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21 knots they could scarcely go 14. The Japanese loss of life was 10 officers and 30 men; the wounded numbered 160.

Invasion of Manchuria.-After the capture of Ping Yang and the whole of the effective Chinese force in Korea, a flying column pushed forward to secure the passes preparatory to an onward march into Chinese territory. The passage through the mountains with field guns was difficult. When the advanced guard reached Wiju they found it defended by 2,000 Chinese, who were expelled after a short fight. Gen. Sung Kwei had posted along the Yalu about 15,000 troops, and held a reserve of 6,000 in the walled city of Kiu Lien Cheng. The key to the position on the Yalu was Hu Shan, where about 6,000 men were posted behind intrenchments, with parapets from 8 to 12 feet high, mounted with nearly 100 guns. The Japanese, 17,000 strong, attacked at daylight on Oct. 25 in 6 divisions, of which 1-the artillery-shelled Hu Shan throughout the battle, 1 forded the river at Suiken Chan and moved down the northern bank, 1 attacked in front, and 3 executed a flank movement on the left. The combinations were carried out with precision, and in a few hours Hu Shan was carried, the Japanese losing only 33 killed and 112 wounded, while the Chinese left 700 dead on the field and retreated precipitately to Chin Lien, 30 miles west of the Yalu, on the high road to Mukden. All the Chinese had evacuated Korea, and at Kiu Lien Cheng Gen. Sung endeavored to stop the Japanese advance, but could not keep his raw and terror-stricken troops together. The Chinese fled after a slight resistance when attacked by Marshal Yamagata's army before dawn on Oct. 26, leaving behind 30 large guns and a great store of rice and other food. There were 200 Chinese killed and 20 Japanese. Another stand was made at Feng Huang Cheng.

When Gen. Nodzu advanced upon Feng Huang Cheng, on Oct. 28, the Chinese attempted a defense, which speedily collapsed before the superior tactics and marksmanship of the Japanese. They set fire to the citadel before their flight. The inhabitants of Manchuria, plundered and oppressed as they had been by the Chinese soldiery, welcomed the Japanese invaders, who paid liberally for supplies and services. The undisciplined Manchu braves fled before the flying columns of the Japanese into the mountains, where many perished from cold and starvation, or to Chifu and other Chinese cities, arriving in bands of 50 or more and spreading consternation among the people. Lieut.-Gen. Knei Hsiang, father of the Empress Consort, who assumed the direction of the defense of Manchuria, hurried troops to the front to take the place of the deserters, but they were like the rest, untrained, poorly equipped, insufficiently fed, and unwilling to fight without receiving their pay, which was several months in arrears. The best troops were retained to defend the province of Pechili and Mukden, the sacred Manchu capital. The Japanese had almost denuded Korea of their troops when their army advanced into Manchuria, but the reserves were mobilized and sent to Korea to hold the country, repress the Tong Haks, and support the invading army.

The Chinese troops, on retreating from Kiu

lien Cheng and Feng Huang Cheng, separated into 2 divisions, 1 of which was held together by Gen. Tsao, who conducted it along the Mukden road to the town of Motien Ling, where he fortified the passes in the mountains. The greater part of the troops were thrown westward toward New Chang, some holding together and some breaking up completely. Gen. Nodzu separated his force into 2 divisions. The right division routed a body of cavalry and occupied Lien Dan pass, whence it advanced upon Motien Ling, which is 65 miles north of Feng Huang Cheng. The left division occupied Taku Shan, and thence marched upon Siuyen, where Gen. Ma was encamped with 20,000 Chinese. The advanced guard under Gen. Oseko began an attack at daylight on Nov. 11, and the Chinese evacuated the place and retired to Hia Ching, leaving 5 guns. The Taking of Port Arthur.-Early in September the Japanese seized a small island in Society Bay, 40 miles northwest of Port Arthur, and landed there a strong force of troops and arms, ammunition, and provisions in quantities, as if preparatory to a siege of the Chinese naval arsenal. Near the end of the month an army of 30,000 men was collected at Hiroshima, where the Emperor had established his headquarters as commander-in-chief. This army embarked on 38 transports, and sailed on Oct. 23, under the escort of the fleet. On Oct. 26 a landing was effected without opposition at Honen Ku, 85 miles northeast of Port Arthur, the force consisting of 20,000 men, under Marshal Count Oyama, who was released from his functions as Minister of War in order to take command of the second army. On Nov. 4 the fortifications at Kinchow were carried by the Japanese, the Chinese garrison of 1,500 men making only a feeble resistance. The batteries of the fort were badly served, and as soon as the outer works were taken the defenders fled in a panic, abandoning their guns, flags, and stores. they retreated toward Port Arthur they were mistaken for the enemy by the Chinese in the other forts, and several hundred were shot. On the next day the six forts at Talien Wan were bombarded, and on Nov. 6 the place was attacked from the rear, and the works were carried with a rush, the garrison of 3,180 infantry running away after firing a few shots-throwing down their firearms, drums, and standards as they fled toward Port Arthur. The Japanese war ships were in the bay prepared for action, and the Chinese, expecting the attack from the sea, were surprised on the land side. A Chinese vessel appeared outside, but steamed away to Wei Hai Wei, afraid of being attacked by the Japanese ships. The Japanese captured 6 torpedo boats in the harbor, and seized the torpedoes that had been laid for the defense of the place. The commandant of Port Arthur had gone to Tientsin to ask for re-enforcements, as his force of 15,000 men was unreliable. Prince Kung, who after several years' retirement had been recalled to Pekin and placed in charge of the imperial preparations for defense, first as Viceroy Li's coadjutor and afterward with supreme power, sent him back with 2,000 additional troops. Gen. Oyama advanced his lines toward Port Arthur very slowly, as he could not use the roads because every approach except in


