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That its brightness has exhibited strange fluctuations is admitted by all, but that it has assumed the character of a nebula is disputed. At Lick Observatory it presented to Dr. Barnard the appearance of a small bright nebula consisting of a nucleus surrounded by a pretty bright but dense nebulosity 3" in diameter. On the contrary, Mr. Newall, observing with a 25inch refractor, found the Nova to be truly stellar. At Pulkowa it was seen as a nebula. At Upper Tulse Hill, with an 18-inch refractor, it appeared as truly stellar as a star near it. Prof. Vogel has suggested that a possible explanation of the nebulous appearance observed at Lick, Pulkowa, and other observatories, may be found in the chromatic corrections of the telescopes there employed, the greater part of their light having been near wave length 5,000, if the telescopes had been focused on a neighboring star. Prof. Campbell has compared the spectrum, both visual and photographic, with those of 5 nebulæ, and regards 19 lines thereof, including the lines of hydrogen, which are common alike to nebulæ and stars, as probably identical with lines in the spectra of the nebula.

Elements of Alpha Centauri.-The orbit of this double star-our nearest stellar neighbor -which has hitherto been held as uncertain, the estimated periods ranging from seventy-seven to eighty-eight years, is now among the best determined of the known double star. Dr. See finds from the parallax of Gill and Elkin (0.75") that the semimajor axis of the orbit is 23-592 astronomical units; so that the companion moves in an orbit that is about a mean between those of the planets Uranus and Neptune, but the eccentricity is so great that in periastron the distance (113) but little surpasses that of Saturn, while in apastron it considerably exceeds the distance of Neptune from the sun, becoming 36 astronomical units. He makes the time of periastron A. D. 1876-62; period, 81-07 years; eccentricity, 0-52; length of major axis, 32.5"; length of minor axis, 6·16"; distance of star from center, 5.94".

Bright-Line Stellar Spectra.-Prof. Campbell has observed that the 93 magnitude star, Durchmusterung + 30 3639, is surrounded by an extensive hydrogen envelope. The star is of the Wolf-Ragot type, and its spectrum is very rich in bright lines, about 30 having been observed between wave lengths 656 and 426. Visually, the most striking features are the continuous spectrum, the bright line at wave length 5,694, the bright-blue band at wave length 4.652, and the very bright hydrogen H. 8 line. This latter line, when observed with a narrow slit, is a long streak extending a very appreciable distance on either side of the continuous spectrum, but seen with an open slit it is a large circular disk about 5" in diameter. This appearance has not been observed in the spectra of any other stars of this type.

No. 3200 of the "Astronomische Nachrichten" contains a catalogue of 99 stars of remarkable spectra, by Rev. T. E. Espin, of Wolsingham Observatory, Darlington, England. His opinion is that the more banded the spectrum the greater is the difference between the visual and the photometric magnitude. Of T Corona he says: "The nebular spectrum has entirely

disappeared. The region from declination north 51° to 56°, bounded by 10h 40m to 11h 8m in right ascension, is remarkable for the number of strongly colored stars. Out of 108 stars, as counted on the charts, 17 are orange red, showing plainly a grouping of tinted stars in this part of the heavens."

Comets. The years 1893-'94 were unusually barren of cometary apparitions, but three having been seen, and two of these-Tempel's and Encke's-were expected. The former, Tempel's (periodic) comet II of July 3, 1873, with a period of about five and a quarter years, was observed by Mr. Finlay, of the Cape of Good Hope Observatory, on the night of May 8, 1873. Its brightness scarcely equaled that of a star of the eleventh magnitude. It was seen at its next apparition in 1878, but escaped detection in 1883 and in 1889.

Comet a 1894 was discovered by Denning, of England, on the evening of March 26. It had a daily motion of about 1° in a southeasterly direction. It was at all times very faint. The following elliptical elements for this comet are by J. R. Hind:

Epoch, 1894, March 27.5, Greenwich mean time.
Longitude of perihelion..
130° 21' 22-6"
Longitude of node.....
85° 2′38:07

Inclination

Motion..
Period

52,749.1 525-17108" 6 756 years

The comet announced as having been discovered by Edwin Holmes, of London, England, on April 9, proves on investigation to have been a nebula, No. 6503 of Dreyer's New General Catalogue of Nebula.

