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Names" were examined as to their origin and meaning by Sir Herbert Maxwell, M. P., and "British Family Names," by Henry Barber, M. D. Part I of a "Dictionary of British Folklore," edited by G. L. Gomme, was given to " Traditional Games of England, Scotland, and Ireland," collected and annotated by Alice B. Gomme; Rev. J. Edward Vaux wrote on "Church Folklore "; and W. A. Clouston on the origin and history of" Hieroglyphic Bibles." Two books which may be classed under this department as well as anywhere else are " Vistas," by William Sharp, and The Invisible Playmate," by William Canton, the last full of the poetry of fatherhood. "Aspects of Modern Study" was the title given to University Extension Addresses by Lord Browne Playfair, Canon John Morley, and others; "Great Public Schools" were the theme of various authors who combined to form a volume; "Harvard College, by an Oxonian' emanated from George Birbeck Hill; "Memorials of Old Haileybury College" was a history of the East India Company's College for the education of their civil servants, to which Frederic Charles Danvers, Sir Monier Williams, Sir Steuart Colvin Bayley, and others contributed; and "Addiscombe: Its Heroes and Men of Note," by Col. H. M. Vibart, described a famous military seminary. "The First Technical College" (Andersonian Institution, Glasgow) was commemorated by Prof. A. H. Sexton, and R. Courtney Welch published "Harrow School Register, 1801– 1893." W. Salt Brassingham edited "A History of the Art of Bookbinding," with some account of the books of the ancients, and in the series of "Books about Books" Herbert P. Horne wrote The Binding of Books," an essay in the history of gold-tooled bindings. 66 A History of English Literature" was written for secondary schools by J. Logie Robertson; Vols. II and III of W. II. Low's "Intermediate TextBook of English Literature" covered respectively the periods of 1558-1660 and 1660-1798; William MacNeile Dixon reviewed "English Poetry from Blake to Browning ";" The English Novel," by Walter Raleigh, was an admirable summary of the development of prose fiction in England from the earliest time to the appearance of Waverley"; Edward Dowden wrote an Introduction to Shakespeare"; Prof. Thomas Spencer Baynes's "Shakespeare, Studies, and Essay on English Dictionaries" was printed posthumously, with a biographical preface by Prof. Lewis Campbell; "Shylock and Others" were 8 studies by G. H. Radford; and John Bartlett was the author of "A New and Complete Concordance" to the dramatic works of Shakespeare with a supplementary concordance to the poems. Edmund Gosse introduced us to "The Jacobean Poets," as G. A Greene did to "Italian Lyrists of To-day "; John Dennis opened a new series of" Studies in English Literature" with "The Age of Pope"; Vol. II of English Prose Selections," edited by Henry Craik, covered the sixteenth century to the Restoration; "Libraries in the Medieval and Renaissance Period" were the subject of the Rede lecture (June 13, 1894) by J. W. Clark; and James Bonar compiled "A Catalogue of the Library of Adam Smith." "Selections from the Essays of Francis Jeffrey " were edited with an introduction and notes by Lewis E. Gates, and “Essays Selected from The Spirit of the Age; or, Contemporary Portraits" of William Hazlitt were accompanied by an introduction by Reginald Brimley Johnson." The first issue since 1889 of “ The Reference Catalogue of Current English Literature," compiled by John Whitaker & Sons, appeared; also Vols. III and IV of "A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles," edited by James A. H. Murray, “A Hero of Esthonia," by W. F. Kirby, and From Darkness to Light in Polynesia," by Rev. W. W. Gill, belong to the domain of anthropology.

Fiction. Several notable novels are to be recorded in 1894. "Marcella," by Mrs. Humphry Ward, which dealt with social questions and possessed, as it was said, every excellence but that of fiction proper; Trilby," by G. Du Maurier, which met with a

