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fessions-law, journalism, and public administration-should have economics as part of their training for their exercise. To accomplish this object, its combination with jurisprudence, political and administrative science in a common group seems by far the best way. The case becomes stronger when we come to consider fundamental and far-reaching problems. The socialistic movement that is passing over Western civilization is a struggle between two distinct types of social organization, one resting on the exaltation of the relatively modern institution of the state, the other deriving its principal force from the oldest and most enduring element of human society-the family. This aspect of the conflict will more and more come into prominence as the conflict proceeds.

The following list includes the more important papers presented at the meetings of this section:

"The Mathematical Theory of Foreign Trade," by Prof. Edgeworth; "Mechanics of Bimetallism," by Irving Fisher; "Factors of Production," by H. Higgs; "The Church Army and the Unemployed," by W. H. Hunt; "On the Report of the MansionHouse Committee on the Unemployed," by Bolton Stuart; "The Evil Effect of raising Prices by Depreciating the Standard of Value," by Edward Atkinson, of Boston, Mass.; "Woman's Work in Birmingham," by Miss Kenward; "Stock Exchange Taxation," by J. Mandello: "Statistics of General and Old-age Pauperism in England and Wales," by C. S. Loch; "The Identification of Rent and Interest," by C. S. Devas; "The Economic Results of the Black Death in Italy," by Max Kovalensky; "Inequality of Local Rates: Its Extent, Causes, and Consequences," by Edwin Carman; "Fifty Years' Accounts of the Bank of England," by A. W. Flux; "The Alleged Economic Heresies of the London County Council," by Sidney Webb; "The Relation between Wages and the Numbers employed in the Coal-mining Industry," by R. H. Hooker; "The Popular Attitude toward Economics," by L. R. Phillips; and "The Relation between Wages, Hours, and Production of Labor," by J. A. Hobson. The following reports from committees on Methods of Economic Training in this and other Countries" and on "The Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools" were also presented.

G. Mechanical Science. This section was presided over by Prof. A. B. W. Kennedy, who is Emeritus Professor of Engineering in the University College, London. His address was on "The Critical Side of Mechanical Training." An engineer is a man who is continually being called upon to make up his mind. It may be only as to the size of a bolt; it may be as to the type of a Forth bridge; it may be as to the method of lighting a city; or only as to the details of a fire grate. But whatever it is, once it is settled it is decided irrevocably-it is translated into steel and iron and copper, and can not be revoked by an act passed in another session. The time given him in which to decide may be a day, or a month, or a year, but in any and every case it is about one-tenth part of the time which he would like to have. The solution of such problems is seldom unique. From this point of view, the whole use of college training, of workshop practice, of practical experience, is to provide the engineer with the means of critically examining each question as it comes up, of reviewing the methods of dealing with it, of coming finally to some defensible decision which may then be car

ried out. In the case of a problem in pure mathematics or physics, where only one right solution can exist, that solution is arrived at by a thorough knowledge of the science in question; there is little room for the critical faculty-the result is either right or wrong. In engineering, decisions can only be arrived at by a process of criticism applied to the problems, to their statement, to their condition, to all their many possible solutions: hence the development of the necessary critical faculty should be one of the chief aims of every teacher. A scientific training can not make a man an engineer, but such a training may make him a critic. Probably the best special education in proportion which a man can have is a course of quantitative experimental work. This kind of work in an engineering laboratory can educate the critical sense of proportion very admirably in a number of ways. But the work of an engineering laboratory is in essence different from that of a physical laboratory. In the former the conditions form part of the experiment. The engineer frequently finds, when the whole matter seems to be completely mastered from one point of view, that it is only to find that from another point of view everything looks different, and the whole critique has to be started afresh. In closing, he referred to the relation between mathematics and engineering. Mathematics is simply a tool, a means to an end, not an end in itself; hence mathematicians should exercise more consideration to students of engineering, and not look upon them as persons to whom it is a privilege sufficient that he should be allowed to pick up such crumbs as he can digest from a table prepared for his betters.

