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185th New York Volunteers; returned to the field as its lieutenant colonel; was promoted colonel, Feb. 1, 1865; and was brevetted brigadier general for meritorious service, March 29, 1865. He took part in 20 battles and several minor engagements. In the action at the Quaker Road, March 29, 1865, he saved the colors of his regiment after the fourth color-bearer had been shot. After the war he returned to Syracuse, and in 1870-72 was a member of the Legislature.

Snow, Freeman, educator, born in Palmyra, N. Y., in 1841; died in Nelson, Pa., Sept. 12, 1894. At the beginning of the civil war he enlisted in the 37th New York Volunteers, and was in active service till severely wounded at Malvern Hill. After the war he worked his way through Phillip's Andover Academy and Harvard College, where he graduated in 1873. For two years he was Assistant Professor of History at the United States Naval Academy; for a year he taught history at the Boston Latin School; and in 1881 he was appointed an instructor in forensics and American history at Harvard. After spending three years in study in France and Germany, he returned to Harvard in 1886 as Professor of International Law and American Diplomacy, and held the chair till his death. During the month preceding his death he delivered a series of lectures on international law at the United States Naval War College by appointment of the Navy Department, and prepared them for publication by the Government. He received the degree of Ph. D. from Heidelberg, and that of LL. D. from Harvard, after taking its full course in law.

Southgate, Horatio, clergyman, born in Portland, Me., July 5, 1812; died in Astoria, Long Island, April 11, 1894. He was graduated at Bowdoin College in 1832, and studied for the Congregational ministry at Andover Theological Seminary, His views having changed while there, he applied for orders in the Episcopal Church and was ordained deacon by Bishop Griswold in 1835. The next year he was appointed by the board of missions to report on the state of Mohammedanism in Turkey and Persia, and at once sailed for this new field. Returning to the United States in 1839, he was ordained priest, and in 1840 was sent as missionary to Constantinople. He served in this capacity for four years, and on Oct. 26, 1844, was consecrated bishop for the dominions of the Turkish Sultan. In 1849 he returned to the United States, and the next year resigned his bishopric. He organized St. Luke's Church in his native city in 1851, and from 1852 to 1858 was rector of the Church of the Advent in Boston, Mass. He became rector of Zion Church in New York city in 1859, and remained in that office until his resignation in September, 1872. After that date he lived in retirement at Astoria. He was the author of "Narrative of a Tour through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia, and Mesopotamia" (New York, 1840); "Narrative of a Visit to the Syrian [Jacobite] Church of Mesopotamia" (1844); Practical Directions for the Observance of Lent" (1850); "The War in the East" (1855); “ A Treatise on the Antiquity, Doctrine, Ministry, and Worship of the Anglican Church" (Constantinople, in Greek, 1849); “Parochial Sermons" (1859); “The Cross above the Crescent, a Romance of Constantinople" (Philadelphia, 1877). He also contributed largely to periodicals.

Stanton. Frederic Perry, lawyer, born in Alexandria, Va., Dec. 22, 1814; died near Ocala, Fla., June 4, 1894. He was a brother of Richard Henry Stanton, the jurist and author; was graduated at Columbian College in 1833, and in the following year was admitted to the bar and removed to Memphis, Tenn. In 1845-55 he was a Representative in Congress, where for two years he was chairman of the Judiciary Committee; in 1857 was appointed Secretary of Kansas Territory; and in 1858-61 was Governor. was associate editor of the "Continental Monthly" in 1863-264; subsequently lived in Virginia; and settled in Florida about 1886.


Steinberger, Albert Barnes, ex-Premier of Samoa, born in Schuylkill County, Pa., Dec. 25, 1840; died in