the rough hills was mined with dynamite and underground electric wires. The Japanese cavalry encountered the Chinese outposts on Nov. 18, and, supported by the infantry, captured the village of Shuiz Ying on Nov. 19, and at noon on Nov. 20 the attack on the fortress began. The artillery went ahead and the Japanese fleet co-operated in the attack on the forts along the bay, the large ships moving in line ahead, while gunboats close inshore were shelling the Chinese lines. The Chinese line fell back before the combined attack, abandoning one position after another. The naval attack was at every point simultaneous with the land attack, and while the ships kept out of range it prevented the heavy guns of the coast batteries from being used against the attacking column. The land defenses, which had been left very incomplete previous to the Japanese investment, were strengthened by 100 new guns, and the Chinese gunners at Hokinsan and other forts served the Krupp guns skillfully. The Japanese kept up a heavy fire with their field artillery, machine guns, and infantry, and when each fort was taken the cavalry cut off the retreat of the garrison. The Chinese made a sortie in three columns, and, supported by the forts, brought the advanced guard of the Japanese to a stand, until after several hours of fighting the artillery came up, and the infantry put the 2,000 Chinese to flight. When the Japanese came up to the line of forts the artillery went in advance, and was admirably placed and well served. In the morning of Nov. 21 three forts on a high hill were silenced after two and a half hours' bombardment, and the position was then carried by assault. The 8 other ports on the land side were taken soon after noon, though the Chinese poured shot and shell upon the assailants from 50 guns. The cruisers created a diversion by shelling the town from both sides of the peninsula; and the torpedo boats, just as the final assault was made, dashed into the harbor and plied their machine and rapidfiring guns upon the water forts, driving the gunners from the 50-ton guns, who fired 15 rounds, but hit neither the cruisers nor the torpedo boats. The sea forts were taken in the morning of Nov. 22. The Chinese generals escaped early, and the troops, utterly demoralized, fled in disorder eastward, while the gunboats and cruisers threw shells among them. The inhabitants of the town, who had been armed with express rifles, fired on the Japanese after they entered the town, and many people were killed by the angry soldiers who stormed the houses. About 18,000 troops were engaged on each side in the final battle. On the Japanese side 250 were killed and wounded, and on the Chinese 2,000, most of whom were killed in the cannonading during the night of Nov. 20. The victorious army captured in Port Arthur an enormous quantity of rice, and 10,000 tons of coal. The dockyard, dry dock, and arsenal were in perfect working order. They took 80 guns and much ammunition and great quantities of torpedoes, and material and apparatus for making torpedoes. Two small steamers that attempted to steal out of the harbor during the progress of the battle were stopped by the Japanese. Finding some of the vessels that had been dis

abled in the Yalu fight undergoing repairs in the docks, they completed the work and fitted them out for their own use. Proofs were found that some of the provincial authorities, if not the Central Government, had offered rewards for heads and members lopped off from Japanese corpses, which accounted for horrible mutilations that were discovered at Ping Yang. The Chinese fleet did nothing for the defense of Port Arthur. The "Chen Yuen," the remaining first-class battle ship, started out from Wei Hai Wei on Nov. 18 for the purpose of rendering assistance, but before getting out of the harbor she accidentally ran upon one of the sunken torpedoes. Her commander, Commodore Lin, who had won honors by his gallantry in the Yalu fight. ran his vessel upon the beach to save her from sinking, and then committed suicide, anticipating the fate of Capt. Fong and of Gen. Wei, who were decapitated for cowardice at the battle of Ping Yang.