The more important papers read before this section were:

"Some Reminiscences of Steam Locomotion on Common Roads," by Sir Frederick J. Bramwell; "Bore-hole Wells for Town Water Supply," by Henry Davey. Subsequent to the joint meeting with Section A, already noted, the following papers were read: "The Strength and Plastic Extensibility of Iron and Steel," by T. Claxton Fidler; "Tunnel Construction by Means of Shield and Compressed Air, with Special References to the Tunnel under the Thames at Blackwall," by M. Fitzmaurice; "On Methods that have been adopted for measuring Pressure in the Bores of The most EconomGuns," by Sir Andrew Noble; ical Temperature for Steam-engine Cylinders," by B. Donkin; "Signaling through Space," by W. H. Preece; "Somie Advantages of Alternate Currents,” by Silvanus P. Thompson; "Continuous Current Distribution of Electricity at High Voltage, being a Description of the Lighting of the City of Oxford," by Thomas Parker; "A Special Chronograph," by H. Lea; "A Direct-reading Platinum Pyrometer," by G. M. Clark; "The Temperature Entropy Diagram," by H. F. Burstall; "The Kineting of Governed Engines," by J. Swinburne; Engineering Laboratory Instruments and their Calibration," by D. S. Capper; "Lighthouse Apparatus and Lighthouse Administration in 1894," by J. Kenward; and "On Spring Spokes for Bicycles," by J. D. Everett. Also a "Report of Committee on Dryness of Steam" was presented by

W. C. Unwin.

H. Anthropology.-The presiding officer of this section was Sir William H. Flower, who devoted his address to giving some account of the history and present position of the study of anthropology in Great Britain, and especially to indicate what the association had done in the past and is still doing to promote it. He said:

"It is only ten years since the section acquired a definite and assured place in the organization of the association. The history of the gradual recognition of anthropology as a distinct subject by this association is an epitome of the history of its gradual growth. One of the great difficulties with regard to making anthropology a special subject of study is the multifarious nature of the knowledge comprehended under the title. One of the most potent means of registering facts and making them available for future study and reference is to be found in actual collections of tangible objects. These branches are two: 1, collections illustrating the physical structure of man and its variations in the different races; 2, collections showing his characteristic customs and methods of living, his arts, arms, and costumes as developed under different circumstances, and also modified by different racial conditions. The anthropological museums are all of recent growth, and they are making progress everywhere. More modern even than museums has been the introduction of any systematic teaching of anthropology, and still no professorship of this branch exists in the British Isles." The condition of the teaching at various institutions was described in detail, and the plea made for increased instruction. The development of anthropometry, as the study of the modifications of the human body dependent upon sex and age, upon race, and upon individual variability is called, was next taken up. Its application as an aid in administering justice by methods perfected by Bertillon in France is a striking illustration of the practical utility of anthropometry. The identification of prisoners was discussed, and mention made of the fingermark system. The Tichborne case hung upon an issue that might have been settled in two minutes if Roger Tichborne, before starting on his voyage, had but taken the trouble to imprint his thumb upon a piece of blackened paper. An anthropometric laboratory has been carried on since 1888 in the South Kensington Museum, and an important work now in hand is the organization of a complete ethnographical survey of the United Kingdom based upon scientific principles. The application of the nose as a racial test was referred to, and the work among certain tribes in India along this line was alluded to. Other researches in anthropology were described, especially that now in progress in the United States.

The following papers were presented before

the section:

"Distribution of Mythical Beliefs as Evidence in the History of Culture," by E. B. Tylor; "On the Plateau Flint Implements of North Kent," by Rupert Jones, which was read and discussed in a joint session with the section on geology; "Complexional Differences between Natives of Ireland with Indigenous and Exotic Surnames respectively," by John Beddoe; "A New System of Hieroglyphics and a Pre-Phoeni eian Script from Crete and the Peloponnese," by Arthur J. Evans; "Pygmies in Europe," by J. Kollmann; The Troglodytes of the Bruniquel, a Grotto of Iron Works on the Borders of Aveyron" and "The End of the Stone Age on the Borders of the Mediterranean Basin," by Emile Cartaihac; "The Present State of Prehistoric Studies in Belgium," by Goblet