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warmer reception in America than at home; Hall Caine's masterpiece of "The Manxman"; "Esther Waters," by George Moore, a work of art terrible in its power, "the most widely discussed and in some ways the most interesting book of the year"; " Lord Ormont and his Aminta," by George Meredith, full of that author's best; "Ships that pass in the Night," by Beatrice Harraden, a new writer who took all hearts by storm with her sad little pessimistic story, followed by "In Varying Moods "; and "The Vagabonds," by Mrs. Margaret L. Woods. S. R. Crockett, whose "Stickit Minister, and Some Common Men" introduced him favorably to the British public last year, wrote 4 striking stories, "The Raiders," The Lilac Sunbonnet," "Mad Sir Uchtred of the Hills,” and "The Play-Actress "; and yet another collection of studies of Scotch life was "Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush," by Rev. John Maclaren Watson, who chose for a pseudonym Ian Maclaren. •Perlycross," by R. D. Blackmore, attained a wide popularity; William Black portrayed "Highland Cousins"; Anthony Hope, whose full name is Anthony Hope Hawkins, scored a success with "The Prisoner of Zenda," which called for the publication of “A Change of Air," "The Indiscretion of the Duchess,” "The God in the Car," and "The Dolly Dialogues"; Mrs. M. O. W. Oliphant with unflagging energy achieved 3 books, "A House in Bloomsbury,” “Sir Robert's Fortune," and "Who is Lost and is Found"; Stanley J. Weyman was represented by“ The Man in Black," Under the Red Robe," and "My Lady Rotha"; A. Conan Doyle by "The Parasite," "Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes," and 2 volumes of short stories, "Round the Red Lamp" and "The Great Keinplatz Experiment"; W. Clark Russell by "The Emigrant Ship" and "The Romance of a Transport"; Maarten Maartens (J. Van der Poorsen Schwartz) by The Greater Glory "; and I. Zangwill by "The King of Schnorrers "; while a younger brother, Louis Zangwill, is supposed to be Z. Z., the author of "A Drama in Dutch." Sara Jeannette Duncan (Mrs. E. Cotes) was as entertaining as ever in "A Daughter of To-day." Jane Barlow published "Kerrigan's Quality," and another portrayer of Irish character was found in Katharine Tynan Hinkson, whose 17 short stories were entitled A Cluster of Nuts." "Red and White Heather" was a miscellany of Scottish pieces in prose and verse, by Robert Buchanan, who also published "Rachel Dene "; and the Celtic genius is again brought to the front in

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Pharais," by Fiona Macleod. "Joanna Traill, Spinster," by Annie E. Holdsworth, deserves mention, as does "The Story of Margrédel," by David S. Meldrum; "Mary Fenwick's Daughter," by Beatrice Whitby: Catharine Furze," by Mark Rutherford (W. Hale White); and "The Curb of Honor,” by M. Betham-Edwards. H. Rider Haggard published "The People of the Mist": Edward F. Benson followed "Dodo " with "The Rubicon" and "A Double Overture"; Sarah Grand attempted to fathom the perplexities of "Our Manifold Nature"; and to the evanescent literature of the hour belong also "Discords," by the author of "Keynotes," who is said to disguise her identity as Mrs. Clairmonte under the pseudonym of George Egerton; "The Yellow Aster" and "Children of Circumstances," by Iota (Mrs. Mannington Caffyn); "The Wings of Icarus," by Miss Lawrence Alma-Tadema; "Platonics," by Ethel M. Arnold, a sister of Mrs. Humphry Ward: "A Sunless Heart" and "A Superfluous Woman," both anonymous; "The Green Carnation," a clever satire on the fin de siecle hero and heroine : "A Daughter of Music," by G. Colmore; and "At the Gate of Samaria," by William John Locke. From these it is a refreshing change to " Maelcho," by the Hon. Emily Lawless, the author of "Hurrish" and "Grania," with its scene in Ireland during the sixteenth century. Space forbids more than a mention of Red Diamonds," by Justin McCarthy; "Christina Chard," by Mrs. Campbell-Praed; "A Costly Freak," by Maxwell Gray (M G. Tuttiett); “A

