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UNITED STATES--Election of a President-Mr. Adams chosen by the

House of Representatives--His Inauguration-Discontent in Georgia -Opening of the Session of Congress-MexicO---Opening of the Constitutional Federal Congress - Speech of the President - The FinancesT'reaty with Great Britain-Close of the Session of Congress-Extraordinary Session of the CongressSurrender of two Spanish Ships of War-Surrender of the Castle of Juan de Ulloa GUATEMALA-Election of a President-Expenditure-COLOMBIA Peru— Military Operations-Battle of AyacuchoCapitulation of Conterac--Resistance of Callao-Olaneta defeated and slain-Independence of Upper Peru-Conduct of Bolivar UNITED PROVINCES OF RIO DE LA PLATA-Constituent Congress-Executive AuthorityDisturbances at Cordova, Mendoza, and San Juan--Proceedings at Tarija-Intended General Congress at Panama-Deliberations on that subject--PARAGUAY-CHILE--Plots.Convention of a Constituent Congress-DisturbancesState of the Finances. IN N the United States, the public number of votes, the election, for

attention was occupied by the the second time in American election of a President more than history, devolved upon the house by any other event. The candi- of representatives : * who in this dates were John Quincy Adams, case vote by ballot, the delegation secretary of state ; Mr. Clay, speak- of each state having one vote. Mr. er of the house of representatives; Clay, it was understood, transferred Mr. Crawford, secretary of the his votes to Mr. Adams, upon an treasury;, and general Jackson, agreement, that, if Mr. Adams obdistinguished by the cheap renown tained the presidency, Mr. Clay of being the only American gene- should be secretary of state ; and ral, who, in the last war, had been by this 'union of strength, Mr. engaged with British troops, and Adams was enabled to triumph. yet had escaped the disgrace of The 9th of February was the day total defeat. "The first was sup- appointed for the determination of ported strenuously by the New the contest : and, contrary to all England states ; the second, by the previous expectation, the election Western states; the third, by Vir- was decided by the first balloting, ginia ; and the fourth, by the states Mr. Adams having received the of the South. Electors being chosen votes of thirteen states, general by the different states, their votes Jackson the votes of seven, and Mr.' were returned to congress, when Crawford the votes of four. The the numbers were found to be as states who voted for Mr. Adams, follows: - For general Jackson, were -Maine, New Hampshire, 101 ; Mr. Adams, 82; Mr. Craw

* The former instance in which this ford, 41 ; Mr. Clay, 37. As no one candidate had obtained the happened, was in the election of 1801,

when the electoral votes were 73 for Mr. requisite majority of the whole Jefferson, and 73 for Mr. Burr,


Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- sentatives, followed by the exnecticut, Vermont, New York, president and family, by the judges Maryland, Ohio, Kentucky, Illic of the supreme court, in their robes nois, Missouri, Louisiana : for of office, and by the members of general Jackson, New Jersey the senate, Mr. Adams, in a Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Ten- plain suit of black, advanced to nessee, Alabama, Mississippi, In- the speaker's chair, and took his diana : for Mr. Crawford --Dela- seat. The chief justice was placed ware, Virginia, North Carolina, in front of the clerks' table, having Georgia.

before him another table, on the The division in the different floor of the hall, on the opposite colleges was very unequal. In the side of which sat the remaining New York college, for example, judges, with their faces towards the Mr. Adams received 18 votes, Mr. chair. Silence having been proCrawford 14, and general Jackson claimed, Mr. Adams rose, and read, 2. In the Kentucky college, Mr. with a clear and deliberate articuAdams received 8, general Jackson lation, his inaugural address, (see 4: in Ohio, Mr. Adams had 10, Public Documents p. 109*]. As general Jackson 2, Mr. Crawford soon as the last sentence was pro2. In the Maryland college, Mr. nounced, a general plaudit throughAdams received' 5 out of 9 votes. out the whole assembly continued In the North Carolina college, for some minutes. The president Mr. Crawford received 10, general elect then descended from the Jackson 2, and Mr. Adams 1 vote. * chair, and placing himself on the