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d'Alviella; “Ancient Bone Skates," by Robert Munroe; "The Explorations of British Camps and a Long Barrow near Rushmore," by Gen. Pitt-Rivers;

"On Three Neolithic Settlements in Kent," by Mrs. H. Stopes; "On the Native Tribes of Africa between Zambezi and Uganda," by Lionel Docle; "On the Lex Barbarorum of the Daghestan," by Max Kovalevsky; "On Snails and Mussels in the Housekeeping of the Indoneses," by J. D. C. Schmeltz; "On the Ancient Religion of Fiji," by Basil H. Thomson; "On Ceremonies observed by the Kandyans in Paddy Cultivation," by B. P. Kehlpannala; "Natives of the Hadramaut in South Arabia," by Theodore Bent; "Distribution of the Picts in Britain, as indicated by Place Names," by J. Gray; "Brain of System of Relationship," by Lorimer Fison; "On a Young Fuegian," by L. Manouvrier; "Classification the Tobas of South America," by G. Graham Kerr; "On the Native Buildings at Chichen Itsa, Yucatan," by Alfred P. Maudsley; Notes on Some of the Natives of British New Guinea," by H. Bellyse Baildon; and "On the Philosophy of Holes," by Miss A. W. Buckland. Also reports from various committees were presented as follow: "On the Anthropological Laboratory"; "On the Ethnographical Survey"; "Anthropometry in Schools"; On the Lake Village at Gastonbury; and "On the Northwestern

Tribes of Canada."

I. Physiology. This section, in common with medicine, had been one of the earliest in the association, but from 1847 till the present time it had lapsed. It was presided over by Prof. Edward A. Schaefer, who discussed certain phases of the science in his address. At the outset he spoke of it historically, contrasting its condition in England with various countries in Continental Europe. Concerning the revival of physiology, he ascribed it as due in each country to the influence of one teacher. In England that teacher was William Sharpey. Michael Foster was his pupil. The physiological investigations of Burdon Sanderson were assisted and encouraged by him. From Sharpey, therefore, we may trace the rise of the great school of physiology in Cambridge, and we have only to look at the magnificent laboratory which has been erected here to observe a monument of the influence of the same teacher. Passing to the antivivisection movement, he spoke of it as having to a certain extent hampered the full development of the science. In lieu of accomplishing its purpose, its effects had been almost the opposite, and its attacks led (1) to the establishment of the Physiological Society; (2) to the passing of the socalled Cruelty to Animals act; (3) the establishment of the Association for the Advancement of Medicine by Research; and (4) the re-establishment of the section of physiology in the British Association. Certain obscure subjects in the range of physiology which are creating a great interest at the present moment were then discussed. Protoplasm and nucleus form the living substance of the cell. Recently it has been observed that in certain specialized animal cells the protoplasm showed a tendency to radiate further investigation it was found that at this from or converge to a particular point, and on point there was a minute particle. This has been shown to be an organ of the cell having a definite existence of its own. It is, notwithstanding its minute size, concerned in directing the general growth of the individual, and ultimately the propagation of the species. The ductless glands came in for consideration, and more especially the thyroid gland, a small, reddish organ, weighing about 2 ounces, found at the front of the throat, which, when diseased,

produces fatal results. When removed, the cause of the trouble disappears; but if even a minute part of the thyroid gland be left while the greater part is removed a cure is not effected, showing the enormous influence exercised by a "next-to-nothing" process upon the general organism. There is no organ of the body, however small, however seemingly unimportant, that we can presume to neglect; for it may be, as with the suprarenal capsules, the thyroid gland, and the pancreas, that the balance of assimilation and nutrition, upon the proper maintenance of which the health of the whole organism immediately depends, hinges upon the integrity of such obscure structures, and it is the maintenance of this balance which constitutes health, its disturbance disease. In this section the following papers were presented:

"On the Unequal Diffusion of Poisons into the Organs," by Paul leger; "A New Theory of Hearing," by Mr. Hurst: Reaction Time," by Prof. Rutherford; "Vowel and Consonant Sounds," by Prof. Her


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"An Aerotonometer and Gas Pipette," by Prof. Fredericq: "Local Immunity," by L. Corbett "A Form of Experimentally Produced Immunity," by Lorrain Smith; "The Changes in Nerve Cells due to Functional Activity," by Dr. Mann; "On the Causes and Prevention of Suffocation in Mines," by J. S. Haldane; Observations on the Effects of After Damp," by Dr. Shaw Little; and "Experiments on Memory," by W. G. Smith.