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Ward in Chancery" and "Broken Links," by Mrs. Alexander (Mrs. Annie F. Hector): "A Gray Eye or so" and One Fair Daughter," by Frank Frankfort Moore; "A Victim of Good Luck," Matthew Austin," "St. Ann's," and "The Countess Radna," by W. E. Norris; "A Bundle of Life," by John Oliver Hobbes (Mrs. Craigie); "A Flash of Summer," by Mrs. W. K. Clifford; " With Edged Tools," by Henry Seton Merriman; "The Rich Miss Riddell" and "Lot 13," by Dorothea Gerard; "The Old, Old Story," by Rosa Nouchette Carey; "The Surrender of Margaret Bellarmine" and "Dr. Endicott's Experiment," by Adeline Sergeant; "A Fair Jewess," by B. L. Farjeon; "In Direct Peril" and "A Rising Star," by David Christian Murray; "Doreen," by Edna Lyall; "An Interloper" and "The Swing of the Pendulum," by Frances Mary Peard; “For Honor and Life," by William Westall; "A Soldier and a Gentleman" and "The Red Sultan," by J. Maclaren Cobban; "A Modern Buccaneer," by Rolf Boldrewood; The Iron Pirate" and "The Sea Wolves," by Max Pemberton; " The Potter's Thumb," "Tales of the Punjab," and "The Flower of Forgiveness," by Mrs. F. A. Steele, who is not to be confounded with Mrs. Anna C. Steel, the author of "Clove Pink." Thomas Hardy entitled a collection of his short stories, written between 1882 and 1893, "Life's Little Ironies," while "The Story of Dan" was written by M. E. Francis, the scene being laid in Ireland. Walter Raymond, writing as Tom Cobbleigh, produced "Young Sam and Sabina,” and a collection of Somerset idyls, entitled "Love and Quiet Life"; "George Mandeville's Husband," by C. E. Raymond, and A Husband of No Importance," by Rita, may be classed together. S. Baring-Gould wrote 2 novels, "The Queen of Love" and Kitty Alone"; Grant Allen but 1, "At Market Value "; and 2 are to be noted from Miss M. E. Braddon," Thou art the Man" and The Christmas Hireling." Clementina Black wrote "An Agitator"; Florence Warden, "A Perfect Fool"; Gertrude Warden, "The Secret of a Letter"; Mary Angela Dickens, "A Valiant Ignorance"; Ethie A. Rowlands, "My Pretty Jane" and "The Spell of Ursula "; " Mr. Jervis" was by B. M. Croker; and The Duchess (Mrs. Hungerford) was represented by Peter's Wife" and "The Red House." "The Maiden's Progress" was traced by Violet Hunt, and "Struthers" and "The Comedy of the Masked Musicians," by Anna Bowman Dodd, appeared in 1 volume. The Untempered Wind came from Joanna E. Wood; "A Bread-and-Butter Miss," from George Paston; "The Mystery of the Patrician Club," from Albert D. Vandam; and John Ingerfield, and Other Stories," from Jerome K. Jerome. Under the Rose," by F. Anstey; "Mrs. Bouverie," by F. C. Philips; "Sybilla," by Sir H. S. Cunninghame; episodes in the life of a Scottish village, entitled "Barncraig," by Gabriel Sutton; "Lisbeth,'" by Leslie Keith; "The Green Bay Tree," by W. H. Wilkins and Vivian Herbert; Percy White's portrait of a snob in " Mr. Bailey-Martin "; " Major Joshua," by Francis Forster; "A Country Sweetheart," by Dora Russell; " By Reef and Palm," by Louis Becke; "For Love and Liberty," by Alfred Harcourt; "The Story of a Modern Woman," by Ella H. Dixon; "A Man of To-day," by Helen B. Mathers; "The Seorpion," by E. A. Vizetelly; and " The Unbidden Guest," by E. W. Hornung, found readers also, as did "The Kindness of the Celestial, and Other Stories," by Barry Pain, with which may be coupled Shen's Pigtail," by Mr. M.; "A Study in Color," by Alice Spinner; "A Woman's Whim," by Mrs. Diehl ; Some Everyday Folks," by Eden Phillpots; Helen," by Oswald Valentine; "A Marriage Ceremony," by Ada Cambridge: “Winifred Mouatt," by Richard Pryce; "Jack Doyle's Daughter," by R. E. Francillon; "The Daughters of Danaus," by Mrs. Mona Caird; "The Justification of Andrew Lebrun," by Frank Barrett; Earlscourt," by Alexander Allardyce; "The Great God Pan" and "The Inmost Light," 2 stories in 1 cover, by Arthur Mac

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hen; "Red Cap and Blue Jacket," a story of the French Revolution, by George Dunn; "All that was Possible," by Howard Sturgis; "Two Offenders" and "The Silver Christ" and A Lemon Tree," by "Ouida" (Louise de la Rame), the 2 last in 1 volume; and Every Inch a Soldier," by John Strange Winter (Mrs. H. E. V. Stannard). Rudyard Kipling made but 1 contribution, "The Jungle Book," for juveniles, who were also delighted with "In the Days of the Mutiny," "In the Heart of the Rockies,” When London burned," and Wulf, the Saxon," by G. A. Henty; "Czar and Sultan," by the famous war correspondent, Archibald Forbes; and "Olaf the Glorious," by Robert Leighton. The reissue of Henry Kingsley's novels was begun during the year, and a new illustrated edition of those of A. Conan Doyle was also initiated.

