrance. The whole receipts of fined the crime which it sought to 1823 (the year of the Spanish coerce, in the following manner :war) including the loan, amounted “ The profanation of the sacred to 1,123,456,392 francs (or about utensils, and of the consecrated 45,000,000l. sterling), and the ex- wafers (hosties), is the crime of penditure to 1,118,025,162 francs, sacrilege. or about 200,000l. less. The whole Every overt act committed resources of 1824 amounted to voluntarily and through hatred or 992,333,953 francs (or about contempt of religion, on the sacred 39,693,3581.), and the whole ex- utensils or the consecrated wafers, penditure to 990,119,582 francs. is declared a profanation. The revenue for the current year “ There is legal proof of the was estimated at 928,000,000 francs consecration of the wafers, when (or a little more than 37 millions they are placed in the tribunals sterling), and the expenditure at or exposed in the ostensoir, and 926,500,000 francs of this sum. when the priest gives the comIn extending his view to the year munion or carries the viaticum to 1826, the minister estimated the the sick. national income at 924,095,704 “ There is legal proof of the francs (or 37,000,0001.), and the consecration of the pyx, the ostenexpenditure at 915,504,499 francs, soir, the patten, and of the chalice leaving an excess of the former employed in the ceremonies of reover the latter to the amount of ligion, at the moment of the com8,591,205 francs, or about 343,328l. mission of the crime. The expenses of the consolidated “ There is also legal proof of debt, and the sinking fund came the consecration of the ostensoir, to 241,585,785 francs; and the and of the



in the general expenses of the government tabernacle of the church. 672,918,714 francs.

Then came the denunciation of From a report made of the state the punishment. The profanaof the Caisse d'Amortissement, or

tion of the sacred utensils shall be Sinking Fund, it appeared that, punished with death. during the preceding six months, “The profanation of the conit had purchased 317,286 francs of secrated wafers shall be punished rentes, 5 per cents, which cost in the manner as parricide." 7,696,027 francs, 8 cents; and This horrible law passed the also 509,865 rentes at 3 per cent, Chamber of Deputies by a majority which cost 12,761,513 francs, 6 of 210 to 95; and, though the cents. The stock, of which it severity of the enactment was was in possession, amounted to somewhat mollified, there was in 37,579,972 francs of rentes, which its provisions, such as they were had cost, in all, 607,675,592 francs when it received the final sanction 61 cents.

of the legislature, no deviation

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of several persons.

from the principle on which it had clergy in France was strongly been framed: for the clauses de- proved by a very remarkable cire nouncing the punishment of sacri- cumstance-the difficulty of findlege were, ultimately, in the fol- ing recruits to fill up their numlowing form :

bers. From a return made of the The profanation of the sacred number of clerical places which vessels shall be punished with were vacant, and of the number of death, if it has been accompanied aspirants in the seminaries, it apbythe two following circumstances: peared, that the number of vacan

1st. If the sacred vessels con- cies was 14,085, and the number tained, at the moment of the crime, of pupils in the seminaries only the consecrated elements.

4,044; so that there was a defici“ 2nd. If the profanation is ency of more than 10,000 Catholic committed publicly—when it is priests. Besides this, the youth committed in a public place, and devoted to the ecclesiastical career presence

all belonged to the lowest rank of The profanation of the sacred society; they took orders only bevessels shall be punished by perpe- cause they had no other means of tual hard labour, when not accom- existence, and were educated for panied by one of the two circum- the church at the expense of the stances stated in the preceding public. On the other hand, as article.

many respectable, candidates as “ The profanation of the conse- were wanted always presented crated elements, committed pub- themselves to fill up vacancies licly, shall be punished with death. among the Protestant clergy. The execution shall be preceded Towards the latter end of the by the amende honorable of the year, the public interest was very condemned person before the prin- much excited, especially in Paris, cipal church of the place where by the legal proceedings which the the crime shall have been commit- ministry instituted against the two ted, or of the place where the best known and most esteemed Court of Assize sits.”

liberal journals, the Constitutionnel The following amendment was and the Courier Français, for alproposed by the count de Bastard, leged attacks on the church and and seconded by the viscount de the government of France. By Chateaubriand :

the last law on the press, the pub“The profanation of the sacred lic prosecutor in attacking a jourvessels is punished by hard labour nal is not bound to present any for a limited time.

specific article as containing the “ The profanation of the sacred libel, but may collect the political elements is punished by hard labour discussions of a whole year, and for life.”

ask the court to decide on their It was rejected by 108 votes tendency. If the Cour Royale against 104; and the entire law thinks that the tendency of the was adopted by the Chamber, by cited articles is anti-monarchical, majority of 127 to 92. The arch- anti-religious, anti-moral, or otherbishop of Paris and the bishop of wise blameable, it may suspend Hermopolis did not attend the dis- the publication of the accused cussions on this sanguinary law. journal for such a period as in

The low state of the Catholic its discretion it may think fit or



may decree its final suppression. phrases on serious subjects, yet the In the present case, the requisitoire, spirit resulting from those articles

, or information of the attorney- is not of a nature to cast a slur on general, Bellart, demanded the sus- the respect due to the religion of pension of the Constitutionnel and the state ; and likewise resolving, Courier Français for three months. that it is neither casting such Many of the passages which were slur, nor abusing the liberty of the specified as supporting the accusa- press, to discuss

and oppose the intion, were of the most frivolous troduction into the kingdom, of all kind. For instance, the following establishments not authorized by apparently very innocent statement the law; and that every paper has of an undeniable fact, was one of a right to point out such facts as the passages quoted from the Cou- are notoriously established as ofrier Français as subversive of the fensive to religion or morality, or religion of the state :-“The pe- such dangers and excesses as are tition of the Protestants of Nerac, likely to arise from a doctrine expelled from their church, was which would threaten the indelaid on the table of the Chamber pendence of the monarchy, the soof Deputies the day before yester- vereignty of the king, and the pubday by general Foy." The articles lic liberty, guaranteed by the Conselected from the Constitutionnel stitutional Charter, and by the as libels against the established declaration of the clergy of France church amounted to 34, and were in 1682, a declaration that has spread over a space of three months always been recognized and profrom the 1st of May to the 31st claimed the law of the countryof July. The following was one decree, that there is no cause foi of them : “ But while the schools pronouncing the required suspenof the Frères Ignorantins are es- sion, though we at the same time tablished and supported by means enjoin the editors of the Constiof taxes, pray allow Lancasterian tutionnel to be more circumspect. schools to subsist by voluntary con- The cause is therefore dismissed, tributions.”

free of expense to the defendants.” The prosecutions, though urged In the case of the Courier Frane with much vehemence, were un- çais, the judgment was in these successful. On the 3rd of Decem- terms:- The court, upon article ber, the Cour Royale pronounced 3 of the law of the 17th of March, their decision. In the case of the 1822, and the demand of the ProConstitutionnel, the judgment was cureur-general, considering that in the following words :- The the greater part of the articles obcourt, having considered the requi- jected to, inserted in the Courier, sition of the Procureur-general of although very blameable in their the king, dated the 30th of July, form, do not possess at bottom a 1825—having considered the 34 sufficient character to affect the reculpatory articles extracted from spect due to the religion of the the paper called the Constitutionnel, state; and that, although in fact and having considered the law of other articles do possess this chathe 17th of March, 1822, on the racter, yet they are by no means police of the journals, resolve, that, numerous, and have appeared under though many of the articles con- circumstances attended with mititain expressions and improper gation, such as the establishment

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