Sivut kuvina

mountain, in which great difficulty was experienced on account of the snow. The climb is reduced 580 feet.

A road from Florence to Cripple Creek, 45 miles, was finished at the end of June.

The Denver, Sioux City and Duluth road was incorporated in June. This is to be part of a short line to Chicago and the northern lake ports. The company is stocked for $3,000,000. The line will extend from Julesburg to O'Neill, 200 miles. It will bisect Nebraska diagonally, running from the northeast corner of Colorado, and save about 400 miles' journey between its objective points.

Mining. Of the $5,539,021 of gold credited to Colorado in 1892, the following counties were the chief contributors: Gilpin, $1,419,409; Boulder. $1,027,320; San Miguel, $725,484; El Paso, $583,010: Clear Creek, $328,205; Lake, $262,629: scattered, $1,192,964. It is generally considered that the figures of 1892, as given by the director of the mint, are too high, and that, instead of $5,539,021, the total really was under rather than over $5,000,000. During 1893 there was a marked increase. The total yield is estimated at from $7,250,000 to $7,500,000. All the gold-mining districts exhibit an increase. El Paso County, because of Cripple Creek, produced nearly $2,000,000. Lake County, owing to new discoveries on Breece Hill, Leadville, nearly trebled its gold output; while San Miguel showed a noteworthy and Gilpin a slight advance. The gold output of Boulder and Clear Creek Counties suffered through the partial suspension of work at mines which produce gold in combination with silver-bearing


Across the valley of the Arkansas the granite formation of the Saguache range is seamed with many gold veins. On the steep slopes of the mountains near Twin Lakes have been found small bodies of ore of remarkable richness. In the valleys below are placers of known value, and on the hill slopes opposite, behind Granite, many gold lodes are known to exist.

The total of the gold product for 1893 was placed at $6,515,288, and that of silver at $20,640,862. The whole value of lead produced was estimated at $3,394,285, and that of copper at $551,948. These figures are only approximate, being made up from reports of smelters, mint receipts, etc.

The production of coal in 1893 was estimated at 3,947,056 tons, and the total value of the coal and coke product at $6,696,143.

Labor Troubles.-Strikes were made early in the year by the miners at Leadville, Aspen, and Cripple Creek, on a demand for higher wages or shorter hours. The miners at Cripple Creek were receiving $3 for nine hours' work. Their demand was $3 for eight hours. The trouble had gone so far by March 17 that the miners were armed to resist the reopening of the mines under the protection of the sheriff, and the militia were ordered out. But the troops were very soon recalled by the Governor on the ground that they were not needed, and that the sheriff had called for them in order to have their assistance in serving processes. large number of prisoners was arrested March 22 and taken to Colorado Springs. All the


miners of Fremont County, to the number of 1,100, went out on strike April 23. Non-union men attempting to work were driven away by the strikers. A shaft house at Victor was blown up, causing a loss of $25,000. Deputies sent from Denver by the mine owners were surrounded by a line of strikers, and were at last forced to retire. A skirmish near Wilbur resulted in the loss of one man killed on each side and several wounded. Four strikers were captured. The miners threatened to destroy railway property unless the authorities of the road should refuse to bring in deputies. They were well fortified on the slope of Bull Hill. This is a natural fortress, and the same is true of Battle mountain. The two are connected by a narrow saddle, and, taken together, they formed a field of resistance that was nearly impregnable. Altman is at the summit of the hill. After the fight at Wilbur the Governor gave an order for the militia to go at once to Cripple Creek, but withdrew it in a few hours before they had time to start. He went to the camp and addressed the miners, urging them to submit the controversy to arbitration: but the owners refused to listen to any proposals of the kind.

On May 30 one of the mining companies-the Raven Hill-asked the Federal court for protection of its properties at Cripple Creek, on the ground that, as it was developing and prospecting mineral land, its dealings must of necessity be directly with the United States Government. If the court had sustained this position Federal troops would have had to be sent to protect Government property. The petitioners declared they were "peaceable citizens of the United States engaged in business with the United States as landowners, and endeavoring to pursue their regular avocations in developing their property. Although much work had been done in the mines, and many men employed there, the company does not own the property, nor can it do so for some time, and during the interval the National Government holds the title to it." The application was denied, on the ground that the court had no jurisdiction, as the matter was within the police power of the State.