Dorchester, Mass., May 2, 1894. His father was one of the largest operators in coal and iron in Pennsylvania. He was educated at Princeton, studied law, married a daughter of Hon. Alfred Ely, of Rochester, N. Y., in 1867, and engaged in the manufacture of firearms and metallic cartridges. In 1870 he represented a syndicate that had a large contract to supply the French Government with firearms and cartridges. Part of the contract was executed when trouble arose over financial matters, and the contract and its negotiation became the subject of a congressional investigation, and the business remained unadjusted at his death. On Feb. 17, 1872, the great chief of the Navigator, or Samoan, Islands signed an agreement with Commander Richard W. Meade, U. S. N. granting the United States the privilege of establishing a naval station in the harbor of Pago Pago, Tutuila island, and in April following the chiefs and rulers petitioned President Grant to annex the islands to the United States. Soon afterward Mr. Steinberger applied to the President for appointment as special commissioner from the United States to Samoa, and on March 29, 1873, he was commissioned a special agent to "obtain accurate information in regard to the Navigator Islands." He reached Apia, Upolo island, on Aug. 17, issued a manifesto to the chiefs and rulers, and on the 21st met the principal men in a grand council. While he avoided all reference to the subject of annexation, the chiefs and the white residents openly favored it. At this council the foundation was laid of a new form of government for the islands, and in October a new code of laws, drawn up by Mr. Steinberger, was promulgated. In December Mr. Steinberger returned to the United States, and made an elaborate report to the President, which formed the basis of a memorable discussion in Congress. On Dec. 11, 1874, Mr. Steinberger received another commission to visit Samoa, and sailed from San Francisco in the United States steamer" Pensacola," with a considerable quantity of presents for the chiefs, in February, 1875. Soon after his arrival a new constitution was promulgated, under which Malietoa, the most powerful chief, was selected as King, and Mr. Steinberger as Prime Minister and Chief Justice. In October a special commissioner was sent from Samoa with a draft of a treaty between the kingdom and the United States. Meanwhile, commercial and political complications were increasing, in which the new Government, the United States consul, and the American, English, and German merchants were concerned. In December the British man-of-war "Barracouta" arrived in Apia harbor; charges were preferred against Mr. Steinberger, who was supported by the native Government; and at a meeting of the King with the foreign consuls on board the Barracouta," on Feb. 7, 1876, the former was prevailed on to depose his Prime Minister. On the following day Mr. Steinberger was seized, taken on board the British vessel, which sailed for Auckland, New Zealand, on March 29, and was landed, penniless, at Levuka, Fiji Islands. He made his way to Paris and London, and after filing claims for damages for his seizure and deportation, returned to the United States, and filed charges against Mr. Foster, the United States consul at Apia, for his participation in the affair. Capt. Stevens, of the "Barracouta," was ordered to return to England for trial; Consul Foster was removed by Secretary Fish. Congress made a partial investigation; and Mr. Griffin, who succeeded Mr. Foster, in an official report in February, 1877, gave high praise to Mr. Steinberger's acts while at Samoa. These constituted his only redress and vindication.

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Stevenson, Jonathan D., pioneer, born in New York city, in 1800; died in San Francisco, Cal., Feb. 14, 1894. He went to California in 1847 as commander of the regiment of New York volunteers raised at the request of President Polk, and known as Stevenson's regiment. When this was disbanded, in 1848, he engaged in mining, and prepared the first code of mining regulations ever observed in California. Returning to San Francisco, he went into the real-estate

business. He was United States shipping commissioner at that port from 1872 till 1885, and afterward practiced law."

Stockbridge, Francis Brown, merchant, born in Bath, Me., April 9, 1826; died in Chicago, Ill., April 30, 1894. He received a common-school education; was a drug clerk in Boston in 1843-47; went to Chicago and engaged in the lumber business; and removed to Allegan County, Mich., to take charge of his sawmills in 1851. In 1869 he was elected to the State Legislature, and in 1871 to the Senate; and in 1887 and 1593 was elected United States Senator as a Republican. In Congress he was a member of the Committees on the Census, Epidemic Diseases, Fisheries, Indian Affairs, Naval Affairs, and Railroads. He acquired large wealth, became noted as a stock breeder, and made the Children's Home of Kalamazoo a large beneficiary under his will.

Stolbrand, Carlos John Meuller, military officer, born in Sweden, May 11, 1821; died in Charleston, S. C., Feb. 3, 1894. He entered the Royal Artillery when eighteen years old; served in the Schleswig-Holstein campaign in 1848-50; and came to the United States at the close of that war. In July, 1861, he enlisted in the National service as a private; soon afterward was commissioned captain in the 1st Battalion of Illinois Light Artillery; and subsequently was chief of artillery under Gen. John A. Logan. He took part in the siege of Corinth, in the Atlanta campaign, and in Sherman's march to the sea; and in February, 1865, was promoted brigadier general of volunteers and resigned his commission. After the war he settled in South Carolina and entered political life. In 1558 he was secretary of the State Constitutional Convention, a delegate to the National Republican Convention, and a presidential elector. He was also for some years superintendent of the State Penitentiary, and, under President Harrison's administration, was superintendent of the new United States Government building in Charleston.