Popular Features.-On the evening of Aug. 10 a discourse "On the Value of African Exploration in its Bearing upon Scientific Research was delivered by Dr. J. W. Gregory, while on the evening of Aug. 11 Prof. W. J. Sollas gave a popular lecture on "Geologies and Deluges"; also an evening discourse on " Historic Progress and Socialism," by Prof. J. Shield Nicholson, was given on Aug. 13. Other entertainments included a garden party at Christ Church, given by the Dean and Mrs. Paget on the afternoon of Aug. 9, and one given on the afternoon of Aug. 10 by the warden of Merton College. Saturday, Aug. 12, was devoted to excursions. These included a visit to Blenheim, the seat of the Duke of Marlborough; to Nuneham, Dorchester, and Wallingford; to Nuneham and Abingdon; a geological expedition to Stonesfield and an excursion to Silchester. On Sunday the Bishop of Oxford preached in the cathedral, and at St. Mary's special sermons were delivered with reference to the meeting. On the evening of Aug. 14 the mayor's soirée was held in the New Schools. The exhibits at the meeting included those of the Marine Biological Association; morphological models; experiments with sodium; optical specimens; anthropological specimens; a low-resistance standard; a graphical transformer; the telautograph; the Brausviga calculating machine; demonstrations of anthropometric measurements; linkage models of xylonite and focometer; a thermo-dynamic model for steam; pyrometers; a magnetarium; Hittite antiquities; prehistoric antiquities from Crete; and the liberation from hard mud balls of live protopteri by immersing them in water, although they had been incased in the mud for several months. Many of the colleges dispensed magnificent hospitality, entertaining the officers and foreign visitors with a lavishness that long will be remembered. The university testified to its

interest in the welfare of science by conferring the degree of D. C. L. honoris causa on the following foreign investigators present at the meeting: Edouard van Beneden, Liége, Belgium; Ludwig Boltzmann, Munich, Germany; E. Chauveau and Max Cornu, Paris, France; Theodore W. Engelmann, Utrecht, Netherlands: Wilhelm Förster, Berlin, Germany: Charles Friedel, Paris, France; L. Hermann, Königsberg, Germany; Samuel P. Langley, Washington, D. C.; Gotsa Mittag-Leffler. Stockholm, Sweden; George Quincke, Heidelberg, Germany; and Edward Strasburger, Bonn, Germany. Among the American scientists in attendance were Edward Atkinson, Boston, Mass.; Prof. George F. Barker, Philadelphia, Pa.; Dr. John S. Billings, Washington, D. C.; Prof. Douglas H. Campbell, Palo Alto, Cal.: Prof. Samuel P. Langley, Washington, D. C.; Prof. Alfred M. Mayer, Hoboken, N. J.; Edward P. North, New York city; Prof. Henry F. Osborn, New York city; Prof. William Osler, Baltimore, Md.; Prof. Charles V. Riley, Washington, D. C.; A. Lawrence Rotch, Boston, Mass.; Gen. Francis A. Walker, Boston, Mass.; and H. M. Whitney, Beloit, Wis.

Attendance and Grants.-The report of the general treasurer presented at the final meeting showed that 2,321 persons had attended the meetings, and the receipts were £2,175, in consequence of which £1,100 were distributed among the sections in grants for research, as follow: Mathematics and physics, £350; chemistry, £105; geology, £138; biology, £260: geography, £55; mechanical science, £50; anthropology, £75; physiology, £25; and corresponding societies, £25; making a total of £1,093. Says "Nature": "It was the opinion of all that rarely, if ever, has a more brilliant meeting of the association been held."