Comet b 1894 (Gale). This comet, detected on April 1, became visible to the naked eye on the 7th of that month, and on the 25th had attained to the fourth magnitude. The tail, though not at any time visible to the naked eye, was on the 12th 20 in length and 1° broad, but on the 15th had entirely disappeared. The diameter of the coma was 12', which was constantly maintained. Dr. Kreutz has computed for it the subjoined elements:

Epoch, 1894. April 18-5576, Berlin mean time.
Node to perihelion
Longitude of node
Inclination.

Log. of perihelion distance.

824 17' 57'8" 206° 21' 13.5" 87° 8'80-6" 9-992746

On the photographic negative plates of the total solar eclipse of April 16, 1893, appears a nebulous object which can not be other than a comet. It is present on 12 of Prof. Schaeberle's plates from Guiana, on 3 Harvard College Observatory plates, on 2 British plates taken in Brazil, and on 3 British plates in Africa. Study of these negatives shows that the object had a progressive motion, and that unquestionably it was a comet and ought to receive the designation of comet I, 1893, which cognomen Dr. Krueger has given it.

Encke's comet was discovered on Nov. 1, 1894, by Cerulli, of Italy.

Comet V 1889 (Brooks).—A thorough discussion of this comet has recently been made by Mr. C. Lane Poor, with a view of determining or disproving its identity with the celebrated Lexel's comet of 1770. He finds that comet Brooks, though originally moving in an orbit of

long period, on approaching the planet Jupiter was diverted and not only changed in orbit, but became entangled in his satellites for 2-65 days, during which time the comet made a complete revolution around Jupiter, passing over an arc of 313 of longitude. Previous to this approach to the great disturbing planet, he ascribes to comet Brooks a period of 31:38 years, with an uncertainty of 12 year. The tendency of the research is to disprove the identity of this comet with that of Lexel, though the latter passed also between Jupiter and his satellites; but the matter has been much discussed, and the suspected identity will probably never be either substantiated or disproved.

Spectrum of Comet b 1894 (Gale).-With a narrow slit, Prof. Campbell saw a bright line at wave length 563, terminating the yellow band; another at 474, terminating the blue band; and two bright lines in the green band were measured at wave lengths 5,163-5 and 5,124. His conclusion was that the four lines were the edges of carbon bands at wave lengths 5,635, 4,737, 5.165-3, and 5,129, which in every respect seemed to agree with the observations of Prof. Vogel. The spectrum was photographed on several nights, with long exposures. On one evening 6 bright lines were recorded; on another, 15 bright lines and the unresolved band at wave length 47 were depicted, and, later, with greatly extended exposure, 22 bright lines were photographed. Comparison of this spectrum with that of comet b 1893 shows the two to be identical. The conclusion arrived at is that the principal lines are due to the presence in both comets of carbon and cyanogen, but the origin of several of the fainter lines is unknown. The spectrum of comets more nearly resembles that of a burning compound of carbon than one of carbon made incandescent by electricity.

Jupiter's Family of Comets.-Nearly all, if not every one, of the comets of short period were made thus by the perturbing influence of Jupiter, and hence their paternity is ascribed to him. In their journey to the sun they traveled near the giant planet, whose superior attraction changed their orbits from ellipses of long period, or perchance parabolas, to ellipses of short period. The appended list is his family record so far as known. Nearly all have been observed at more than one apparition: Lexel's of 1770, De Vico's, D'Arrest's, Finlay's, Denning's I, Denning's II, Faye's, Tempel's I, Tempel's II, Swift's I, Swift's II, Barnard's I, Barnard's II, Brooks's I, Brooks's II, Encke's, Spitaler's, Brorsen's, Wolf's, Holmes's, Winnecke's, Tuttle's, Biela's (lost).

There are a few others having short computed periods, but too much uncertainty attaches to them to warrant their introduction into this table.

Asteroids. This year there has been a lull in the discovery of these little planets, and but few new members have been added to the asteroid group. In March, 1893, as many, less one, were found as have been discovered in the past eleven months. But astronomy is the gainer by the infrequency of their detection. The following list comprises all those to be added to the catalogue incorporated in the last volume:

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So far as known, not one of these has received a name, nor have any names been given, save a few, to those found in 1891-'93. The entire number of these bodies is a little uncertain, but will not vary much from 388.