During the attack on Port Arthur a large body of Chinese from Foochow attacked the Japanese position at Kinchow, but were repelled with heavy losses by the Japanese garrison there, which lost 20 killed and 60 wounded. (For later events of the war, see JAPAN.)

Anti-foreign Outrages. The excitement produced among the ignorant rabble in the parts of the country affected by the Japanese invasion, and the anarchy and rapine incident to the dispersion or desertion of bodies of soldiers, rendered the lives of European missionaries and others in such regions insecure. The Protestant missionaries fled from Manchuria after several outrages had occurred, but the Catholic fathers remained at their posts. A French missionary was murdered in Korea, near Gensan, after the landing of the Japanese there. The Chinese military authorities were suspected of having instigated the crime on the supposition that he was a spy. The United States minister in China warned all American citizens in the interior of China to go to the treaty ports, otherwise the United States would not undertake to protect them. In Pekin foreigners could not walk abroad without being insulted by the populace. The United States representative called for a guard to protect the legation, and 50 marines were sent from one of the American war vessels. Other countries also sent blue-jackets to protect their legations. Early in the war the four great powers made an agreement that their forces should protect each other's citizens or unite for common defense if necessary. James Wylie, a Scotch missionary in Manchuria, was murdered by soldiers who were passing through Sine Yang, The commander of the soldiers was condemned to death.

Punishment of Spies.-After the declaration of war the Japanese Government issued a proclamation granting Chinamen living in Japan liberty to remain in the places where they were domiciled and to pursue their occupations on condition of their registering their names. Some outrages were committed against Chinese in Japan, but they were stopped by the police. In China the United States consular representatives were kept busy protecting Japanese from the fury of mobs and the persecution of the local authorities. There were Japanese spies in the

country, some of them holding official posts or working in the arsenals when the war broke out. The American consul-general, T. R. Jernigan, warned Japanese that they must not wear queues or Chinese costume if they desired him to save them from mob violence or judicial punishment. Those who wore Japanese or European dress were maltreated everywhere except in the foreign concession at Shanghai, and all who could leave the country or take refuge in Shanghai did so. The extra-territorial jurisdiction of China and Japan in each other's territory was annulled by the declaration of war, and not transferred to the United States diplomatic authorities, who undertook to watch over the interests of the citizens of both countries. The consul-general subsequently, when the European inhabitants of Shanghai feared for their own lives and had organized a volunteer military guard to protect them, begged the Japanese who remained to depart from China, lest their presence should invite an attack upon the European quarter. When the French steamer "Sydney' touched at Kobe, Japan, she was boarded by naval officers, who arrested John Wild, an American inventor, a Scotch torpedo expert named Cameron, and Chang Fan Moore, who had been an interpreter for the Chinese legation at Washington. The Japanese political police had obtained information tending to prove that the Chinese agent had hired the others to blow up the Japanese navy with dynamite, and he was kept a prisoner, while they were eventually turned over to the American authorities and released. Two Japanese in Shanghai, against whom warrants were issued as spies, took refuge at the French consulate, and when the Chinese police demanded their surrender the French consul at their request handed them over to the American consul-general. Consul-General Jernigan refused to deliver them up on the taotai's demand before consulting the authorities at Washington. There was evidence that they were spies, and not students, as they pretended to be, in the fact that they wore Chinese clothing and were older men than students usually are, and direct incriminating evidence was found, when they were searched at the French consulate, consisting of numerous dispatches that had been sent to the Japanese Government, and in drawings of Chinese fortifications sewed in the lining of the jacket of one of them. Secretary Gresham informed the consul-general that international law required their surrender. Meanwhile Mr. Jernigan had secured a promise that their case should not be finally disposed of until Minister Denby arrived from the Chinese minister. The men were surrendered to the Viceroy Liu Kun Yih, who would not acknowledge that the promise of Tsungli-Yamen had binding force over him, and it was reported that they were subjected to horrible inquisitorial tortures and then decapitated at Nankin.