Next Meeting. As decided last year, the association will meet in 1895 at Ipswich, on Sept. 11. For 1896 the claims of Liverpool were presented, which place was then chosen for the meeting of that year. An invitation for Toronto, Canada, in 1897, was received. While a final decision was deferred until next year, a resolution was adopted expressing a desire on the part of the General Committee that the invitation be renewed in 1895. Sir Douglas Galton, a high authority on sanitary matters, and who had been an official of the association since 1871, was chosen president. The appointments of vice-presidents, local secretary, and the re-election of Vernon Harcourt as secretary, and Arthur W. Rücker as treasurer, followed.

Australasian.-The fifth annual meeting of the Australasian Association was held in Âdelaide, South Australia, during the week beginning Sept. 25, 1892, and an account of it appeared in last year's "Annual Cyclopædia." No meeting was held during 1893, but the sixth annual meeting will be held in Brisbane, Queensland, during January, 1895.

ASTRONOMY, PROGRESS OF, IN 1894. Though during the past year astronomy has made considerable advance, yet its progress has not been characterized by any discovery of paramount importance. No new member has been added to the solar system, nor have we attained to that knowledge of the sun and its surroundings which is so greatly desired. But the fol

lowing brief résumé will give the reader an idea of what has been accomplished in the various branches into which astronomy has been divided.

The Sun.-Prof. George E. Hale, of Kenwood Observatory, Chicago, and a few other students of solar physics, have made of late herculean efforts to photograph the solar corona without an eclipse. Mr. Hale has recently returned from a visit to the principal observatories of the Old World, one object of his journey being to test his apparatus from the summit of Mount Etna, in Sicily. 9,652 feet high, after having vainly tried to secure the corona's photograph from the summit of Pike's Peak, in Colorado, an altitude of 14,147 feet. He was not successful in securing the desired photograph. Work on this line had previously been done by Dr. Common, of England, who felt for a time that he had secured the desired imprint, but critical examination of the plates showed the coronal appearances to be due to some terrestrial effect.

During the progress of the solar eclipse of 1886 photographic exposures revealed a false corona, part of which was in front of the moon, showing that it was produced by some unknown terrestrial phenomenon.

Oxygen in the Sun.-This question has been much discussed by astronomers, and the preponderating evidence seems to be that this element is lacking. There are three different spectra of emission believed by spectroscopists to belong to oxygen-viz., the two-line spectra, the one-band spectrum, and a continuous spectrum. In the spectrum of the sun neither the line nor the band spectrum has been found, and the continuous spectrum of the sun has at least not been proved. What has hitherto been believed to have been its detection has been shown by M. Janssen to belong wholly to the earth's atmosphere, and he finds that the evidence of its existence disappears when the sun is observed from greatly elevated stations, notably from his improvised observatory on Mont Blanc, Switzerland. But it seems surpassingly strange, when we consider that more than half of the earth, including its air, land, and water, is composed of oxygen, that this substance should be entirely absent from the parent orb.

Sun Spots. Many of the sun spots of 1894 have been of enormous size, indicating the continuance of maximum sun-spottedness. Those visible from Feb. 16 to Feb. 28 were nearly as large as any ever recorded, and evoked universal interest. On the 21st the group of spots was easily seen by the naked eye, having attained to 2,000,000 square miles in extent. As confirmatory or otherwise that aurora and magnetic earth currents are produced by these solar outbursts, and as showing what part of the sun's disk produces spots exercising the greatest influence on the earth, it may be said that the great spot just considered furnishes no positive proof that the effects often observed are at all connected with sun spots. While many astronomers hold the opinion that sun spots cause magnetic disturbances on the earth and in its atmosphere, and produce the aurora borealis, others strenuously contend that all the above phenomena are as frequently observed in the absence of sun spots as when they are present. VOL. XXXIV.-4 A