Diameters of Asteroids.-As is well known, measurement of the diameters of the asteroids has been deemed impossible, but Dr. Barnard thinks the brightest of them easily measurable with the 36-inch telescope of the Lick Observatory. "Astronomy and Astro-Physics" for May, 1894, contains a history of the determination by several astronomers of the diameters of Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta, but the results are very discordant. All measurements hitherto have given the largest diameter to Vesta; but Dr. Barnard, with the great telescope, using a power of 1,000, has made micrometrical measures of Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta, and has found the diameter of Ceres twice as large as either of the others. Subjoined are his filar-micrometer measures of these three planetoids:

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Meteors. While information has been had from various parts of the world of about the usual number of bolides, yet, as usual, the accounts are so at variance that it is difficult to obtain data of sufficient exactness for computation of reliable orbits. A gratifying exception is the report of a meteor of this sort seen at and in the vicinity of Grahamstown, Cape of Good Hope, on the evening of April 6, 1894, which is thus described by Mr. L. A. Eddie, F. R. A. S.: "When first seen it was about 6° above the western horizon, moving very slowly to the east, having in its wake a brilliant train some 30° in length and 2 or 3' in width, much resembling a bright comet with a long tail. When nearing the eastern horizon the flame was extinguished and it resumed the appearance of a glowing ball of molten matter, as it had on its first apparition in the west. It was visible for thirty seconds. The cause of its slow motion was, doubtless, its direction of motion, that having been from west to east, the same as that of the earth." He adds: "I had never before seen a fire ball rise and set as this one did. There was no accom

panying noise or appearance of an explosion during visibility. It was seen at various places in the colony, and all agree that no noise was heard or explosion seen."

A majority of fire balls move in the same direction as the earth, or from west to east, and, as the motion of both is about the sun, such meteors overtake the earth. On the contrary, those having a retrograde motion are themselves overtaken by the earth. Results derived from observation of 321 of the largest fire balls seen during the past thirty years show 59-2 per cent. of the former class and 40-8 per cent. of the latter.

Binary Systems.-The following are a few binary systems for which orbits of more or less exactness have been computed:

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Period

in years

the beginning of the present year reports were received from 7 of the associated observatories that the plates secured amounted to 1,731, the total number assigned to them being 8,308. If the unreported observatories are equally advanced there should be no difficulty in completing the catalogue plates before the year 1900. Of chart plates, however, only 415 have been taken by the same 7 observatories, so that the date of completion of the long-exposure negatives, even without duplication, is still very uncertain. Letters from the directors of several observatories engaged in the work testify to the practical difficulties encountered by them, notably with the Réscaux, the films of which seem liable to perish, causing faults in the photographs.

Celestial Photography.-The application of photography to astronomical purposes is rapidly extending, and is arousing a spirit of emulation not confined to the great observatories, nor to eminent specialists like Roberts and Barnard, 185 and is achieving valuable results.

61

81

88

377

782 1,001

1,624

Constant of Aberration.—Mr. Preston, of the United States Coast Survey, having discussed the observations made at Waikiki, Hawaiian Islands, finds it necessary to make a correction to the generally accepted value of the constant of aberration from 20-445" to 20-433" ± 0·034. This value, combined with the latest determinations of the velocity of light (186,333 miles) and Clark's value of the earth's radius (3,963-3 miles), gives the sun's distance and equatorial horizontal parallax as follow: Distance, 92,700,000 miles; parallax, 8-82".

Change in the Astronomical Day.-In answer to the question asked of astronomers in all countries by the Physical Society of Toronto, whether it be desirable that the astronomical day should begin at midnight instead of at noon, 179 replies were received-107 in favor of and 63 adverse to the proposed change. Of the opposition most were Germans. The time indicated for the inauguration of this change of the day's beginning is the first day of the twentieth century, Jan. 1, 1901.

Universal-time Movement.-Considerable progress has been made, both during the past and the present year, by the project for the adoption by the Eastern Continent of a zonal system of time similar to that which for several years has been in use in the United States and Canada. Germany has adopted mid-European time, one hour fast of Greenwich, and made it the legal time of the German Empire. The same system obtains in Italy, Denmark, and Switzerland. England, Belgium, and Holland use Greenwich time. Japan and Australia are nine hours fast of Greenwich time. The United States and Canada are four, five, six, seven, and eight hours slow of Greenwich time, and the differences are named colonial, eastern, central, mountain, and Pacific time, respectively. When the standard time was changed in Italy the twenty-four hour system of reckoning was introduced also, 0 hour being midnight.