Terms of arbitration were arranged June 4, but they seemed not to be entirely satisfactory to either side.

On June 6 the deputies left Midland, after having broken telegraph communication and taken possession of all newspaper correspondents within their lines, marched on Cripple Creek, and camped 3 miles from Altman. The miners were alert and ready to repel an attack. About 200 shots were fired, but an armistice was arranged till the arrival of the militia. There were 900 deputies in line and 200 cavalrymen. The sheriff was not with them. The militia, under Gen. Brooks and the Adjutant-General, were ordered in by the Governor, with instructions not to allow any armed deputy sheriff's to pass through their lines: the sheriff might go through alone if he desired to make arrests. An agreement as follows was entered into:

Deputy sheriffs to be withdrawn from the Cripple Creek mining district.


Mines to be placed in peaceful possession of own

Military protection to miners and mine owners.

Troops to remain at least thirty days, and longer if deemed necessary by the commanding general. Miners to return arms and also all personal property, tools, and material taken.

Troops to be kept at Victor, Anaconda, and Cripple


Persons for whom the sheriff has or may have warrants to be arrested and turned over to the sheriff at Colorado Springs.

After receiving a copy of the agreement by telegraph, the Governor sent the following dispatch to Adjt.-Gen. Tarsney:

The agreement sent me is approved, except that arrests must not be wholesale or exceed 25 for trial at any one time.

Accordingly the deputies were withdrawn June 11, the militia left in possession, and the strike was over, the terms of arbitration having been agreed to by miners and mine owners.

Several thousand coal miners, mostly in the southern districts, went on a strike in the summer in sympathy with the strikers in other States. Colorado coal was not in competition with the coal product of those States. The strike was a failure, except in so far as it injured the business of mine owners and railroads.

Outrage upon the Adjutant-General. One of the results of the trouble with the miners was the kidnapping and tarring and feathering of the Adjutant-General. As head of the militia, he had control of the force sent against the miners, and he was also counsel for the miners on trial for murder and destruction of property. His course in this respect had been criticised. The outrage, which took place at Colorado Springs, June 23, was supposed to be the work of some of the deputies from whom he had protected the miners. The Governor offered a reward of $1,000 for the perpetrators. On July 19 the Adjutant-General was summoned to testify on the investigation into the outrage, but he refused to go, on the ground that the jury was in sympathy with the men guilty of the assault. He was then summoned to appear and show cause why he should not be declared in contempt of court. The Governor detailed a military guard to protect him—a proceeding which aroused indignation at Colorado Springs, as implying that it is a lawless and unsafe community, and it was denounced by the presiding judge. One of the perpetrators, a deputy sheriff, was captured in August, and made a confession, revealing the names of others, among whom were the sheriff and his deputies.

The Fire and Police Board Controversy. A change in the incumbents of two unimportant offices in Denver in the spring occasioned a bitter fight, caused intense excitement, and threatened to bring about war and bloodshed. The law gives the Governor the appointing power to the fire and police boards. Charges having been made against Jackson Orr and D. J. Martin, respectively fire and excise commissioners, the Governor, after investigation, declared them removed, March 7, and appointed Dennis Mullins and Samuel D. Barnes in their places. Orr and Martin refused to surrender their offices, and obtained a temporary injunction from the district court to restrain the Governor from installing his appointees by force. The Governor did not recognize the court's authority, and,