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Fine Arts.-Commencing with architecture, we have "Renaissance Architecture and Ornament in Spain,” a series of examples selected from the purest works executed between the years 1500-'60, measured and drawn, together with short descriptive text, by Andrew N. Prentice; 2 illustrated volumes of " Architecture of the Renaissance in England," by J. A. Gotch and W. T. Brown; "The Poetry of Architecture," a series of essays written by John Ruskin in 1837, when a lad of, eighteen, illustrated by himself; Vol. I of a new series of Academy Architecture," "Our English Ministers," by Frederic W. Farrar, D. D., and others, illustrated; and "An Architectural History of the Cathedral Church of Manchester," by J. S. Crowther, edited by Frank Renaud, M. D. "The Art of Illustration," by Henry Blackburn, was itself illustrated; and from the same authority we have "Academy Notes, '90-'94." "Greek Vase Painting" was the theme of Miss J. E. Harrison and D. S. MacColl, and "Persian Ceramic Art belonging to Mr. F. D. Godman, with Selections from Other Collections," was continued by H. Walls with "Thirteenth Century Lustered Wall Tiles." "The Monumental Brasses of Lancashire and Cheshire" were studied by James L. Thornely, and A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Heraldry," by John Woodward, was illustrated with 36 colored plates. Music was extensively treated. A. M. Wakefield edited "Ruskin on Music;" C. Hubert H. Parry contributed "The Art of Music"; Richard Wallaschek, "Primitive Music "; D. B. Monro, "Modes of Ancient Greek Music"; R. C. Hope, "Mediæval Music," an historical sketch; and "Old English Popular Music," by William Chappell, filled 2 volumes; while "Musical Scotland, Past and Present," was a dictionary of Scottish musicians from 1400 to the present time, compiled and edited by David Baptie. Musicians and Music Lovers" were the theme of essays by W. Foster Apthorp. The Savoy Opera and the Savoyards," by Percy Fitzgerald, had 60 illustrations, and from the same authority we had "The Operas of Gilbert and Sullivan described." T. F. Ordish made an able if somewhat rough study of "Early English Theaters." The best of Hazlitt's "Dramatic Essays" were edited by William Archer and R. W. Lowe. A volume was printed of "Arts and Crafts Essays," by members of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society; "Early Illustrated Books," by Alfred W. Pollard, was a history of the decoration and illustration of books in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; " Leadwork, Old and Ornamental, and for the Most Part English," was by W. R. Lethaby; Vol. II of " A Catologue of the English Coins in the British Museum-Anglo-Saxon Series" was issued, as well as a handsome brace of volumes devoted to "Greek Papyri" in the same museum, the one containing the catalogue with texts, and the other facsimiles. ** Arabic Papyri of the Bodleian Library," reproduced by collotype, we owe to D. S. Margoliouth; Ninety-three Drawings by Albert Dürer, reproduced in Facsimile from Originals in the British Museum," had the text supplied by S. Colvin; and among handsome illustrated works are to be included "Pictures from Bohemia drawn with Pen and Pencil," by J. Baker; "Tennyson and his Pre-Raphaelite

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Illustrators," by George Somes Layard; " A Descriptive and Classified Catalogue of Portraits of Queen Elizabeth," by F. M. O'Donoghue; "The Life of Christ as represented in Art," by Archdeacon Frederic W. Farrar; Raphael's Madonnas, and Other Great Pictures," by Karl Károly; Alfred Moore, his Life and Works," by A. Lys Baldry; "George Romney and his Art," by Hilda Gamlin; Sir Joshua Reynolds," by C. Phillips; and the series of monthly Portfolio Monographs, which took the place of the old "Portfolio," each supposed to be devoted to the work of a single artist, instead of the art miscellany formerly issued during a period of twenty-four years. The first was given to " Rembrandt's Etchings," Philip Gilbert Hamerton supplying the text; other artists commemorated were "Frederick Walker," by Claude Phillips; "Jules Bastien-Lepage," by Mrs. Julia Cartwright; and Gainsborough," by Walter Armstrong; "Round about Helvellyn" had both notes and plates from T. Huson; and other numbers of special value were "The New Forest," depicted by three artists, with notes by C. J. Cornish; and "Fair Women in Painting and Poetry," with text by William Sharp. A second edition appeared of "Pen Drawing and Pen Draughtsmen," by Joseph Pennell, which was published five years ago; and J. C. L. Sparkes and F. W. Burbidge prepared together a treatise on "Wild Flowers in Art and Nature," for flower painters.

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History The Meaning of History, and Other Historical Pieces," by Frederic Harrison, claims first our attention; and two other works of distinctive merit are "Town Life in the Fifteenth Century," in 2 volumes, by Mrs. J. R. Green, and "Social England," a record of the progress of the people, by various writers, edited by H. D. Traill, also in 2 volumes, which, it has been said, marks almost a new departure in the writing of history henceforth. The Industrial and Commercial History of England" was traced in lectures by the late J. E. T. Rogers. Europe, 15981715," by Henry Offley Wakeman, belonged to the "Periods of European History Series," and J. H. Rose covered later ground in "The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era, 1789-1815," in the Cambridge Historical Series." "The Elements of English Constitutional History," were traced by F. C. Montague from the earliest times to the present day; Dudley J. Medley wrote "A Student's Manual of English Constitutional History," and L. O. Pike “A Constitutional History of the House of Lords." Vol. II appeared of James Hamilton Wylie's "History of England under Henry the Fourth "; to Dr. J. B. Nevins we owe a "Picture of Wales during the Tudor Period"; the indefatigable Samuel Rawson Gardiner published Vol. I of a "History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1651" (the fifteenth of the great work he has undertaken of writing thoroughly the history of the period between the union of the crowns and the Restoration), in addition to writing a book upon "The Stuart Period" for " Longman's Ship Historical Readers," and editing with notes and an introduction "Letters and Papers illustrating the Relations between Charles II and Scotland in 1650." A Concise History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1837" was published by Dr. P. W. Joyce, whose "Irish Names of Places," published a quarter of a century ago, gave an impulse to the study of local history throughout the island; and the latest "Calendar of State Papers," edited by E. G. Atkinson, covered "Ireland, 1596-97," giving a vivid picture of the position of the English garrison on the eve of Tyrone's rebellion. Other important publications of old documents embrace Vol. I of State Papers relating to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada," edited by John Knox Laughton; Parts I and II of the thirteenth volume of "Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, preserved in the Public Record Office, the British Museum, and elsewhere in England" arranged and catalogued by James Gairdner; and Vol. I. of "The Border Papers," edited by Joseph Bain. W. M. Torrens wrote a "History of Cabinets"