Astrographic Charts.-Work on these charts may now be regarded as fairly begun. Up to

MM. Loewy and Puiseux, of the Paris Observatory, at a recent meeting of the Paris Academy of Sciences, exhibited some photographs of the moon, taken with the equatorial coudee, which were larger than those taken at Lick Observatory, and bore enlarging well. One of the enlargements represented the moon on a scale nearly six feet in diameter, rare, indeed, because the atmosphere will seldom allow the taking of a photograph of which such enlargement is possible.

Photographic Nebulæ.-Suspecting that there was a nebulous region hitherto unknown in the vicinity of the Pleiades, not reckoning the nebula of the cluster itself, Dr. Barnard subjected that portion of the sky to an exposure of 10h 15m, and secured a number of singular curved and streaky nebulosities apparently connected with the Pleiades, and extending all about the group. Some of these streams stretch out irregularly several degrees on either side of the cluster.

North of the Pleiades, from right ascension 3h 20m to over 4h, and from declination + 30° to several degrees farther north, is a district singularly devoid of small stars, but filled with large masses of exceedingly diffused nebulosity, never before known or imagined. Differing from all other nebulous clusters, the nebulosity of the Pleiades is condensed about the individual stars.

In December, 1892, and January, 1893, the entire constellation of Cassiopeia was photographed by Dr. Max Wolf, which revealed the structure of the Milky Way. Also numerous nebula were recorded on the plates (with exposures of fifteen and sixteen hours), which were to a large extent connected one with another by faint nebulous bands and streamers. He mentions as a typical form of these nebula that of a funnel narrowing to a curved tube or pipe, which ends in a chain or series of stars.

Publications.-Prof. S. W. Burnham, in a quarto volume of 255 pages, Vol. II, " Annals of Lick Observatory," has recorded his own work on double stars-the result of his studies with the 36-inch and 12-inch refractors of that institution. He gives full details of micrometrical measurements of between 800 and 900 objects. In discussing his measures of the celebrated

trapezium of Orion, or Theta Orionis, he enters into an elaborate examination of the alleged discoveries with small telescopes of stars in and about the trapezium, and gives a diagram of all that have been seen by the 36-inch telescope, amounting to only 3, besides the 6 wellknown ones forming the trapezium. In the progress of his study of the double stars he has discovered 9 new nebulæ, has taken measures of 28 planetary nebulæ, and has made observations of the physical structure of 38 other nebulae. The importance attaching to the micrometrical measurements of the planetary nebulæ arises from the fact that almost every one has a star in its exact center. The precise place of a nebula which has within it no visible star can not be accurately determined. Though, doubtless, all are in motion, yet no movement has ever been determined in any nebula, or any variation in brightness.

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Monthly Notices" of the Royal Astronomical Society of England, for June, 1894, contains 2 maps drawn from Dreyer's New General Catalogue of nebula and clusters, made on an equalsurface projection, showing their general distribution in both the northern and the southern heavens. The resolvable nebulæ are marked with red dots, the irresolvable with black, and the clusters are indicated by a cross. The author is Sidney Watters.

Another valuable record may be found in No. 325 of the "Astronomical Journal," which is wholly occupied by Dr. Barnard, of Lick Observatory, with accounts of the micrometrical measurements, by the 36-inch glass, of the fifth satellite of Jupiter and of the planet Jupiter itself. He, the discoverer of the new satellite, looks with disfavor on the numerous propositions by astronomers to confer upon this little new-found moon a mythological name, and his wish is that it be known simply as the fifth satellite of Jupiter. These are the results of his measures of the planet: Equatorial diameter, 90,190±56 miles; polar diameter, 84,570±75 miles; polar compression, Tr.

Dr. Barnard finally adopts as the period of the new satellite 11h 57m 22·6188 ± 0·013.

Cordoba Durchmusterung.-Vol. XVI of the publications of the Observatorio Nacional Argenting contains the first installment of an immense and most important work. It is a continuance from the southern limit-in reality overlapping it by one degree of the celebrated astronomers Argelander and Schonfield of their Durchmus terung, and records the positions and magnitudes of all the stars to the tenth magnitude inclusive, from south declination 22° to 32°.