Peace Negotiations.-The Pekin Government and the Viceroy of Pechili found no support in other parts of the country for the war into which they had plunged. Except where the people were directly affected, the farmers, merchants, and tradespeople knew little and cared nothing about the war. They despised the Japanese as a puny and semibarbarous race,

and were indifferent to the danger that threatened the Pekin Government and the Manchu dynasty. There was no patriotic response to calls for troops or money, as there was in Japan, where a loan of 50,000,000 yen was subscribed for twice over, and a great war fund and contributions of every kind were given voluntarily by the people of all classes. The Japanese Diet appropriated 150,000,000 yen, and authorized an additional loan of 100,000,000 yen. The Chinese Government increased the likin duties and raised 10,000,000 taels in Europe, and subsequently they invited proposals for a loan of £10,000,000 sterling. Li-Hung-Chang continued his efforts to obtain the diplomatic or military intervention of other powers. On Nov. 6, the Chinese Government having again asked the Government of the United States to act as intermediary, the American minister at Tokio informed the Mikado's minister that China was willing to make peace, and would consent to the independence of Korea and pay a war indemnity equivalent to the expenses that Japan had incurred, the sum to be determined by the arbitration of the President of the United States. The Japanese Government replied that it would only consider definite proposals emanating direct from the Government at Pekin. Commissioner of Customs Dietering, a European, was dispatched by Li-Hung-Chang to Hiroshima to discuss terms of peace; but the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs refused to receive him, as he had no credentials from the Tsungli-Yamen.

CHRISTIAN CONVENTION. The Quadrennial General Convention of the American Christian Connection was held in Haverhill, Mass., in October. The convention represents a body of churches that originated in 1792 and 1793 independently in New England, North Carolina, and Kentucky, taking the name of Christian as a protest against sectarian divisions. Rejecting all formulations of creeds and avoiding all theological terms, they hold, in language quoted from the Scriptures, that Jesus Christ was the Son of God, in the beginning with God, by whom all things were made, and who is the object of their adoration; and that the Holy Spirit bears the same relation to God as the spirit of man does to man. Their newspaper organ, the "Herald of Gospel Liberty," Dayton, Ohio, is the oldest religious newspaper in the United States. They number 115,000 members.

The principal subject considered at the convention concerned propositions respecting union with the Congregationalists, Free Baptists, and other denominations. The question of alliance or union with the Free Baptists has been agitated for several years. That of alliance with the Congregationalists was made vital by the action of the New Jersey Congregational Conference in April, 1894, looking toward union with the Christians and Free Baptists (see article CONGREGATIONALISTS), a part of which was the appointment of a committee to attend the New Jersey Christian Conference. This body responded with a proposition for co-operation in Christian labor under the direction of a federal commission appointed by both the Congregationalists and Christians of New Jersey. The Congregational Conference proposed a modification of this proposition. The subject was

brought before the convention in the presentation of the Congregationalist proposition, and also in the report of the Convention's Standing Committee on Christian Union. After discussion and the consideration of amendments to the report of the committee a paper was unanimously adopted, of which the following are the most important points:

Our action should not limit itself to the members of any one body. Any Christian or body of Christians who will meet us, as we would meet them, to devise measures for interdenominational and interChristian fraternization and co-operation for Gospel work shall have a sincere welcome. We hold and avow ourselves ready to work together with any body on conditions simply Christian for simply Christian ends. Your committee would therefore recommend that this convention express itself in the adoption of

the following resolutions:

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Whereas, We are in favor of any practical measures which promise greater good for Christ through wider co-operation among his disciples: therefore, Resolved, That the American Christian Convention approve the formation of a co-operative union between the Christians and the Congregationalists, or any other denomination seeking such union, or between the Christians and any one of the others; it being understood that the co-operating bodies are in parity of Christian standing, and that the co-operative union is not based upon doctrinal tests.

Resolved, That the Christian bodies entering such co-operative union are to have common interest in spreading the Gospel, and are to labor for the promotion of the contmon welfare, but that its work is to be conducted without detriment to any institutions as at present constituted, such as churches, conferences, conventions, associations, publishing houses, mission boards, colleges, and theological seminaries, and without impairing the vigorous prosecution of existing


Resolved, That members of churches within such co-operative union, on change of residence to a community unprovided with a church of their own people, be encouraged to join some church within the co-operating bodies in preference to any other.

Resolved, That should any ministers who are members of any of the co-operating bodies accept calls from any churches of any of the other bodies, their names may be held on the lists of members of their own bodies while in good standing and remaining within the union, provided that their names should not stand on corresponding lists of two bodies.