from the union with Scotland to the acquisition of Canada and Bengal, in 2 volumes, and the "Story of Ireland" was told once again by Standish O'Grady. Vol. IV of "The History of Sicily from the Earliest Times" was edited from the posthumous manuscripts of E. A. Freeman, with supplements, by A. J. Evans; Evelyn S. Shuckburgh wrote "A History of Rome to the Battle of Actium." The Great Pestilence (A. D. 1348-49), now commonly known as the Black Death," proved an interesting record of an awful epoch by Dr. Francis A. Gasquet; Guelphs and Ghibellines," by Oscar Browning, was a short history of Italy from 1250 to 1409; Germany and the Germans' was the theme of William Harbutt Dawson; "German Society at the Close of the Middle Ages," by Belfort Bax, is the first installment of a series which aims at a presentation of the social side of the Reformation in that country; St. Clair Baddeley wrote 2 historical essays on "Charles III of Naples and Urban VI," and "Cecco d'Ascoli, Poet, Astrologer, Physician," contained in 1 volume; and 2 were devoted to "Gustavus III and his Contemporaries, 1746-1792," by Nisbet Bain. "The Portuguese in India." by Frederick Charles Danvers, traced the rise and decline of their Eastern empire in the brief compass of 2 volumes; and "The Life and Times of James the First, the Conqueror, King of Aragon," were ably handled by F. Darwin Smith. "The Muhammadans, 1001-1761 A. D.." by J. D. Rees, leads not unnaturally to "The Conversion of India, from Pantænus to the Present Time, 193-1893," by George Smith; Vol. I. was issued of "Selections from the Letters, Dispatches, and Other State Papers preserved in the Military Department of the Government of India, 1857-58," edited by George W. Forest; and 4 volumes contained" Bengal MS. Records." the work of Sir William Wilson Hunter. W. T. Groom published "With Havelock from Allahabad to Lucknow, 1857"; Bishop Ingham told of "Sierra Leone after a Hundred Years"; and the cause, history, and effect of the Matabele war was traced by W. A. Walls and L. T. Collingridge in "The Downfall of Lobengula." "Three Years with Lobengula, and Experiences in South Africa," by J. C. Chadwick, and "Matabeleland," by A. R. Colquhoun, may be mentioned in this connection also, as well as The Story of South Africa," by George M. Theal, in the Story of the Nations Series." Other contributions to this series were "Venice," by Alethea Wiel; "The Story of Australasia," by Greville Tregarthen; and "The Crusaders," by T. "A. Archer and C. L. Kingsford. To Church history belong "A History of the Christian Church during the First Six Centuries," by S. Cheetham, D. D.; Vol. V of" A History of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation," given to The German Revolt, 1517-1527," by Mandell Creighton, D. D., Bishop of Peterborough; Waymarks in Church History," by Canon Bright; "The Church in France," by Canon Travers Smith, in "The National Churches Series"; and Bishop Dowden's study of "The Celtic Church in Scotland." Three volumes by Dr. Robert Brown told "The Story of Africa and its Explorers," and dealt with pioneer work alone. Several county histories are to be recorded, Augustus J. C. Hare choosing "Sussex," and dwelling upon it with loving pains; "Old Dorset " fell to the lot of H. J. Moule; Lieut.-Col. Henry Fishwick wrote A History of Lancashire," and R. S. Ferguson "A History of Westmoreland"; while Urquhart and Glenmoriston" were chronicled by William Mackay, and “ Dumfriesshire illustrated" was a series of historical sketches by Peter Gray, the first issue of which was

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Nithsdale." "London and the Kingdom," by Reginald R. Sharpe, in 3 volumes, 2 of which were issued during 1894, traces the history of the great city in its influence as the capital in the shaping and making of England, and Part II of "Charters and Other Documents relating to the City of Glasgow," from 1175 to 1649, edited by Sir James Marwicke, are not to be omitted, illustrating as these do the history of the city from innumerable points of view. "Glimpses of

Old Glasgow," by Andrew Aird, reviews its growth of comparatively recent years. "St. Andrew's" was the theme of Andrew Lang; R. K. Dent told of "The Making of Birmingham"; Canon Atkinson offered "Memorials of Old Whitby," as Alexander Macpherson did "Glimpses of Church and Social Life in the Highlands in Olden Times"; and Dr. Sparrow Simpson described "St. Paul's and Old City Life"; "Memorials of St. James's Palace," by Edgar Sheppard, filled 2 volumes. English Records," by Henry Elliot Malden, was intended as a companion handbook to the history of England, while to quite recent times belongs "The Liberation of Bulgaria," by