Vol. XVII continues the Durchmusterung from declination south 32° to 42°. In the two volumes are comprised the positions and magnitudes of 340,380 stars from the first to the tenth magnitudes. The area covered is 6,075 square degrees of a great circle. It shows an average density of 56-2 stars to a square degree. In the Milky Way the density occasionally reached to 160 stars. For the preparation of both catalogues 1,108,600 observations were required. This herculean work was performed between 1885 and 1891 by Prof. John M. Thome, director of the Cordoba Observatory, Argentine Republic, and is comprised in 12 charts, 20 by 26 inches in

size, containing the places of 340,380 stars of the proper magnitudes, and positions for the epoch 1875-0.

Chandler's Second Catalogue of Variable Stars.-All who take an interest in stars of this kind will welcome the appearance of this list. Its arrangement is very complete in respect to place, color, limits of range, period, epoch, and terms of inequality, while interesting particulars are added in footnotes. It is considered a valuable acquisition to the literature of variable stars.

In Nos. 3233 and 3234 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, double-star observers will find a catalogue of 187 double stars observed by Prof. G. W. Hough with the 18-inch refractor of Evanston, Ill., and a series of measures of 182 known pairs.

Vol. III, "Annals of Lick Observatory," follows quickly the appearance of Vol. II. It contains 4 monographs of different subjects, the most valuable of the series being by Prof. James E. Keeler, now director of Allegheny Observatory, but formerly of the Lick Observatory staff. The treatise relates to his spectroscopic observations of nebula with the appliances on Mount Hamilton. He establishes beyond controversy that the principal nebular line has no connec tion whatever with the magnesium fluting. His determination of the wave length of the nebular line is 5,007-05 +03 tenth metres, and that of the magnesium fluting 4,959-02+04 tenth metres. It follows, therefore, that neither of these lines coincides with that of any known terrestrial element. The third nebular line is the H 8. one of the hydrogen lines. The motion of a nebula to or from the earth may be determined by the displacement of the hydrogen line. In this manner Dr. Keeler ascertained that the famous Orion nebula is traveling away from the sun, or that the sun and solar system are leaving the nebula, at the rate of about 11 miles a second. Also that, on the other hand, Struve VI-a planetary nebula, right ascension 18h 7, declination north 6° 50'-is moving toward us apparently 6.5 miles a second.

Prizes.-The Arago medal, of the value of 1,000 francs, was awarded to Dr. E. E. Barnard by the French Academy of Sciences on Dec. 18, 1893, for the discovery of the fifth satellite of Jupiter. It was at the same time conferred upon Prof. Asaph Hall, in recognition of his finding of the two moons of Mars in 1877. Only one other has received it-Leverier, for his discovery of Neptune.

The gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society of England has been received by Prof. S. W. Burnham, of the University of Chicago, for his discoveries and micrometrical measures of double stars, and for his researches on the orbital motions of binary systems. The number of double stars discovered by him is about 1,300.

The Lalande prize was bestowed upon M. Schulhof for cometary work.

The Valz prize fell to Herr Berberich for work on the asteroids, and the Janssen gold medal was awarded to Prof. Langley, for astronomical physics.

The Donohoe comet prize bronze medal has been forwarded to Mr. Gale for the discovery of comet b 1894. This medal was awarded to Mr.

Denning for the discovery of comet a 1894, but he refused to accept it on the ground that its intrinsic value was inadequate compensation for the labor of comet seeking.

A medal of this sort was cast for the discovery of comet b (Rordame), but, owing to a dispute as to Mr. Rordame's claims, the committee of award determined to withhold it altogether, and to deposit it in the archives of Lick Observatory.

Change of Observatory.-The instruments and equipments of Warner Observatory, Rochester, N. Y., have been removed to Echo mountain, southern California, a spur of the Sierra Madre range, and are now ensconced in the Lowe Observatory, just completed. This station is in Los Angeles County, 15 miles north of the city of that name, and is 3,700 feet above the level of the sea. Dr. Lewis Swift, director, and Mr. Edward D. T. Swift, assistant, constitute the working force of the institution.

Transit of Mercury. It is too early to transmit general observations of this phenomenon, as it occurred so recently, but it was well observed at the Lowe Observatory, both with the 16-inch refractor and with the 44-inch comet seeker, and was the first astronomical episode of the newly transplanted observatory. The times of contact were noted by Mrs. A. L. Miller for the observers, and were as follow: Ingress, first contact, 7h57m 10 A. M.; ingress, second contact, 7h 58m 36 A. M. Egress, first contact, 1h 11m 26s P. M.; egress, second contact, 1h 13m 10 P. M.

