Sivut kuvina

Brazilian minister in the beginning tions were made by him for carry, of November ; and it was clear that ing on hostilities vigorously: and don Pedro could no longer retain in the mean time his naval squadron Monte Video, without involving occupied the river Plata, and estabhimself in a war with the new re- iished a blockade, which was duly public. From this war he did not notified to Great Britain and the seem disposed to shrink. Prepara- other powers.


ITALY.--Papal States-Censorship-Carbonari Naples New Con

vention concerning the Army of Occupation_Miraculous MadonnasThe IONIAN ISLANDS: Ecclesiastical Establishment- Abolition of feudal Tenures-TURKEY-Foreign RelationsInternal Disturbances--GREECE-Suppression of Colocotroni's Insurrection-Blockade of Patras-Preparations of the Turks-Disembarkations of the Egyptians-Siege of Navarino-Sphacteria taken-Old Navarino surrenders-Capitulation of Navarino-Naval success-Recall of Colocotroni-Military Operations in the Morea-Operations of Redschid Pacha--

Naval Skirmishes-Siege of Missolonghi - Naval Operations Unsuccessful attempt to burn the Turkish Fleet in the Port of Alexandria-Insurrection in CandiaProposal of the Greeks to place themselves under the Protection of Great Britain.

I a 'N N Italy all was tranquil. The their possession. Prohibited books Austrian government followed

were to be delivered to the public its usual routine; and in the Papal libraries, the inspectors of which states, the administration of Leo were to have a part of the fines 12th, though not distinguished by imposed on the transgressors of the any wondrous excess of bigotry, law. No private presses were to was, upon the whole, less liberal be allowed. than that of his predecessor. Asy- Considerable numbers of

persons iums were instituted for assassins were arrested at Rome on the in Ostia, and three other unhealthy charge of Carbonarism; and two towns. On the 18th of August, individuals were executed for an the law regulating the censorship atrocious murder, which seems to of the press was re-modelled. Ac- have been the result of political cording to the new scheme, a coun- cabals (See Chronicle, p. 160]. cil of revision, consisting of four These intrigues, however, do not members of each of the five colleges appear to have been of such of the university, was formed, for nature as to excite any serious the purpose of examining all works alarm. intended to be printed, and of ascer- The health of the Pope was taining that they contained nothing throughout the greater part of the which might lead to disputes with year in a very infirm, and somea foreign government. This coun. times in an alarming state. cil was also to revise all public inscriptions. All printers and book- Ferdinand, king of Naples, died sellers were to procure, within a of apoplexy on the 4th of January; month's time, licences to continue and was succeeded by his son. A their business, and were annually treaty was entered into between to deliver in a list of the prohibited the new sovereign and the

emperor books which they might have in of Austria, for the immediate dia


minution of the number of the be still further reduced, without Austrian troops in the kingdom of endangering the tranquillity of the Naples, and for the prolongation of kingdom, this corps was, at the dethe period of occupation by the re- sire of his Sicilian majesty, to be mainder, till the end of March, brought down to 12,000 men; and 1827. The preamble of the treaty the saving thence arising was to be stated that, according to the pre- to the advantage of the Neapolitan ceding convention, the number of treasury. the Austrian troops in the kingdom Events, which excited infinitely of the Two Sicilies was fixed at more interest in Naples, than any 33,500 men, and the evacuation of alterations in the political world, the kingdom was to take place by were the miraculous changes which the end of May, 1826; but that his were devoutly believed to have beSicilian majesty had considered, on fallen divers holy pictures of Mathe one hand, that the numerical donnas; some of them opening their strength of the Neapolitan army, eyes, or weeping, or shedding blood, and the degree of its organization, and others, from being black and dinwould probably render the support gy as they had long been, becoming of other troops necessary even after bright and fresh, as if they had rethat date ; and, on the other hand, cently come from the painter's hand. that the consolidation of tranquillity These miraculous tales were related in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies first of the Madonna of Caserta; and was so certain, that a diminution caused such a sensation in every of the auxiliary army might be part of Naples, that the interference effected ; and that the emperor of of the government became necesAustria had nothing more at heart sary, to suppress the disturbances, than to promote, in concert with and apprehend the supposed prohis allies, every measure which moters of the plot. On the 14th was calculated to accelerate the of July, a few weeks after the entire evacuation of the kingdom commencement of the frenzy, all of the Two Sicilies by the Austrian the lower orders of the city of troops. At the same time the state Naples were thrown into agitaof the finances would not allow his tion, by a report that a Madonna, Sicilian majesty to be at a greater painted at the corner of a dirty expense for the occupation, than lane, close to the strada di Toledo, was fixed by the convention of the had been seen to open her eyes, 31st of August, 1824; and the and to smile compassionately; and Austrian finances ought not to be towards noon, so great was the rush burdened with an additional charge, of mad fanatics towards the spot, in consequence of the prolongation that the police were obliged to of the period of occupation. It apply to the Austrian government was, therefore, agreed to reduce for troops. In the evening of the the troops to 15,000 men, so that same day, another Madonna endued the saving accruing from the dimi- 'with miraculous power was disnution of their number might covered in the street of Pennino cover the expense of the longer du- (a quarter inhabited by the lowest ration of the occupation. If the description of people); on the folnumerical state of the Neapolitan. lowing day two or three other awkarmy should be sufficiently increas- ward creations of some miserable ed to allow the auxiliary corps to wall-dauber were said to have given