The largest sun spot observed thus far in 1894 appeared on the eastern limb of the sun Aug. 10, passed the sun's center on the 16th, and disappeared on the western limb, by the sun's rotation, on Aug. 23, having gone through many changes of form. Though not comparable in size to many that have occasionally been viewed, yet its magnitude on the 15th was enormous, equaling one tenth of the solar disk, or 86,000 miles in length and 40,000 in width, covering an area of over 3,000,000,000 square miles. On Sept. 5 this group reappeared, by rotation, on the sun's eastern limb, though greatly diminished in size, and it was lost to view on the 15th. Venus and Mercury.-The study of the secular variations of the orbits of the four inner planets, as derived from observation, has led Prof. Simon Newcomb to the conclusion that the perihelion of Mercury is not the only element the secular variation of which can not be satisfactorily determined by existing theory. The motion of the node of Venus can not be explained except by supposing errors of observation which do not seem admissible, while the motions of the eccentricity and node of Mercury also deviate suspiciously from the results of any probable values of the masses of the disturbing planets. These anomalies can not be simultaneously explained by an intramercurial zone of planets, by the action of matter reflecting the zodiacal light, nor by a deviation of gravitation from the usually accepted law. The uncertainty as to the mass of Mercury makes the construction of a working hypothesis difficult. That one which best represents observations is that of a ring of planetoids, of small eccentricity, a little outside of the orbit of Mercury, and a little more inclined to the ecliptic.

Mars.-Prof. Campbell, of Lick Observatory, has compared the spectrum of Mars with that of the moon, when the two objects were in close proximity, and has found the two spectra identical-that is to say, it is in both cases the spectrum of the sun unmodified by passage through an atmosphere. As, therefore, the moon is without an atmosphere, and as her spectrum is identical with that of the sun, he infers that if Mars has an atmosphere it is too rare to be spectroscopically noticeable. Though his conclusions seem unassailable, yet they do not meet with general acceptance, as telescopic examination shows an atmosphere of considerable density.

The spectroscopic studies of Mars by Huggins, Rutherfurd, Vogel, and Secchi all show, in addition to numerous lines of the solar spectrum, that bands were present toward the red end of the spectrum which did not belong to the spectrum of the sun, but which were coincident with the terrestrial-absorption spectrum. Furthermore, the telescope reveals the presence of clouds and of snow, which certainly could not exist without an atmosphere.

The most interesting features of the planet Mars are the white caps that appear alternately at his poles. Generally they are visible with small telescopes, and exhibit a strong contrast with the reddish tone of the planet. Strangely enough, at this writing, Nov. 1, neither is to be seen with the 16-inch refractor of Lowe Observatory, Echo Mountain, California. They furnish valuable evidence regarding the physical

condition of the planet, and, being caused by snow, corroborate the theory of an atmosphere, without which snow could not be produced. Early in the season, when not so well situated for observation as now, the snow cap at his south pole was a conspicuous object, but as that has melted under the summer sun, only the dark, somber planet may now be seen. When his winter is prolonged one will appear at the north pole. Jupiter.-Dr. Edward E. Barnard, of Lick Observatory, has devoted much time to the determination of the equatorial and polar diameters of Jupiter, as observed with the 36-inch refractor, using uniformly a magnifying power of 520. The mean results of all his measures are as follow: Equatorial diameter, 38-532" ± 0-02490,190 miles; polar diameter, 36.112 ± 0.03284,570 miles. This, which he thinks is very near their true value, differs from other observations by an entire second, or over 2,000 miles, and leads him to the conclusion that the determination of the true size of Jupiter is not an easy problem.

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In relation to the spots that often suddenly appear on Jupiter's disk, Prof. G. W. Hough, of the Evanston (Ill.) Observatory, says: They appear in a medium, having a depth of some thousands of miles, and also have a freedom of motion in this medium. This points to the conclusion that the planet is gaseous, which is borne out by the gradual fading of the light of the satellites when projected on the disk of the planet."

Jupiter's Fifth Satellite.-Dr. Barnard, the discoverer, by a prolonged series of observations, determined the values of its eastern elongations during 1893-'94, and finds the mean value to be 47.7850044", corresponding to a distance from Jupiter of 111,910 miles, or about 67,000 miles from the surface. He finds, however, the elongation a varying quantity. No observations could be obtained of its western elongations. The sidereal period of revolution, from a mean of all the observations, he deduces as 11h 57m 22-6180013, in an eccentric orbit. M. Tisserand finds that the major axis of the orbit must make a complete revolution in the astonishingly short period of five months. The motion of this satellite about its primary is 16.4 miles a second, making it the most rapidly revolving satellite known even twelve times swifter than the rate of Phobos, the inner satellite of Mars. From several considerations he has been led to believe that it can not exceed one hundred miles in diameter, and may be less. If it were greatly over one hundred miles, its shadow on the planet could be seen with the 36-inch telescope.