Resolved, That we advise the appointment by this convention of a commission of 12 members to act in concert with similar commissions of other bodies on all matters pertaining to the interests involved.

Resolved, That in any action of the commissions the vote of one third of the members present representing any one body shall negative the action proposed so far as our body is concerned.

Resolved, That this body approves the taking of similar action by State associations or conferences or other subordinate bodies, but that all action may be subject to revision by the national bodies represented in any co-operative union.

Resolved. That it is the opinion and sentiment of

this convention that the ultimate ideal of Christian union is the union of all the followers of Christ in

one body, in an organic union, inspired with the

spirit of the Master, existing and acting with single reference to carrying on his work, building up his kingdom, and bringing the world to Christ; and we would encourage and co-operate with any and all measures looking to this end.

CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR, UNITED SOCIETY OF. The thirteenth International Convention of the United Society of Christian Endeavor was held at Cleveland, Ohio, in July. The secretary's report showed that the whole number of societies, now given as 33,679, had increased by 7,305 during the year, the largest absolute gain having been made in England. Of these societies, 28,696 were in the United States, 2,243 in Canada, and 2,740 in foreign lands. The foreign societies include 1,357 in England, 58 in Scotland, 38 in Ireland, 834 in Australia, 72 in India. 59 in Japan, 44 in the West Indies, 38 in Turkey, 23 in China, 25 in Africa, 30 in Madagascar, besides societies in other heathen countries and islands where Protestant missions have been established, and in France, Spain, Mexico, Brazil, and Chili, the whole number representing an aggregate of more than two million members. In addition to these societies, 6,809 junior organizations were returned, of which 247 were in Canada and 91 in foreign lands, and which numbered in all 365,000 members. Thirty-two “evangelical" denominations were represented in the societies, of which the Presbyterians had the largest number, and were followed in the United States, in order, by the Congregationalists, Baptists, Disciples of Christ and Christians, Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist Protestants, Lutherans, Cumberland Presbyterians, and other denominations; in Canada the Presbyterians were followed by the Methodists, Baptists, and Congregationalists. In England, the Baptists were in the lead, and after them were the Congregationalists, the various Methodist bodies,

and the Presbyterians. Local unions of societies had been formed in many cities, of which those in St. Louis, Boston, Brooklyn, Baltimore, Cleveland, London (England), New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia included from more than

one hundred to more than four hundred individual societies each. Fifty-five hundred and fifty-two societies had contributed more than ten dollars each to the home or foreign missionary boards of the denominations to which they were severally attached, the whole amount of contributions of this kind being $138,206; and besides this, $185,512 had been given by them in other ways to religious purposes. One hundred and thirty-eight thousand six hundred and thirty members of the societies had joined the church during the past twelve months.

CITIES, AMERICAN, RECENT GROWTH OF. This subject has been treated in every volThe total number of cities described, including ume of the "Annual Cyclopædia" since 1886. those in this volume, is 445.

Belleville, a city of Illinois, the county seat of St. Clair County, in the western part of the State, 15 miles southeast of St. Louis and 110 from Springfield. It is on high ground, which affords excellent natural drainage, and has a thorough sewerage system. It lies in the midst of a fertile agricultural country, with inexhaustible coal fields adjacent. It is reached by four lines of railroad-the Louisville and Nashville,