Stone, George W., jurist, born in Bedford County, Va., Oct. 24, 1811; died in Montgomery, Ala., March 11, 1894. He accompanied his parents to Tennessee in 1817; was admitted to the bar in Fayetteville, Tenn., in 1834; and settled in Talladega, Ala., in 1840. In 1843 he was appointed to fill a vacancy on the Circuit Court bench; in 1856 was elected a judge of the Supreme Court, where he served till 1865; in 1876 was appointed Associate Justice of that court; and from 1884 till his death was its Chief Justice.

Stoneman, George, military officer, born in Busti, Chautauqua County, N. Y., Aug. 8, 1822; died in Buffalo, N. Y., Sept. 5, 1894. He was graduated at West Point in 1846, and entered the army as brevet 2d lieutenant, 1st Dragoons. In the regular army he was promoted 2d lieutenant, July 12, 1847; 1st lieutenant, July 25, 1854; captain in the 2d Cavalry, March 3, 1855; major, 1st Cavalry, May 9, 1861; lieutenant colonel, 3d Cavalry, March 30, 1864; colonel, 21st Infantry, July 28, 1866; retired Aug. 16, 1871; appointed colonel of infantry, Feb. 9, 1891; and again retired on the 24th. In the volunteer army he was commissioned a brigadier general, Aug. 13, 1861; promoted major general, Nov. 29, 1862; and mustered out of the service Sept. 1, 1866. During his active career he was brevetted colonel, United States army, Dec. 13, 1862, for services in the battle of Fredericksburg; and brigadier general and major general, March 13, 1865, for services in the capture of Charlotte, N. C., and during the war, respectively. Gen. Stoneman's first military service was as quartermaster


to the Mormon battalion at Santa Fé, in 1847. He accompanied it into Mexico, and after the war served on the Pacific coast till 1857, when he was transferred to Texas. In February, 1861, while in command of Fort Brown, Texas, he was ordered by Gen. Twiggs, his superior officer, to surrender to the State secession authorities the fort and all Federal property in his charge; but he refused, evacuated the fort, and hastened to New York city. In August, after serving in western Virginia, he was appointed chief of cavalry in the Army of the Potomac. He organized that branch of the army, commanded it during the peninsular campaign of 1862, and brought on the battle of Williamsburg by overtaking the Confederate troops with his cavalry and artillery after they had evacuated Yorktown. After the second battle of Bull Run he was assigned to command Gen. Kearny's division; and on Nov. 15, 1862, was appointed commander of the 3d Army Corps. With this corps he distinguished himself at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13. April and May, 1863, he commanded a cavalry corps in raids toward Richmond, and then till April, 1864, was in command of the 23d Army Corps. He was then assigned to command a cavalry corps in the Army of the Ohio. In the Atlanta campaign he undertook to capture Macon and Andersonville, and release the prisoners confined in the latter place, but was himself captured at Clinton, Ga., and held a prisoner for three months. In December, 1864, he led a raid into southwestern Virginia; in February and March, 1865, commanded the District of East Tennessee; led an expedition to Asheville, N. C., in March and April; and was engaged in the capture of Salisbury and the subsequent operations in North Carolina. After the war he purchased a ranch in Los Angeles County, Cal.; in 1882 was elected Railroad Commissioner of California as a Democrat; and in the following year was elected Governor of the State, serving till January, 1887.