calling out a body of militia, sent them to the City Hall to demand the surrender. Meantime the deposed officers had surrounded themselves armed men, to the number of about 300, and with members of the police force and other giant powder and dynamite were carried into the City Hall, ready to be thrown into an attacking force. The Governor then applied for United States troops to keep order in the city, the police having been withdrawn from their beats by the rebellious commissioners; and about 250 men were sent from Fort Logan in command of Gen. McCook. The Governor ordered all the National Guard in the State to place themselves under arms and be ready to report at Denver whenever called upon. Citizens interfered to induce the Governor to delay action and attempt to have the question settled by the courts. The Governor expected Gen. MeCook to use his troops to enforce the law, but the general refused to employ them for any other purpose than preserving peace in the city. He requested the Governor to disband the militia, and the Governor requested him to withdraw the Federal troops. Orders from Washington were to the effect that he should use the troops only for the protection of Government property, unless the representation should be made to him by the Governor that the State authorities were unable to suppress the insurrection. While the question of submitting the matter to the Supreme Court was pending the city was in a state of suspense, and great excitement prevailed. A meeting of business men was called, March 16, "for the purpose of considering some plan by which the Governor could be stopped if he again subjected the city to mob rule by ordering out the militia. Some of the speakers advocated the arrest and confinement of the executive as a lunatic. One said he knew where guns could be obtained for use in an attempt to capture the armory. Others proposed the kidnapping of Gov. Waite."

It was at last agreed that the matter should be taken to the Supreme Court. The Governor asked the court to decide who were entitled to hold the offices. The court did not undertake to say who were entitled to possession of the offices in dispute, but indicated the proper mode of procedure by which to have the question answered. It defined the powers of the Governor in the matter of removals, and held that those powers had been exceeded in the attempt to remove the deposed officers by force. It said: "Any attempt on his part to enforce personally such order [of removal] or install his appointee is beyond any express or implied duty or power imposed or conferred upon him by constitution or statute." It was held that the courts have the power, and it is exclusively within their province, to determine in cases like that of the fire and police board, between the respective claimants, and the law provides a plain and adequate procedure for that purpose. Another important point laid down in the decision was the declaration that the members of the fire and police board, although appointed by the Governor, are not State officers, nor are they charged with any duties pertaining to the chief executive department of the State.

The Supreme Court at length agreed to take

original jurisdiction and settle the case on its merits, if quo warranto proceedings were brought before it by the Attorney-General, and with agreement of counsel on both sides. This was done, and the decision of the court was in favor of the Governor's appointees. All the officers concerned are Populists.

The Utes.-The bill for the removal of the Southern Utes from the State passed Congress at the last session. The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs recommended several amendments, one of which provides that any Indians who may elect to do so can remain upon the land at present occupied by them, taking land under the Dawes severalty act. The committee struck out the provision of the bill granting the proceeds of the sales of the lands of the present reservation to the Indians.

Irrigation Congress.-The Third National Irrigation Congress held a session the first week in September, in Denver. There have been differences of opinion on the question of cession of the arid lands to the States; the Carey act, which cedes to them conditionally 1,000,000 acres each for reclamation, sets aside the contest for the present. The main portion of the majority report on resolutions favoring the reclamation of the arid lands by the States without taking the title to them from the Federal Government till the lands should be settled and cultivated was not adopted, but the whole question was postponed another year, to allow the State irrigation commissioners to study and prepare a plan for reclamation of the arid lands. This is the third postponement on this question. The set of resolutions which was adopted touched on minor topics, such as repeal of the desert-land law, investigation by the Government of sources of water supply, appointment of a national irrigation commission to settle questions of water rights on the Mexican and Canadian borders, and a quasi approval of the Carey law.

Legislative Session.-An extraordinary session of the Legislature was called by the Governor, to begin on Jan. 10. The primary object was to secure some means of relief for the distress caused by the silver legislation of Congress. So great was the opposition to the special session expressed by members of the Legislature, that it was expected to be very short; indeed, the public would not have been surprised if the Legislature had adjourned immediately after hearing the Governor's message. Against all expectation, however, the session continued fifty-two days.