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Physical, Moral, and Intellectual Science. The issue of 7 volumes during the year completed the 9 which contain the "Collected Essays of Prof. T. H. Huxley. They covered, respectively," Education," "Hebrew Tradition," Science and Christian Tradition," "Hume, with Helps to the Study of Berkeley," " Man's Place in Nature," Discourses, Biological and Geological," and "Evolution and Ethics." "The Ascent of Man" was the theme of the Lowell Lectures delivered by Henry Drummond, which called forth as much admiration as adverse criticism: "Darwinianism: Workmen and Work" were exhaustively treated by James Hutchinson Stirling; and yet another important volume was Materials for the Study of Variation," treated with especial regard to discontinuity in the origin of species, by William Bateson; while Dr. W. Main contributed an essay on "Expression in Nature." Departing from theory, we have a history of The Dawn of Astronomy" among the ancient Egyptians, by J. Norman Lockyer; a series of popular articles on astronomical subjects entitled "The Worlds of Space," by J. Ellard Gore; "The Starry Skies," by Agnes Giberne, which gave first lessons on the sun, moon, and stars; " The Story of Our Planet," by Canon T. G. Bonney; "Papers on the Glacial Geology of Great Britain and Ireland," by the late Prof. Henry Carvill Lewis, edited from his unpublished manuscripts by Henry W. Crosskey; "Creatures of Other Days," by Rev. H. N. Hutchinson, which carries on the work begun in his Extinct Monsters"; "The Fauna of the Deep Sea" by Sydney J. Hickson, in the "Modern Science Series"; and Vol. II of 66 Fauna of British India," by G. F. Hampson, devoted to " Moths." The first two volumes were issued of the " Royal Natural History," edited by Richard Lyddeker, who wrote also "A Handbook to the Marsupialia and Monotremata" in "Allen's Naturalist's Library," another volume of which was " A Handbook to the Birds of Great Britain," by R. Bowdler Sharpe. "A Handbook of Natural History for the Use of Beginners" was edited by Lady Isabel, Sir Mountstuart Grant Duff furnishing an introduction; J. Hampden Porter studied "Wild Beasts"; M. A. Mathew described The Birds of Pembrokeshire and its Islands"; Charles Dixon devoted a volume to “ The Nests and Eggs of British Birds," as Harry F. Witherby did to" Forest Birds"; Sydney H. Vines published the first half of "A Student's Text-Book of Botany"; Rev. Alexander K. Nairne wrote upon The Flowering Plants of

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Western India"; John Nisbet delivered lectures at the Botanic Garden entitled "Studies in Forestry "; C. O. Sontag prepared “A Pocket Flora of Edinburgh and the Surrounding Districts"; and Vol. III appeared of G. Schneider's "Book of Choice Ferns for the Garden, Conservatory, and Stove." William Peddie wrote A Manual of Physics" for high-grade students; "A Text-Book of Statics," and another of Dynamics," by William Briggs and G. II. Bryan, belong to the "University Tutorial Series"; Percy F. Frankland enumerated "Our Secret Friends and Foes"; M. M. P. Muir entitled "The Alchemical Essence and the Chemical Element" an episode in the quest of the unchanging; the address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science delivered by its president, the Marquis of Salisbury, at Oxford, Aug. 8, 1894, was published, as also the

eleventh annual issue of the " Year-book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of Great Britain and Ireland." A" Dictionary of Scientific Illustrations and Symbols" was the work of a barrister of the Honorable Society of the Inner Temple. Douglas Carnegie wrote on "Law and Theory in Chemistry," and Thomas Preston set forth "The Theory of Heat." In the "Contemporary Science Series we have "An Introduction to Comparative Psychology," by C. Lloyd Morgan; "Apparitions and Thought Transference," an examination of the evidence of telepathy, by Frank Podmore; and "Man and Woman," by Havelock Ellis, purporting to be a study of human secondary sexual characters. "Man the Primeval Savage" had his haunts and relics from the hilltops of Bedfordshire to Black wall explored by Worthington G. Smith, and Miss E. J. Simcox filled 2 volumes with her researches into" Primitive Civilizations." G. Oppert wrote "On the Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsa or India," and J. F. Hewitt on "The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India, Southeastern Asia, and Southern Europe."