Strong, James, educator, born in New York city, Aug. 14, 1822; died in Round Lake, N. Y., Aug. 7, 1894. He was graduated at Wesleyan University in 1844; was teacher of ancient languages in Troy Conference Academy, West Poultney, Vt., in 1844-46; Professor of Biblical Literature and Acting President of Troy University in 1858-'61; and Professor and Professor Emeritus of Exegetical Theology in Drew Theological Seminary from 1868 till his death. He never was licensed to preach, but received the degrees of S. T. D. in 1856 and LL. D. in 1881, both from Wesleyan University. Dr. Strong visited Egypt and Palestine in 1874; was a member of the Old Testament Committee of Bible revisers, and a former chairman of the Archæological Council of the Oriental Society; and for several years before his death was a lecturer at the Round Lake Summer School. He was the author of "Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels" (New York, 1852); "Harmony in Greek (1854); "Scripture History delineated from the Biblical Records and all other Accessible Sources" (Madison, N. J., 1878); "Irenics: A Series of Essays showing the Virtual Agreement between Science and the Bible" (New York, 1883); "The Tabernacle of Israel in the Desert" (1888); and "The Student's Commentary: A Complete Hermeneutical Manual on the Book of Ecclesiastes " (1893). He was editor of the translation of the commentary on "Daniel" (1876) and "Esther" (1877) in the American edition of Lange; and-with the Rev. John McClintock, D.D., for 3 volumes, and afterward alone-of a "Cyclopædia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature" (10 vols., 1867-81). His last notable work, completed shortly before his death, was a biblical concordance on which he had been engaged for more than thirty years.

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Swing, David, clergyman, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 23, 1830; died in Chicago, Ill., Oct. 3, 1894. He was brought up on a farm; was graduated at Miami University with high honors as a linguist in 1852; began studying theology, but within a year was appointed Professor of Languages at Miami, and remained there twelve years. In 1866 he accepted a

call to the pastorate of Westminster Presbyterian Church in Chicago, where he labored with much zeal and success till the destruction of the edifice in the great fire of 1871. For three years he continued his preaching in McVicker's Theater, and then his congregation completed a new building. He had a very large following, and became widely known for the liberality of his views. His sermons and essays were published in the papers, and had a large circulation. In 1874 he was brought to trial before the Chicago Presbytery on a charge of heresy, with 28 specifications, preferred by Dr. Francis L. Patton. The trial lasted several weeks, and resulted in his acquittal, all but 13 of the 61 members of the presbytery voting in his favor. Fearing that he might become a source of discord in the Church, Prof. Swing withdrew from the presbytery, but retained his pastoral relation. Soon afterward an action was taken against the church, when, to prevent further trouble, he resigned the pastorate. Fifty wealthy men immediately subscribed a guarantee fund; McVicker's Theater was again leased; and, under the name of the "Central Church," the greater part of his former congregation resumed their pastoral relations with him. The theater proving too small for his audiences, a stock company was formed, and Central Music Hall was erected in 1878, in which Prof. Swing preached until his death, gathered a Sunday school of 3,000 members, and organized many benevolent enterprises.

Taylor, Nelson, military officer, born in South Norwalk, Conn., June 8, 1821; died there Jan. 16, 1894. He received a common-school education, and removed to New York city, where, on Aug. 1, 1846, he joined the army as a captain in the 1st New York Infantry (known as Col. Stevenson's regiment), which was ordered to California just before the Mexican War. He served through the war, and at its close settled in Stockton. In 1849 he was elected a State Senator; in 1855, sheriff of San Joaquin County; and in 1850-56 was President of the Board of Trustees of the State Insane Asylum. He returned to New York city, and began studying law in 1857, and was graduated at the Harvard Law School in 1860. In 1861 he was commissioned colonel of the 72d New York Infantry, which was attached to Gen. Sickles's brigade during the peninsular campaign; and in Gen. Pope's Virginia campaign he commanded the brigade. He was promoted brigadier general on Sept. 7, 1862, and resigned on Jan. 19, 1863, returning to New York city, and engaging in law practice. In 1864 he was elected to Congress as a Democrat, and during his term, which expired March 3, 1867, he served on the committees on freedmen and invalid pensions. About 1880 he returned to his birthplace, where he practiced law, was city attorney for several years, and held other municipal offices.

Teall, Francis Augustus, lexicographer, born in Fort Anne, Washington County, N. Y., Aug. 16, 1822; died in Bloomfield, N. J., Nov. 16, 1894. He received an academical education, was apprenticed to the printer's trade at an early age, removed to New York city, and was successively a compositor, proofreader, and editorial critic. He learned to read French by studying a dictionary and grammar while at work on a French book; assisted Ephraim G. Squier in the preparation of his " Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," and John R. Bartlett in his "Dictionary of Americanisms," and was for a time an editor of "The Whig Review" and editor of "The Long Islander," succeeding on the last newspaper Walt Whitman, with whom he had worked as a compositor. In 1857, while reading proof on the New York "Tribune," he was engaged as proofreader of the first edition of the "American Cyclopædia"; and on later editions he was proofreader, a contributor, and an associate editor. In the meantime he edited Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," and increased the value of that work by original notes. He afterward spent some years preparing a dictionary of proper names on a plan then original, but this was never published. In 1882 he was engaged on the

staff of "The Century Dictionary," where he remained till the completion of that work. He wrote definitions of all common words up to the letter M. most of which stand as he wrote them. He had done nothing literary since the completion of the dictionary, excepting to gather passages from his reading for a projected work on punctuation. He received the honorary degree of M. A. from the University of Rochester in 1875.