In his message the Governor recommended changes in the trust-deed and attachment laws which should leave the debtor less at the mercy of the creditor; repeal of all laws authorizing the issuing of municipal bonds; repeal of the law prohibiting county treasurers from receiving municipal warrants upon municipal tax; provision for issuing certificates or orders for State warrants, and for municipalities to issue such certificates instead of borrowing money: amendment of the irrigation laws; a law to prevent monopoly of the coal products of the State; the formation of a new county in the Cripple Creek district; amendment of the Australian ballot law; provision for a house-to-house registry of the woman voters; reduction of delinquent tax penalties; provision for the examination of


State banks; provision for making contracts to be paid in gold illegal; and a law by which "all silver dollars, domestic and foreign, containing not less than 4124 grains, nine tenths fine silver, and upon the present ratio of 16 ounces silver to 1 ounce gold, should be a legal tender for the payment of debts, public and private, collectable within the State of Colorado." In support of this last proposition the Governor urged, among other considerations, the following, in answer to the objection that such a law would make " foreign dollar, a Mexican dollar, a dishonest dollar, a 57-cent dollar, legal tender. Yes, it makes 371 grains fine silver in any dollar legal tender for 100 cents. It gives to Colorado, just so far as it is possible without congressional action, all the results of the free coinage of silver. It may not for all purposes put the Mexican dollar at par, because it will cost something to get our silver bullion to Mexico and some freight on the coin back to the State. It would, in my judgment, for all business purposes except banking, put the Mexican dollar at 90 cents and give us plenty of money. What must be the practical effect of this transaction? It must put up the price of silver bullion all over the world to $1.29 an ounce, less transportation to the United States mint. The 'dishonest dollar' vanishes the moment silver bullion appreciates to its coin value."

Both branches declared that the action recommended by the Governor to make silver money legal tender would be unconstitutional.

The opinion of the Supreme Court was sought in regard to the powers of the Legislature in special session to enlarge the scope of the measures recommended by the Governor in his proclamation. The Governor mentioned the repeal of the tenth, eleventh, and thirteenth causes of attachment in the attachment laws in courts of record. A bill was introduced to repeal these grounds in cases brought in justices' courts, and the question was raised whether the Legislature had the right to step outside the proclamation in any particular. The court decided in the affirmative, holding that, while the Governor might specify the subjects to be passed upon, and no others could be introduced, he could not prescribe the details of legislation upon them. in regard to the matter submitted, the court held that "it would be a narrow construction to hold that the Legislature may amend the laws applicable to certain causes of attachment in courts of record, but that like causes of attachment in justices' courts can not be amended under the proclamation. The subject-matter of legislation includes in substance the justices' act as well as the act governing courts of record, and the necessity or desirability of such amendatory legislation is certainly as great in the one case as in the other."

The Senate passed a resolution asking the House to join in the appointment of a committee of conference to decide whether it would be possible to reconcile the disagreements between the two bodies, the Upper House being in favor of adjournment without action, and the Lower in favor of continuing the session and taking action on the subjects for the consideration of which the session was called. This proposition was rejected by the House. Numerous petitions were received from citizens in favor of

one or the other course, the greater number in ciples of the Omaha platform; indorses the State adfavor of legislative action. The Senate rejected. Bell and Lafe Pence; demands the free ministration of Colorado and the congressional work

the House bill appropriating $15,000 for payment of a portion of the expenses of the session, and then adjourned for the longest time allowed by law. The House refusing to adjourn and the Senate to transact any other business except action upon nominations sent in by the Governor, a deadlock resulted, and the Senate passed a resolution asking the Governor to prorogue the Assembly; but this the Governor declined to do.

Various other measures were resorted to by the Senate to obstruct legislation, and no business was done by that branch for several weeks. No bills were introduced in the Senate.

The House introduced 78 bills and passed 41 of them, all but 12 of which were rejected by the Senate. Those passed were as follow:

Making eight hours a day's labor for municipal employees.

Transferring the surplus revenues of 1890 and 1891 to the legislative cash fund. The amount appropriated is $100,000, but $83,000 of it was tied up by an injunction, and not available unless released by the


[blocks in formation]

Amending the attachment laws so as to provide a pro rata clause, and the trust-deed law to allow the equity of redemption.

Exempting $60 a month of a workman's wages. Providing for the construction of a bridge across Bear river, Routt County, and appropriating $5,000 for the purpose, the labor to be performed by citizens of Colorado who had been residents of the State for not less than ninety days.

Two bills, one providing for the construction of State canal No. 1, and the other for the construction of Twin Lakes reservoir, were referred by the Senate to those Senators holding over to the next regular session, to be presented at that time.