the Cairo Short Line. the Louisville, Evansville and St. Louis, and the Belleville and East Carondelet. In 1880 it had a population of 10,683, which increased to 15,361 in 1890. The water works were erected in 1885 at a cost of $175,000, and since 1890 $35,000 have been spent in improving the plant. Three large storage reservoirs or lakes, with a combined capacity of 230,000,000 gallons, are connected by cast-iron pipes with the basin at the pump house. Two Worthington compound duplex pumps, with a capacity of 2,500,000 gallons daily, force the supply, after it has passed through 4 Hyatt filters, to a standpipe 45 feet in circumference and 120 feet high on a hill higher than the highest point in the city. The streets and driveways of Belleville are well paved, and away from the principal business thoroughfares they are lined with handsome shade trees. Brick is used almost exclusively for the houses, and there are many beautiful lawns and gardens in the residence portion of the city. There are efficient fire and police departments, and gas and electric lighting are in use. There are 4 miles of street railway, an opera house, and 2 banks, one of which is national, with a capital of $150,000, and the other is a savings institution. Three daily newspapers are published-1 in English and 2 in German-and there are 4 weeklies. The city has a hospital, and a public library contained in the fine city hall. The various religious denominations are represented, and there is a Catholic cathedral and a handsome bishop's residence. In 1889 there were 6 public-school buildings, and 49 teachers were employed, while 2,440 pupils were enrolled. In 1892 an addition costing $40,000 was built in the rear of the old courthouse. Belleville claims to be the most important nail-manufacturing center west of Wheeling, W. Va. Two nail works gave employment to 1,100 men and boys in 1893, and produced 2,100 kegs of nails daily in addition to the output of an older establishment. There are brass works, large foundries, several stove works, 3 brickyards, 1 of which employs 60 men and manufactures 60,000 bricks daily, while the output of the 2 other firms is 12,000,000 yearly each; pump and skein works turning out all kinds of machinery and implements for mining; castoroil works, with a capacity of 20 barrels a day; glass works, employing 250 men; a creamery, lumber yards, marble works, and a keg factory. The city has an altitude of 527 feet above the


Bismarck, a city of North Dakota, capital of the State, and county seat of Burleigh County, on the east bank of Missouri river, surrounded on the south and east by meadow and on the north by rolling prairie. It was incorporated in January, 1875, and was named after the great chancellor of the empire when the bankers of Germany made extensive investments in the Northern Pacific Railroad. The capital was located here in the summer of 1883. The Capitol building stands on high receding land north of the city, and commands a view of many miles. Gen. Grant and Sitting Bull participated in the laying of the corner stone. The State Penitentiary is about a mile and a half to the east. There is also an excellent brick courthouse and jail, as well as the Governor's residence, a city

hall, and a high-school building near the center of the city, a United States signal station, a land office, and a surveyor-general's office. The United States district court holds its spring term here. Bismarck is on the line of the Northern Pacific Railroad, 450 miles west of Duluth. There are now only 3 steamers on the river, where before 1880 there were 35, the river traffic having been taken by railroads. The population is about 3,000; in 1880 it was 1,758, and in 1890 2,186. The inhabitants consist of Americans, Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, and a few French and Russians. The native American element predominates. The water supply is drawn from Missouri river and pumped to a reservoir. There are 44 hydrants, each having sufficient pressure to throw a stream over the largest building. Two national banks have a capital of $100,000 and $50,000, respectively, while a private bank is capitalized at $30,000. The assessed valuation of property is $1,514,471, and the tax levy 9,7 mills. The bonded debt of the city is $34,000. The 6 churches belong to the Catholic, Methodist, Episcopal, Swedish Lutheran, Presbyterian, and Baptist denominations. There are 2 public schools and 1 parochial. A flour mill has a capacity of 1,000 barrels, and there are 2 grain elevators. The climate is fine, the atmosphere being light and dry, rendering the extremes of heat and cold easier of endurance.

Champaign, a city of Illinois, in Champaign County, of which it is the principal business city, lies in the center of the great corn belt of the State. It had a population of 5,839 in 1890. and is divided from its twin city, Urbana, by the corporate limit of a street only. These municipalities are connected by a thoroughly equipped system of electric railroad. In all, there are 8 miles in the city of horse and electric street car lines. Champaign is 128 miles from Chicago, 48 from Bloomington, and 33 from Danville. Three lines of railroad pass through it-the Illinois Central, the Big Four, and the Wabash. There are 30 miles of sidewalks, all of brick except in the business portion, where stone is used. There are 4 parks, 1 of 15 acres. Gas and electricity are employed in lighting, and water is supplied from driven wells at a depth of 165 feet. The fire department is contained within the city building, which cost $15,000, and in which is also located the city library of 5,000 volumes. The Presbyterians, Methodists, Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Disciples, German Methodists, Catholics, and other denominations have handsome churches. The public schools are of a high order, and the high school prepares students for the University of Illinois, which is near the city. There are 1 private and 2 national banks. One daily and 4 weekly newspapers are published.

Chester, a city of Pennsylvania, the oldest town in the State, in Delaware County, on the west bank of Delaware river, 15 miles below Philadelphia by the old Philadelphia and Baltimore post road, 12 miles by rail and 18 by river. It is 14 miles northeast of Wilmington, and is separated by a small stream-Lamokin Runfrom the borough of South Chester, while immediately adjoining on the northwest lies the manufacturing suburb of Upland. In 1880 the population of the city was 14,997, and in 1890 it was

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