Temple, William Grenville, naval officer, born in Rutland, Vt., March 23, 1824; died in Washington, D. C. June 28, 1894. He was appointed a midshipman in the United States navy on April 18, 1840; was promoted passed midshipman, July 1, 1846: master, July 21, 1854; lieutenant. April 18, 1855; lieutenant commander, July 16, 1862; commander, March 3, 1865; captain, Aug. 28, 1870; commodore, June 5, 1878; and rear admiral, Feb. 22, 1884; and was retired on Feb. 29, 1885. During his naval career he was on sea service twenty-two years and three months; on shore or other duty, fourteen years and seven months; and was unemployed seventeen years and four months. He was

attached to the "Boston"

when she was wrecked off the Bahama Islands, March 15, 1846, and to the "Scourge" during the Mexican War, in which he took part in the bombardment and capture of Vera Cruz and the engagements at Alvarado, Tuspan, and Tabasco. In 1848 he was on duty at the United States Naval Observatory; in 1849-50 was engaged in surveying the Florida reef and the Gulf Stream; in 1850-52 had charge of the hydrographic work on the survey for the projected interoceanic canal and railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; and in 1852-'59 was on coast-survey duty. He was flag lieutenant of the steam frigate "Lancaster," flagship of the Pacific squadron in 1859-61; commander of the "Flambeau" on an independent cruise to the Bahamas in 1861; and was on ordnance duty at New York in 1862. He commanded the "Pembina," of the Western Gulf blockading squadron, during the latter part of 1862; was then appointed fleet captain of the Eastern Gulf blockading squadron; was attached to the North Atlantic blockading squadron, and took part in the two bombardments and the capture of Fort Fisher; and participated in the capture of Wilmington, N. C., the bombardment of the Confederate fortifications on James river above Dutch Gap, and the capture of Petersburg. After the war he served on examining and retiring boards, and was president of the "Jeanette" court of inquiry.

Thompson, Charles P., jurist, born in Braintree, Mass., July 30, 1827; died in Gloucester, Mass., Jan. 19, 1894 He received a collegiate education, studied law in Boston, was admitted to the bar in 1857, and settled in Gloucester. He soon acquired a remunerative practice, and became known throughout the State as an authority on constitutional questions, and as the wittiest member of the Massachusetts bar. In 1871-72 he was a member of the State Legislature and of the Judiciary Committee of the Lower House, and in 1874 he was the successful Democratic candidate for Congress against Gen. Benjamin F. Butler. He was chairman of the congressional committee on the presidential election in Florida, which reported that that State had cast its electoral vote for Messrs. Tilden and Hendricks, and was conspicuous in the memorable debates in 1877. In 1876 he was defeated for reelection, and in 1880 and 1881 was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Governor of Massachusetts. At the time of his death he was a judge of the Superior Court of the State.

Thompson, Joseph Peter, clergyman, born in Winchester, Va., Dec. 20, 1818; died in Newburg, N. Y..


Dec. 21, 1894. He was born a slave, and when sixteen years old ran away from his master, settled in Williamsport, Pa., and learned the blacksmith's trade. In 1841 he married and became a local preacher in the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. He was stationed successively at Lyons and Elmira, N. Y., Elizabeth, N. J., Newburg, N. Y., and Halifax, N. S., going to the last city through fear of being captured and returned to slavery. While holding an appointment at Matawan, N. J., he began studying medicine, and in 1858 he was graduated at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. In 1876 he was consecrated a bishop of his Church, and subsequently he organized several conferences in the Southern States, and the first one in the Bahama Islands. He was a delegate to the Methodist Ecumenical Council in London, England, in 1882, was one of the founders of Livingston College, in Salisbury, N. C., and performed his last official duty at the Genesee Conference of his Church in Auburn, N. Y, in September, 1893. He had been treasurer of missionary societies, and president of the book concern of the Church.