Political. The National Convention of Republican Clubs met in Denver, June 27. The most difficult point for the convention to settle was its expression on the silver question. The resolution as given below proved satisfactory to both Eastern and Western delegates:

We believe in the use of gold and silver as money metals, maintained on a perfect parity and interconvertibility. We do not believe that there will be a permanent return of prosperity to our country until the full use and highest position of silver shall be restored, and we favor such legislation as will bring about this result.

The Republicans in State convention, Sept. 12, nominated the following ticket: For Governor, Albert W. McIntire; for Lieutenant Governor, Jerrod L. Brush; for Treasurer, Harry E. Mulnix; for Superintendent of Public Instruction, Mrs. A. J. Peavey; for Secretary of State, Albert B. McGaffey; for Justice of the Supreme Court, John Campbell.

The Prohibitionists nominated George Richardson for Governor.

The State Convention of Populists was held at Pueblo, Sept. 5. The platform and ticket follow:

Standing for equal and exact justice to all, regardless of race, sex, religion, or political affiliations, the People's party of Colorado heartily indorses the prin

and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 1; protests against the issuance of Government bonds in times of peace; insists that the National Government have exclusive control of all money issued by its authority; and demands the adoption of the methods of the initiative and referendum and proportional representation as means of securing all reforms in harmony with the will of the people, whose will should be law.

For Governor, Davis H. Waite; for Lieutenant Governor, S. W. Harmon; for Auditor, Stanton F. Lincoln; for Treasurer, Casimero Barela; for Superintendent of Public Instruction, Miss Alice Catlin; for Secretary of State, Nelson O. MeClees; for Attorney-General, H. G. Sales; for Regents of the State University, L. J. Morrison and Barney O. Driscoll: for Justice of the Supreme Court, J. Warner Mills.

The Democratic State Convention met Sept. 3, at Denver. The call to the convention was accompanied by an address to the Democrats of the State, containing the following criticism on the existing State Government:

Populism, the natural offspring of Republican extravagance, mislegislation, and profligacy, has been in power for a year and a half. Its so-called principles, which are the logical result of past Republican policy, have during that time been in full and uncontrolled operation. The miserable consequences are everywhere apparent. The good name of the State is imperiled. Many functions of Government have been perverted to selfish, ignoble, and unlawful ends, and imbecility in high positions has made our career since 1892 a satire on self-government.

The record which both these parties have made in Colorado justifies the assertion that each has failed in the attempt to properly discharge the trust with which it has been endowed by the people. This is the necessary result of a departure from Democratic teaching and principle. To return to the one because of the misconduct and shortcomings of the other is only to continue our present unhappy conditions under different forms, administered by different agencies.

Charles S. Thomas was nominated for Governor, and Adair Wilson for Justice of the Supreme Court.

The result of the election was a victory for nearly 20,000. The newly enfranchised women the Republicans, with a majority estimated at of the State took an active part in the canvass, and the Republican victory was attributed to their vote. It was reported that 55 per cent. of the votes in Denver were cast by women.

Two proposed constitutional amendments were defeated.

COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS, men who represent mercantile houses in the larger business centers, and travel among their patrons in the smaller cities and towns. Before 1850 it was customary throughout the United States for merchants in the smaller communities to visit business centers (like Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago) in the spring and autumn of every year to replenish their stocks and to pay their bills for the year before. In 1850 some of the larger merchants began to make oceasional trips to visit their patrons in the smaller communities, taking with them a few novelties to interest their customers, and to secure orders that might pay the expenses of the trip. It was