As Jackson counted among his right hand of the judges' table, partisans the whole rabble of the received from the chief justice a country, their rage at their defeat volume of the laws of the United was extreme ; and it was the more States, from which he read, in a violent, because their candidate had loud and clear voice, the oath of unquestionably a vast majority of office: the close of which was the people on his side, and must followed by repeated plaudits, and have succeeded, if the choice had by the discharge of a salute of been by the direct votes of the artillery. Congratulations poured electors.

in from every side; and general On the 4th of March, the Jackson was among the first of inauguration of Mr. Adams took those who took the hand of the place. Preceded by the vice-presi- president. dent Mr. Calhoun, with a number A convention made with Colomof members of the House of Repre- bia relative to the slave trade, * The following statement purports to exhibit the relative popularity of the two

prominent candidates for the Presidency :Number of votes, as far as ascertained, taken in all the States ... 150,800 98,169 Number of electors chosen ...................................................... Number of electors chosen by the people Number of States which have given full electoral votes for each Number of Slates which have given a majority of electorial votes

for each Number of States by which the second choice of the people has

been expressed, by their votes for electors, and other unequi

'vocal evidence Number of States preferring each




84 48 6



4. 15

1 9

shared the same fate as the treaty the attention of the House of Reprea with Great Britain had experienced sentatives to the disposition, which in the preceding year. Being laid latterly had so often evinced itself before the senate for rejection or in the different branches of the approval, the first article of the general government, to control the treaty (giving the mutual right of domestic affairs, and to intermeddle search on the seas and coasts of with and to endanger the peace, Africa and the West Indies) was repose, and union of the southern struck out by a vote of 28 to 12: states. The House of Representathe treaty was rejected unanime tives referred the subject to a comously.

mittee, who soon afterwards preThe state of Georgia and the sented a very vehement and blusCreek nation of Indians mutually tering report. “The hour," they claim certain lands in the neigh- said, “is come, or is rapidly apbourhood of that province. Of proaching, when the states from these the state had long sought to Virginia to Georgia, from Missouri possess itself; but the general to Louisiana, must confederate, and government of the United States as one man say to the Union, "We had refused to allow Georgia to will no longer submit our constituacquire them otherwise than by tional rights to bad men in congress amicable negotiation. A short or on judicial benches—we disclaim time since, a pretended cession of the principle of unlimited submisthe disputed territory was procured sion to the general government." from M'Intosh, one of the chiefs; The powers necessary to the probut soon afterwards the other tection of the confederated States chiefs of the Creek Indians assem- from enemies without,' and from bled together, and (as they urge, enemies within, alone were conaccording to the custom of their fided to the United government; tribes) put him to death for exe- all others were retained to the cuting such an instrument without several states separate and sovethe assent, previously obtained, of reign. The states of the south the majority of the chiefs of the will convey their products to the nation. Under these circumstances, markets of the world. The world the governor of Georgia contended will open wide its arms to receive that, the cession having been made, them. Let our northern brethren, the general government of the then, if there is no peace in union, United States had no further right if the compact has become too of interference ; whilst the latter heavy to be longer borne, in the insisted, that it was their duty and name of all the mercies find peace their right to ascertain whether among themselves. Let them conthe act was by Indian custom legal, tinue to rejoice in their self-righteor whether the rest of the chiefs of ousness, let them bask in their own the Creek nation refused to con- meridian, while they depict the firm the transfer. This conduct South as a hideous reverse. As on the part of the government, and Athens, as Sparta, as Rome was, the steps which had been taken or we will be: they held slaves, we were in contemplation relative to hold them. In the simplicity of slavery, produced high displeasure the patriarchal government, we in the provincial authorities; and would still remain master and the governor, in a message, called seryant, under our own vine, and



our own fig-tree, and confide for Augmentation of Naval Force 500,000 safety upon Him, who, of old time Purchase of Indian Territory 500,000

Roads and other Improvelooked down upon this state of

1,000,000 things without wrath.” The report Interestof the National Debt 4,000,000 concluded by recommending the General Expenses of Goadoption of two resolutions, one of vernment

7,000,000 which declared “that, having ex

24,000,000 hausted the argument, we will stand by our arms, and for the So that, though eight million dolsupport of this determination we lars of debt had been paid off, only mutually pledge to each other our two of these had been raised by lives, our fortunes, and our sacred loan: consequently, the revenue honour." The other resolution had afforded a surplus of six recommended that the first should million dollars applied in extinction be forwarded to the Executive of of debt; and, at the same rate, the each state in the Union, to be laid whole remainingdebtof 81,000,000 before their representatives, and dollars, would be paid off in thirteen that the senators and representa- years and a half. The commutives of Georgia, should be required nications by post in the United to co-operate in thwarting obnox- States were very extensive ; and ious measures of the government. yet, in this year, the Post Office This was ominous language ; but it establishment (for the first time) proved to be mere sound and fury, produced a surplus receipt of and was followed by no result. 45,000 dollars.