Thompson, Launt, sculptor, born in Abbeyleix, Queen's County, Ireland, Feb. 8, 1833; died in Middletown, N. Y., Sept. 26, 1894. He came to the United States in 1847, and began studying anatomy and medicine, and, in his leisure, drawing, at Albany, N. Y. While so engaged he was received by Erastus D. Palmer, the sculptor, as a pupil, and, abandoning the study of medicine, he spent nine years in Mr. Palmer's studio. In 1858 he removed to New York city and opened a studio, in which he produced medallion portraits. In the following year he was elected an associate of the National Academy of Design, and in 1862 an academician. He spent 1868-'69 and 1875-'81 in Italy, and was vice-president of the Academy of Design in 1874. Since 1887 he had done no work of note because of a mental malady. His best known portrait busts are those of William C. Bryant, James Gordon Bennett, Sr., Robert B. Minturn, Charles H. Marshall, Edwin Booth (as Hamlet), Stephen H. Tyng, Charles L. Elliott, and Samuel F. B. Morse. His best medallion portrait was that of Gen. John A. Dix; the one that gained his election as an academician was "The Trapper." Among his statues, the most noted were Abraham Pierson, now at Yale College; Napoleon I, at Milford, Pa.; Gen. John Sedgwick, at West Point, N. Y.; Gen. Winfield Scott, at the Soldiers' Home, Washington, D. C.; Charles Morgan, in Clinton, Conn.; and an equestrian statue of Gen. Burnside, in Providence, R. I., completed in 1887, for which he received $40,000.

Thomson, William McClure, missionary, born in Springdale, Ohio, Dec. 31, 1806; died in Denver, Col., April 8, 1894. He was the son of a clergyman, Rev. John Thomson, who was of Scotch-Irish descent. He was graduated at Miami University in 1826, and studied at Princeton Theological Seminary, but left before graduating, and was sent as a missionary to Syria by the American Board. He arrived in Beirut, Feb. 24, 1833, and was first stationed in Jerusalem. Before leaving the United States he had married Miss Eliza Nelson Hanna, who accompanied him, and who died in Jerusalem the next year. Ibrahim Pasha (son of the famous Mohammed Ali) was at war with the people of Syria, who had revolted against him. During this rebellion Dr. Thomson had occasion to leave Jerusalem for Jaffa, as he thought for a short time only, but was arrested as a spy by Ibrahim and detained forty days. After the taking of Jerusalem he was released, but anxiety because of his absence, combined with the terror caused by a sharp earthquake, had so affected Mrs. Thomson, who had been recently confined, that she died soon after her husband's return. Dr. Thomson was next stationed in Beirut, where he married Mrs. Abbott, widow of a former British consul for Syria. A little later he was appointed one of two to form a mission station in Lebanon, and resided in Abeih, where he passed through the wars between Druses and Maronites in 1843 and 1845. He was looked upon as a friend by both parties,

and by his influence brought about a truce, which enabled the British consul general, the late Sir Hugh Rose (Lord Strathnairn), to bring away the Maronites to Beirut, thus preventing a general massacre of Maronite Christians. About 1850 he removed to Sidon. where he was stationed for several years, extending his missionary labors to Hermon, Ijon, and vicinity. and to the regions east of Tyre. In 1860, having returned to Beirut, he co-operated with Lord Dufferin, the representative of the allied forces, in adjusting matters after the massacres of Damascus, Hasbeiyeh, and Deir el Quamar. From the beginning of missionary life he vigorously pursued archæological studies connected with the elucidation of Scripture, and became an authority on these points. His studies and travels resulted in "The Land and the Book" (2 vols.. New York, 1859; revised and enlarged, 3 vols., 1880). The sales of this book in Great Britain have been greater than those of any other American publication except " Uncle Tom's Cabin." Dr. Thomson contributed to the "Bibliotheca Sacra" a series of articles on The Physical Basis of our Spiritual Language," and his journals, published in the "Missionary Herald" in 1841 et seq., are full of interest. In 1840, in company with Dr. E. R. Beadle and Dr. C. V. A. Van Dyck, he journeyed to Aleppo. On the way he wrote in his journal a description of sunrise over Lebanon. This being published in the " Missionary Herald" reached the eyes of a missionary in the Sandwich Islands, who, struck with its poetic beauty, divided it into lines of faultless blank verse without altering a word of the original, and in this form it was republished. In 1879 Dr. Thomson, whose health had greatly failed, went to Denver, where he resided with one of his daughters until his death.