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Coming now to social subjects, we have Vol. I of Principles of Political Economy," by Prof. J. Shield Nicholson, whose address on Historical Progress and Ideal Socialism" was also opportunely published; a continuation of R. M. Garnier's "History of the English Landed Interest," covering the Modern Period"; "The Evolution of Modern Capitalism," a study of machine production, by John A. Hobson; Co-operative Production," by Benjamin Jones "The History of Trade Unionism," by Sidney and Beatrice Webb; "Social Evolution," by Benjamin Kidd;" Eight Hours for Work," by John Rae; and Conciliation and Arbitration in Labor Disputes," by J. Stephen Jeans, who also wrote on "Trusts, Pools, and Corners" in the "Social Questions of the Day Series." Two other volumes of the same series were " The Factory System and the Factory Arts," by R. W. Cooke Taylor, and "The State and its Children," by Gertrude M. Tuckwell. "The Labor Question was an epitome of the evidence and the report of the Royal Commission on Labor, by T. G. Spyers; Geoffrey Drage, a secretary to the commission, wrote on The Unemployed"; and Charles Booth considered the condition of "The Aged Poor in England and Wales." "The Dwellings of the Poor and Weekly Wage Earners in and around Towns" were the subject of T. Locke Worthington, and Thomas Mackay edited "A Policy of Free Exchange." "British Freewomen," by Charlotte C. Stopes, was set off by "The Revolted Woman," by C. G. Harper, and froin Henry S. Salt we had "Animals' Rights considered in Relation to Social ProgWilliam Thomson furnished A Prospectus of Socialism, or a Glimpse of the Millennium," showing its plan and working arrangements and how it is to be brought about. "Practical Socialism" was also the theme of Samuel and Henrietta Barnett. "The New Party," described by some of its members and edited by Andrew Reid, had a frontispiece by Walter Crane, and the same editor's name appears on the title-page of Vox Clamantium." "Problems of the Far East," by Hon. George N. Curzon, M. P., relate to Japan, Korea, and China; William Epps examined "Land Systems of Australia"; and J. Morris treated of The War in Korea " in progress during the year. English Democracy" had its promises and perils reviewed by Arnold White; Spenser Wilkinson offered a plea for a national policy in "The Great Alternative"; and Federal Britain, or the Unity and Federation of the Empire" were also plead for by F. P. de Labilliere. The Government and Scottish Home Rule" was from the pen of C. Waddie. A second edition of " Parliamentary Government in the British Colonies," by Alpheus Todd, was edited by his son; "Some Aspects of Disestablishment" were edited by H. C. Shuttleworth; and Prof. John R. Commons wrote on "Social Reform and the Church." Goldwin Smith was heard from in Essays on Questions of the Day"; "The House of Lords " was both

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a retrospect and a forecast, by T. A. Spalding; Rev. H. W. Clark published "A History of Tithes"; and Dean Luckock "The History of Marriage, Jewish and Christian, in Relation to Divorce." "The Industrial and Social Life and Duties of the Citizen" were handled by J. Edward Parrott in the "Waterloo Series," and John MacCunn wrote on the "Ethics of Citizenship." "Toward Utopia' was the title of speculations in social evolution by A Free Lance; "English Commons and Forests," by G. Shaw-Lefevre, told the history of the thirty years' struggle for public rights; and from Prof. Edward Jenks we have an admirable "Outline of English Local Government." Appearance and Reality" was a metaphysical essay by F. H. Bradley; Philosophical Remains of George Croom Robertson" were edited by Alexander Bain and T. Whittaker; "Historical Philosophy in France, and French Belgium and Switzerland," by Prof. Robert Flint, is the first volume of a contemplated great work on the "History of the Philosophy of History"; Prof. James Seth made a "Study of Ethical Principles "; Prof. William Knight explained the difference between "The Christian Ethic" and other moral systems; and Rev. J. D. Robertson published an essay toward a new analysis, deduction, and development of "Conscience." Prof. Alexander Campbell Fraser collated and annotated "An Essay concerning Human Understanding," by John Locke, of which there had been hitherto no ample and worthy edition, with biographical, critical, and historical prolegomena, the whole filling 2 volumes. "The Riddle of the Universe," by E. D. Fawcett, was an attempt to determine the first principles of metaphysics. William Samuel Lilly examined "The Claims of Christianity": Charles B. Upton delivered the Hibbert Lectures in 1893 upon The Bases of Religious Belief"; "None like it: A Plea for the Old Sword" emanated from Joseph Parker, the author of the People's Bible"; "The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments" were confronted with each other by Rev. Archibald H. Sayce; Rev. Luke Rivington wrote on "The Primitive Church and the See of Peter"; Dr. Alexander Balmain Bruce, on "St. Paul's Conception of Christianity"; Dr. James Stalker, in "The Trial and Death of Jesus Christ," supplied a devotional history of our Lord's passion; "Fishers of Men" was the title of addresses by the Archbishop of Canterbury; and "Church Work" had its means and methods scanned by the Bishop of Manchester. "Rectorial Addresses delivered at St. Andrew's" were edited by Prof. Knight; the anonymous author of "Supernatural Religion" made a study of "The Gospel according to St. Peter"; "Sacerdotalism, if rightly understood, the Teaching of the Church of England " was by Canon W. J. Knox-Little, who published also " Labor and Sorrows," a volume of sermons; " The English Church in the Nineteenth Century, 1800-1833" came from Rev. John H. Overton; Rev. Robert B. Fairbairn published "The Oblation and the Invocation "; Christ and Skepticism" was the theme of 13 essays by S. A. Alexander; and among other works on religion may be mentioned The Theology of the New Testament," by Walter F. Adeney; "The Tenderness of Christ," by Dr. Anthony W. Thorold; "The Acts of the Apostles," by F. Denison Maurice; "Judaistic Christianity," by Dr. Fenton J. A. Hart; "The Resurrection of the Dead," by Dr. W. Milligan; "College and University Sermons," by Arthur Temple Lyttelton; "God's City and the Coming of the Kingdom," by Canon Scott Holland; "The Book of Revelation," by Rev. Frederick Shaw: "Clerical Life and Work." by Canon Liddon; a second series of "Sermons preached at Whately," by Rev. R. W. Church; The Natural History of the Christian Religion," by Dr. W. Mackintosh; the Bampton Lectures for 1894, by Rev. J. R. Illingworth, upon "Personality, Human and Divine" and "The Supernatural in Christianity," considered by Dr. R. Rainy, Prof. J. Orr, and Dr. Marcus Dods, with special reference to statements in the recent Gifford Lectures.