uncertain how the country merchant would take the innovation. The means of communication in those days were somewhat uncertain, and in many places the highways were used instead of railroads. Little progress was made in the work of the commercial traveler before the beginning of the civil war in 1861. Business then began to be done upon high pressure; goods were bought and sold at large profits, and they constantly increased in price. The commercial traveler then became almost a necessity, and men who did this work were in great demand. As a result of indiscriminate employing of men and their peculiar surroundings the commercial travelers were judged very harshly. After the war inflation ceased, goods fell in price, and the demand for them became more regular. Although the supply was still large a smaller number of men were required upon the road. From that time a better class of commercial travelers was employed. The system has grown, until at present there are more than 20,000 commercial travelers in the United States, and their aggregate sales reach about $2,000,000,000 a year. At first many of the merchants and manufacturers of the large business centers would not employ commercial travelers; but they gradually fell into line, because this means had been adopted by others. While the old method of visits from the small customer to his creditor in the large business center was found to have been very expensive and often inconvenient, yet the new method of making sales was found to have reached the other extreme about 1885. It is somewhat on the decline now, owing to objections that will be noted below. In many of the States laws have been passed requiring licenses of commercial travelers, on the ground that their sales are quite as much within the law as any other. Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and the District of Columbia exact a fee for a license to sell goods. In the latter the price is $200 a year, and the alleged reason is that Washington tradesmen wish to be protected from commercial travelers who represent houses in Baltimore. North Carolina has particularly stringent laws against commercial travelers, and some of the other States have such laws to a less exacting degree. New York has no restrictions on the traffic.

Merchants say that it costs from $10 to $20 a day to maintain travelers on the road, and the goods they sell must pay this expense. By long absences-days or weeks-the samples they have are out of stock, and often other goods are substituted which the buyer considers not so desirable. Again, travelers sell to every one in the same town, and thus create injurious competition. A still further trouble arises with merchants from commercial travelers who, in order to make a good bill and secure a large commission, frequently add to the quantity of some of the goods ordered; and as the country merchant does not always care to send back goods that he may not want in the near future, he finds himself overstocked with staples, much to his own annoyance and inconvenience. Travelers often call on retailers at a time when they are especially busy, urge them to purchase when they have no fair opportunity of inspecting the stock, and take up time that should have been occupied in looking after their store interests.

The selling to every one in the same town begets an injurious spirit of rivalry-one man buying because another has done so-and it is believed to be far better for the retailer to purchase goods that a competitor has not inspected at the same time; which would probably be the case if the country dealer visited the principal markets and bought from the stock in store, instead of selecting from a traveler's trunk. Dealers often buy because of friendship to the traveler rather than from an actual desire for the goods, and at a time when many dealers would have preferred to let their stock run down with a view of replenishing it later with entirely new goods. These reasons are given to show the disadvantages of the system of selling by sample through commercial travelers selling on commission, and as a special reason why merchants should visit the leading markets, thereby becoming acquainted with those with whom they transact business, and in return gaining the advantage of being on the spot when the latest styles are shown.

The merchants of the interior, as a whole, having tried both the plan of themselves going to New York and having the commercial travelers come to them, are now adopting, to a considerable extent, a compromise between the two. This method avoids the expenses incident to both the former and the present method. It consists of sending out, at the request of the country dealer, an "express sample trunk," in which is placed in separate departments a sample of everything that is in the stock at the main establishment, with prices marked. This trunk can be sent to the country merchant, who has the opportunity of examining the goods at his leisure and comparing the samples with his stock. He can then give his orders understandingly. On each sample is left a space for the order, and the dealer can mark it on the wrapper of the goods before him. Thus, for one fourth of the expense required for maintaining a commercial traveler, the New York, Boston, or Philadelphia house can send its goods to be exhibited to the purchaser at a time when it will best suit him, and, by a prompt return of the trunk with the order therein, the goods can be supplied within a very few days, without a competitor in the same town even surmising that the country dealer has made such purchases until the show window betrays the fact. Thus the customer is enabled to keep up with the market between those seasons when he would usually visit the great centers of trade. If he only wants a certain line of goods, he can direct that the express sample trunk shall contain only such samples, and a better assortment can be sent him. He can also converse with his partners and salesmen as to the quality of the goods before him, and make comparisons, which he might dislike to do in the presence of a traveler, and could not do when merely looking at samples in a hotel. The stock in the store and the samples in the trunk can be placed side by side.

CONGO FREE STATE, a sovereign monarchical state, created in Central Africa by the general act of the International Conference of the Congo, signed at Berlin, Feb. 26, 1885, which recognized Leopold II, King of the Belgians, as Sovereign of the Independent State, and declared its territories neutral and free to the trade of all

« EdellinenJatka »