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Throckmorton, James Webb, lawyer, born in Sparta, Tenn., Feb. 1, 1825; died in McKinney, Texas, April 21, 1894. He removed to Texas in 1841; was admitted to the bar; and served in the State Legislature as Representative and Senator from 1851 till 1861. In the latter year he was a member of the State Secession Convention, and was one of 7 delegates who voted against the ordinance of secession. After its adoption, however, he entered the Confederate army, and served as captain and major till November, 1863, when he was again elected to the State Senate. In 1864 he was commissioned brigadier general of Texas troops, and assigned to the command of the north western border of the State. Soon afterward, acting on the authority of the Confederate and the State governments, he negotiated a treaty with all the tribes of Indians on the Texas border. In 1865 he was elected a member, and subsequently the presiding officer, of the constitutional convention called under President Johnson's proclamation. The following year he was elected Governor for four years, and on Aug. 9, 1867, was removed from office by order of Gen. Sheridan. In 1874. 1876, 1882, and 1884 he was elected to Congress as a Democrat from the 5th Texas District.

Trumbull, Matthew M., author, born in London, England, about 1826; died in Chicago, Ill., May 9, 1894. He came to the United States on reaching his majority; enlisted in the 3d Iowa Volunteers at the beginning of the civil war; subsequently organized and was commissioned colonel of the 9th Iowa Cavalry; and was promoted brigadier general for services during the war. In 1882 he settled in Chicago, engaged in journalism, wrote much on political, sociological, and philosophical subjects, and among other works published "Free Trade in England."

Tuttle, Herbert, educator, born in Bennington, Vt., Nov. 29, 1846; died in Ithaca, N. Y., June 21, 1894. He was graduated at the University of Vermont in 1869, and was engaged in journalism till 1880. For several years he was a confidential correspondent of the "London Daily News." While in Germany he had the friendship of Prince Bismarck, his son, Count Herbert, and Field-Marshal von Moltke, and when he began gathering materials for a history of Prussia Von Moltke gave him access to important military archives. In 1880 he returned to the United States

and for a year lectured on international law in the University of Michigan; then went to Cornell University as Associate Professor of the History and Theory of Politics and of International Law; and subsequently was given the chair of Modern European History in Cornell, which he held until his death. His publications include "German Political Leaders" (New York, 1876); "History of Prussia to the Accession of Frederick the Great" (Boston, 1884); and "History of Prussia under Frederick the Great" (2 vols., New York, 1888).

Underwood, Francis Henry, editor, born in Enfield, Mass., Jan. 12, 1825; died in Edinburgh, Scotland, Aug. 7, 1894. An interesting picture of his early surroundings may be found in "Quabbin." His education in schools was meager, and his college life was limited to one year at Amherst (1843-44). Thereafter he removed to Kentucky, where he taught, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1847. In 1848 he married a Kentucky lady, who died years ago, but their 4 children still survive. Underwood's distaste for the law and his sympathy with antislavery principles prevented his succeeding at the Kentucky bar, and in 1849 he returned to Massachusetts. In 1852 he was appointed Clerk of the Massachusetts Senate, and in 1854 was engaged by the publishing house of Phillips, Sampson & Co. as their literary adviser. The establishment of the "Atlantic Monthly " by Phillips, Sampson & Co. was Underwood's project, and is best described in his own words: "A few authors who had been invited to write for the magazine met at a dinner given by the publishers in Boston, without having been consulted upon details or upon the choice of an editor. The projector Underwood,] having privately sounded Mr. Lowell, arose at the inner table and nominated him as editor in-chief. Excepting Mr. Lowell, no one present, not even the publishers, knew what he [Underwood], was going to do. The nomination gave as much surprise as pleasure to the company." The name "Atlantic Monthly" originated with Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes. Underwood was appointed assistant editor, and his close association with Lowell and the "Atlantic" contributors enabled him to become the re