AUSTRALASIA, one of the grand divisions of the globe, composed mainly of British colonies. The five colonies of the continent of Australia, the adjacent colony of Tasmania, and New Zealand are self-governing, having elective parliaments consisting of two houses, and responsible ministers. The home Government has a right of veto, which it exercises, through the Governor, only in case a measure is deemed prejudicial to imperial rights or interests.

Postal and Telegraph Projects.-A conference arranged toward the end of 1893 between the governments of the Australasian colonies met in Wellington, New Zealand, March 5, 1894, to consider the Pacific cable question, intercolonial postal notes, parcel-post service with the United States, postal communication with Cape Colony, and penny postage between Great Britain and Australasia.

The conference approved the laying of a cable between Bundaberg. Queensland, and Vancouver, touching at Noumea, in New Caledonia, Fiji, Apia, in Samoa, Fanning island, and Honolulu. The Australian colonies expected to share with the British and Canadian governments a guarantee of 4 per cent. for fourteen years on £1,800,000, and hoped to obtain the capital in Great Britain, Canada, the United States, Germany, and France. The tariff should be restricted to 38. per word between Australian stations and Great Britain, and 1s. 6d. for press dispatches. Another proposed route was from Ahaipara Bay, New Zealand, to Vancouver, with extension from New Zealand to Brisbane, rejecting the section that was laid in 1893 between Noumea and Bundaberg by a French company with Government aid. The British Government, for political and strategic reasons, objected to having any landing on other than British soil, and when the

question was discussed at the Intercolonial Conference that met in Ottawa, Canada, in June, that was the understanding. At this conference a preliminary survey, to cost not over £25,000, was authorized, of the expense of which Canada, Australasia, and Great Britain will each bear one third. Siemens, the German electrician, offered to lay the cable for £2,000,000. The mail service between Great Britain and Australia via the Canadian Pacific Railroad by means of a fleet of steamers running between British Columbia and Australian ports was inaugurated by private enterprise. The Canadians purpose to make it a purely British route, by placing a line of fast packets on the Atlantic, and their Government offers a subsidy of £150,000 a year to the new service, while the British Government is expected to pay £75,000, the same subsidy that the Peninsular and Oriental and Orient lines receive.

The Postal Conference condemned the immediate reduction of letter postage between Great Britain and the colonies to 1d., as the reduction in 1891 to 24d. had entailed an annual loss of £40,000 to the colonies, and the necessary reduction of the intercolonial rate from 2d. to 1d. would involve an additional loss of £250,000. New South Wales.-The oldest of the Australasian colonies has had responsible government since 1855. The Legislative Council has 73 members, who are appointed for life by the Government. The Assembly, under the act that abolished the property qualification and plural votes, approved June 13, 1893, is composed of 125 members, elected for three years, in separate districts, by all male citizens over twenty-one years of age who have resided three months in the district. All elections are held on the same day. A residence of one year in the colony gains the franchise for a British subject. Members are paid £300 per annum. Sir Robert W. Duff began his functions as Governor on May 29, 1893. The Cabinet in the beginning of 1894 was composed as follows: Premier and Colonial Secretary, Sir George R. Dibbs; Colonial Treasurer, John See; Attorney-General, Charles G. Heydon; Secretary for Lands, Henry Copeland; Secretary for Public Works, William J. Lyne; Minister of Public Instruction, Francis B. Suttor; Postmaster-General, John Kidd ; Minister of Justice and Secretary for Mines and Agriculture, T. M. Slattery; Vice-President of the Executive Council and Representative of the Government in the Legislative Council, Dr. Maclaurin.

The colony has an area of about 310,700 square miles, and an estimated population, on Dec. 31, 1892, of 1,197,650-646,540 of the male and 551,110 of the female sex. In the census of 1891 464,937 persons were returned as actual workers, of whom 140,941 were in industrial, 136,375 in agricultural, pastoral, and mining, 87,967 in commercial, 58,393 in domestic, 30,879 in professional, and 10,382 in undefined occupations. The dependent persons numbered 655,964, including 12,478 supported by public or private charity. The only large city is Sydney, the capital, which contained an estimated population of 411,710 at the end of 1892. The net immigration in 1892 was 9,510, against 17,846 in 1891. The influx of Chinese has been stopped by the poll tax of £100, which has been collected since 1888 in all the col

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