Diameter of Saturn.-The exact determination of a planet's diameter, owing to obstacles of an optical character, is a difficult problem. "The secondary spectrum of the refractor," says Prof. Wermann Struve, "causes want of definition of the boundaries of the planet's disk; this effect is increased by diffraction and by unsteadiness of the air. In addition to these and other difficulties, the micrometer employed seems to influence the result." A series of results from 1826 to 1887 shows in the case of Saturn an uncertainty of at least a half second, the best heliometric observations giving its equatorial diameter as 17.1", and the axis of the ring as

39.5", while best filar micrometer measures give, respectively, 177" and 40-3". A series of 93 measurements made with the 30-inch Pulkowa refractor, from 1889 to 1892 inclusive, for the determination of the orbits of Rhea and Titan, gives 17:471" for the equatorial diameter of Saturn, and 39.2" for its ring. Similar uncertainties obtain with the other planets.

Variables.-The director of Harvard College Observatory, Prof. E. C. Pickering, in his annual report, says that in a photograph of the cluster Omega Centauri, Prof. Bailey counted on a region the size of the sun 7,000 stars, two of which have been found to be variables. In "Astronomische Nachrichten," Prof. Pickering announces that Mrs. Fleming has discovered four new variables, one, a star in Sculptor, right ascension 0h 10-4m; declination 32° 36', varying from 6.5 to 10th magnitude in 366 days. Another is in Scorpio, right ascension 16h 50.3m; declination south, 30° 26', varying from 73 to 11.6 in 278 days. The third is in Ophiuchus, right ascension 17h 14.5m; declination north 1° 37', varying in 348-4 days from 8.5 to 12.5 in magnitude, and the fourth was found in Aquilla, right ascension 19h 46-5m; declination north 4° 13', varying from 9-5 to 12th magnitude in about a year. Dr. S. C. Chandler discovered on Aug. 5 a remarkable variable star of short period, which has received the name Z. Herculis. The following synopsis will show the rapidity of its fluctuations, as observed in Leyden: On Sept. 18, 1894 -at 7 45, magnitude 487; at 8h 7m, magnitude 391; at 8h 45m, magnitude 3.58; at 9h 41m, magnitude 5.25; at 10h 12m, magnitude 6.38; at 11b 5m, magnitude 792. On Sept. 20-at 7h 54, magnitude 8:09; at 9h 34m, magnitude, 8-26. On Sept. 22-at 7h 17m, magnitude, 6; at 8h 44m. magnitude 3.25; at 10, magnitude 6-33. On Sept. 24-at 7h 24m, magnitude 809; at 8h 30m, magnitude E59. This star, which is of the Algol type, is Durchmusterung + 15° 3311; right ascension (1855) 17h 51m 34s; declination + 15° 93'.

Temporary Stars.-The history of astronomy includes about a dozen well-authenticated instances of the appearance of new stars, and it is a curious fact that the last two, the one in Auriga and that in Normæ, should have manifested themselves within two years of each other, and that the earliest record of their existence should in both cases have been made by photography. These stars, like all of this character, appeared suddenly. Stars of this kind were formerly supposed to be very rarely seen, but this number shows them to be not so unfamiliar. Examination of their spectra showed that each prominent bright line in the Nova Auriga had a corresponding bright line in Nova Normæ, and that every hydrogen bright line had a companion dark line by its side in both spectra, the dark line in every instance being toward the violet end of the spectrum. The Nova Norma was discovered on Oct. 26, 1893, by Mrs. Fleming, of Harvard College Observatory, during the inspection of a photograph taken on July 10, 1893, at the observatory founded by Harvard at Arequipa, Peru. The spectrum of this new star is declared by Prof. Campbell to be unmistakably nebulous. The behavior of Nova Auriga has been unique, the cause of which is not apparent.

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