In December, the first session of After praising the organization the nineteenth congress was opened. and discipline of the army, and The message of Mr. Quincy Adams the new military academy and to the congress on this occasion, had artillery school, he passed to the nothing to distinguish it from the treaties with the Indian tribes, and usual character of that class of com- to the surveys which had been positions. After mentioning some of made with a view to opening new the foreign relations of the Union, communications in the interior. and noticing particularly that the The navy next attracted the preUnited States had been invited to sident's attention; and he dilated send representatives to the congress upon the employment of the cruisof the South American republics ing squadrons in the Mediterranean about to be assembled at Panama, and Pacific seas, and on their and had accepted the invitation; activity in the suppression of the he proceeded to treat of the inter- slave trade and of piracy. nal concerns of the republic; and

The remainder of the message gave the following view of the evinced a very laudable zeal in the American finances:

cause of science. It spoke with

applause of “ the generous emulaReceipt (independently of

tion with which the governments Loans)

22,000,000 of France, Great Britain, and

Russia have devoted the genius, Expenditure.

the intelligence, and the treasures Debt paid off..

8,000,000 of their respective nations to Remunerations for past services

the common improvement of the New Fortifications erected 1,500,000 species” in geography and astrono



my, and held those governments “ It is not necessary, gentlemen, up as splendid examples to be for the confusion of the enemies followed in this respect by the of the people, to lead them to the American legislature. Mr. Adams ruins of Carthage, to call up the refurther quoted the examples of membrance of free Rome, or to open England and France, in their the annals of that Greece whose scientific improvement of weights literature, noble arts, and sublime and measures, suggested the endow. philosophy, gave a beginning to ment of a university, and the con- institutions which have been adstruction of an observatory, and re- mired through all ages. No! Amecommended certain enlargements of rica, our adored country, raising the executive and judiciary depart- her head above ancient days, has ments, as required by the great in- resolved the problem which most crease of population, and the wide interests the human race, and has ramifications of foreign intercourse. torn aside the veils which covered

the origin, the end, and the object On the 1st day of January, the of power. first meeting of the congress of The profound legislator of Mexico, under the constitution Carolina, and William Penn, the adopted

in the preceding year, was friend of man, planted in the virheld. The speech, which the pre- gin soil of America the precious sident of the republic then addressed seeds of civil liberty, which, cultito the senators and deputies, was in vated with care by Washington a style and spirit very different and Franklin, are now deposited, from that of Mr. Adams's mes- with the fruits which they pro

“Gentlemen," he began duced, in this capital, which dewith stating, “It cannot be doubt- rived its wisdom from the banks ed, though some have affected to of the Potomac ; from thence shoot do so, whether modern societies desolating beams upon despotismestablished for the liberty of man, and from thence arises the geneare the necessary results of just and ration of sovereign nations. How beneficial ideas; or whether they great is the glory of the New exist momentarily, through the World ! How elevated the granscandalous subversion of principles, deur of its destinies !" and the tumultuous progress of It is melancholy to think, how the passions. The partisans of su- low in point of intellect that leperannuated tyranny-those who gislative assembly must be, to from the region of the clouds draw whose ears such rhapsodies and down compacts and obligations nonsense can be acceptable. The refuse to acknowledge the legiti- only parts of the speech which macy and vigour of those govern- touched upon the state of the ments which have originated with country, were these : the sovereign people. According

“ The high

attributes with to them, individuals in free nations which the law and the will of my possess neither restraint nor gua- fellow citizens have invested me, rantees. They mutually assault as the depositary of the Executive each other, and in this bloody con- power, have put me in the happy test, cruelty and the remorseless situation of employing them all for anger of factionsannihilate the hope their benefit: and a glance on the of any regular system of legislation. state and progress of affairs, will


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