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T. Harwood Pattison wrote "The History of the English Bible"; Rev. C. J. Ellicott, " Plain Introductions to the Books of the Bible"; I Peter-Revelation" was a new volume of The Sermon Bible"; Epistles of St. Peter," by Dr. J. Rawson Lumby, appeared in the new sixth series of the "Expositor's Bible," while the new seventh series included - The Book of Numbers," by Dr. Robert A. Watson; "The Book of Chronicles," by W. H. Bennett ; The Second Book of Kings," by Canon Farrar; "The Second Epistle to the Corinthians," by James Denney; "The Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans," by C. G. Handley Moule; and the second and third volumes of "The Psalms," by Dr. Alexander Maclaren, who also published 4 volumes on the several gospels in the "Bible Class Expositions Series." In the Present Day Primers" we had "The Printed English Bible, 1525-1885," by Richard Lovett, and “ Early Church History," by J. Vernon Bartlett, and in the "Handbooks for Bible Classes," "The Last of the Prophets," by J. Feather. Rev. C. L. Marston made notes on " The Psalms at Work"; "Heroes of Israel ” were commemorated by Dr. W. G. Blaikie; Rev. F. B. Meyer sketched the character of "Jeremiah, Priest and Prophet"; and from Dr. Horton we had * The Cartoons of St. Mark." Among collections of sermons may be mentioned: "Christ and our Times," by Archdeacon Sinclair; “God and Christ," by Rev. Stopford A. Brooke; The Spiritual World," by Principal Cave; and "Lombard Street in Lent." by Archdeacon Farrar, Canon Scott-Holland, the Dean of Ely, and others. Lectures by Spurgeon on "The Art of Illustration" in preparing sermons were also printed. "If Christ came to Chicago" was a sensational review of the wickedness of that city by William T. Stead. An anonymous writer touched upon "The Jewish Question and the Mission of the Jews."

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Books of a general character, which may as well be included here as anywhere, were "The British Fleet," the growth, achievements, and duties of which were traced by Commander Charles N. Robinson; and "Britain's Naval Power," by Hamilton Williams; "Our Railways," in 2 volumes, by John Pendleton; "British Locomotives," by J. C. Bowen_Cooke; "The Tower Bridge," by J. E. Tuit; "The Book of the Lifeboat," edited and arranged by J. C. Dibdin and John Ayling: "Ancient Ships," the first installment of an exhaustive work by Cecil Torr; "Notes on Docks and Dock Construction," by C. Colson; the Howard Lectures for 1893 "On the Development and Transmission of Power from Central Stations," by W. C. Unwin; "Tidal Rivers," by W. H. Wheeler, in the "Civil Engineering Series"; "The Water Supply of Towns and the Construction of Water Works," by W. K. Burton, of the Imperial University of Tokio, Japan; E. Henry Davies's treatise on "Machinery for Metalliferous Mines"; "Cotton Manufacture," by J. Lister, and "Cotton from Field to Factory," by J. Mortimer; "A Text-Book of Ore and Stone Mining," by Clement Le Neve Foster; "Mining Royalties," by Charles A. James; Vol. II of The Tannins," by Henry Trimble; and "Animal and Vegetable Fixed Oils, Fats, Butters, and Waxes," by Charles R. A. Wright. "Secrets of the Prison House," by Major Arthur Griffiths, contained the experience of a quarter of a century, and with it may be mentioned "Reminiscences of an Indian Police Official," by T. C. Arthur; "Suicide and Insanity was a physiological and sociological study, by Dr. S. A. Strahan, in the "Social Science Series," and Dr. George W. Balfour wrote upon "The Senile Heart." "Scotch Deerhounds and their Masters," by the late George Cupples, was edited, with a biographical sketch of the author, by James Hutchinson Stirling; J. P. Hore wrote a "History of the Royal Buckhounds"; Rawson B. Lee continued his history of Modern Dogs," with a nonsporting division; Major Glyn Leonard embodies sixteen years of experience in his book upon "The Camel"; and The Arabian Horse" received generous treatment at the hands of Maj.-Gen. W. Tweedie. In the "Fur and Feather Series" appeared

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