signs of life and commiseration; “ No Ionian ecclesiastic can be and a respectable old priest was consecrated out of the Ionian states. nearly murdered by a mob, before “The government will fix the the altar, because he would not bounds of the parishes. give an attestation in writing, that “Every prelate is beund to he had seen a wooden crucifix sweat visit the churches of his diocess at blood. Such, alas ! were the peo

least once every three years. ple, on whom a military faction had “No prelate shall interfere in affected to force the blessing of matters belonging to the civil aufreedom: as if, forsooth, the first thorities. of blessings could either be enforced “ The prelates receive a fixed by the sword or be received by salary from the State. abject ignorance or superstition. “ Whenever it is intended to

Many of the persons, who had build a new church, the plan is to found it necessary to seek safety be laid before the government." in exile on account of their share The other articles related to the in the Neapolitan revolution, re- institution of the ecclesiastical triceived from the new sovereign bunals, the rights and duties of permission to return to their native vicars and curates, and the means country, and availed themselves of of carrying the provisions of the the indulgence. A considerable act into execution. number of those fugitives had Another most important law found an asylum in the Roman wrought a complete change in the states.

state of landed property. The

preamble stated, that “It being The administration of the Ionian one of the principal objects of the Islands was prosperous and tranquil

. government to encourage agriculOf the acts of the Ionian parlia- ture, and experience having demonment, the most important was that strated that one of the greatest imwhich settled the ecclesiastical ad- pediments to its progress is the ministration, and established the existence of property rendered inpower and the jurisdiction of the alienable by means of feudal rehierarchy of the orthodox Greek strictions, therefore, with a view to church. It consisted of 73 articles, put an end to this evil, increasing of which the following were the at the same time the prosperity of principal :

the state and of private persons, by “ The hierarchy consists of four the authority of his excellency the metropolitans, one archbishop, and president of the most illustrious two suffragans. Each of the metro- senate, with the assent and advice politans shall be invested in rotation of the most noble legislative aswith the dignity of exarch of the sembly of the Ionian islands, in the Greek Church during one session second session of the second parliaof the legislature.

ment, and with the approbation of “ The prelates can in no case his excellency the lord high commiscorrespond with a foreign power, sioner of the sovereign protector, it except through a governor-general. is ordained and enacted as follows."

“No prelate can, without per- The law itself, in seven articles, mission of the government, intro- provided for the abolition (partly duce into his diocess new regula- immediate and partly gradual) of tions in ecclesiastical matters. all feudal tenures or restrictions,


hindering or impeding the aliena- the head of affairs, broke out in an tion of landed property.

open insurrection, at the head of The relations between Turkey which were Colocotroni and his and Russia still continued on an sons, Niketas, Demetrius, and Niambiguous and critical footing: cholas Deliyanni, general Sessini, though no step towards bostilities Andrea Zaimi, Andrea Londo, and was taken on either side, and Giovanni, and Panageola Notapoabundant professions were made puolo. The government immeof a mutual desire to maintain diately called in the aid of the peace. An insult having been of- Roumeliots, two of whom, generals fered at Constantinople to the Izonga and Goura, aided by the Russian flag, Mr. Minziacky im- counsels and presence of John mediately demanded and obtained Coletti, member of the Executive satisfaction.

body, took command of their forces. Both the populace and the Jan- The Moreots carried on the civil issaries were in a state of great war with considerable spirit for fermentation. The discontent with some time, and proceeded even so the ministers was violent, and led far as to attempt the capture of to various changes in the adminis- Napoli di Romania; but at length, tration. In February, four ortas of after some delay and bloodshed, the Janissaries, in which signs of in- insurgents were dispersed, and the subordination had appeared, re- rebellion was quelled by the end ceived orders to proceed to Thessa- of the year. The leaders sought ly, and join the corps opposed to safety in flight: some of them were the Greeks; but they unanimously seized: others left the Morea, and refused to march. “We will not took refuge in Kalamos, an island march," said they, "till the heads appointed by the Ionian governof three of the sultan's ministers ment for the reception of Grecian have been delivered to us.” Some refugees. Some (and among these of the leaders in this insurrection

was Colocotroni) surrendered to were executed privately.

the government. The same vessel In April, Abdul Hamed, the son which brought Conduriotti from of the sultan, and the heir of the Hydra, to resume his functions of Ottoman throne, died of the small president of the Executive counsel pox. He was only fourteen years at Napoli di Romania, returned of age ; but the Janissaries had with the chiefs of the rebellion on formed, it was supposed, a project board; for the government had reof deposing his father, and placing solved to confine them in Hydra, him on the throne: and to them as that island was more remote from his death was a subject of regret. the scene of action, and less liable

to afford them occasions of creating During the winter, the Greeks fresh seditions. Accordingly, on had been occupied much more with the 18th of February, Colocotroni their own internal dissentions, than and his companions embarked on in making preparations to meet the board the Gorgo, and in a few days common enemy. To such a height landed at their destination; their did these dissentions arise, that, new asylum being the monastry of after the close of the campaign of St. Elias, on the craggy summit last year, the Moreots, dissatisfied of one of the wildest hills of Hydra. with the individuals who were at An extraordinary commission of

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