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corder of the group. Two years thereafter Messrs. Ticknor & Fields became the publishers of the magazine and Underwood was appointed clerk of the Superior Criminal Court of Boston, 1859-70. Immediately after the publication of his "Handbooks of English and American Literature " he received the degree of A. M. from Bowdoin College. His 3 novels are "Cloud Pictures," Lord of Himself," and "Man Proposes." In 1878 he delivered a course of lectures on American literature at the Peabody Institute, Baltimore, repeating the course in Boston and elsewhere. At a later date were published "The True Story of the Exodus," an abridgment of the work of Dr. Brugsch-Bay; a "Handbook of English History" based on the lectures of Guest, and biographies of Longfellow, Whittier, and Lowell. He also served for thirteen years on the school committee of Boston. In 1885 he was appointed consul at Glasgow. While in Scotland he delivered lectures on American literature, and the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by the University of Glasgow. He was superseded in 1889, but remained in Scotland and there married his second wife. Quabbin" was written in Glasgow. On his return to the United States he wrote Builders of American Literature," and was planning to write a series of biographies of Lowell, Emerson, Longfellow, Whittier, and Holmes, entitled "A Northern Constellation." "The Poet and the Man" (Lowell) is the only one of the group that has been published at this date. In 1893 he was appointed consul to Edinburgh. Dr. Underwood had a fine physique, being tall and broad-shouldered. His head was massive, features strong and masculin complexion fair, eyes brown. Originally his hair was auburn, but it turned white at forty. He was of a genial temperament, had a retensive memory, and possessed the happy faculty of relating, off-hand,

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characteristic anecdotes of the celebrated men whom he had met. "Quabbin " and the biographies of Lowell are his greatest works. A novel entitled "Dr. Gray's Quest" was found completed among his papers.

Van Aernam, Henry, physician, born in Marcellus, N. Y., March 11, 1819; died in Franklinville, Cattaraugus County, N. Y., June 1, 1894. He was educated for a physician and surgeon in the Geneva and Willoughby Medical Colleges. In 1858 he was elected to the State Legislature. He entered the National service early in the cival war as surgeon of the 154th New York Volunteers, and during 1862-164, while on detached service, was surgeon in chief of brigade and surgeon in chief of the 2d division, 20th Army Corps. In 1864 he resigned from the army, and was a delegate to the National Republican Convention at Baltimore, and in 1872 was a delegate to the Convention at Philadelphia. He was elected to Congress from the 33d New York District as a Republican in 1864, 1866. 1878, and 1880, and was United States Commissioner of Pensions in 1869-71.

Vance, Zebulon Baird, lawyer, born near Asheville, Buncombe County, N. C., May 13, 1830; died in Washington, D. C., April 14, 1894. He was educated at Washington College, Tennessee, and at the University of North Carolina, and was admitted to the bar in 1852. The same year he was elected County attorney, and in 1854 he went to the State Legislature. In 1858 he was elected to Congress, and in 1859 was re-elected for a full term. He was a Union man in the exciting days of 1860, and opposed the secession of North Carolina; but after President Lincoln's first call for volunteers he entered the Confederate army as captain in the 14th North Carolina Regiment. In August, 1861,

he was commissioned colonel of the 26th North Carolina Regiment, and in August, 1862, while in the army, he was elected Governor of the State. In this term he sent agents to Europe, who bought a Clyde steamship for blockade running, and arms clothing, and hospital and general supplies. This vessel made several successful runs and landed large quantities of stores. In 1863 he urged Jefferson Davis to seek negotiations with the Federal Government for a cessation of hostilities. He also in this term dia much to diminish the suffering of the National soldiers held as prisoners in his State. In 1864 he was re-elected Governor. On the occupation of Nort! Carolina by the National troops he was arrested an for several weeks was imprisoned in Washington. D. C. In November, 1870, he was elected Unite States Senator, and, being refused admission, resigned in January, 1872. The same year he was defeate for the United States Senate by a combination of Re publicans and Democrats. He was elected Governor for the third time in 1876, and chosen United States Senator in 1879, 1884, and 1890. His political disabilities were removed by Congress in 1872, after he had been refused a seat in the Senate by reason o them. At the time of his death he was chairman of the standing Committee on Privileges and Elections. and a member of that on Finance, and of the select ones on national banks, University of the Unite States, and women suffrage. He was one of the most popular members of the Senate, being a fine speaker, à delightful story-teller, and a pleasing humorist. He was an advocate of tariff reform and of free silver.

Van Fleet, Abraham, jurist, born in Hillsborough. Somerset County, N. J., Jan. 6, 1881; died in Newark,

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