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of cable. The post office carried 5,897,161 letters, 4.692,676 newspapers, 1,212,122 packets, and 166,066 postal cards.

The rejection of the income and land-tax bills by the Legislative Council after they were carried through the Assembly left the Government with a deficit of £363,243. The land-tax bill was reintroduced, and on April 10, 1894, the ministry was defeated by a vote of 16 to 15. A new Cabinet was organized on April 12 as follows: Premier, Sir E. N. C. Braddon; Treasurer, P. O. Fysh; Chief Secretary, William Moore; Attorney-General, A. L. Clark; Minister of Land, Works, and Mines, A. T. Pillinger; without portfolio, C. O'Reilly.

New Zealand.-The Legislative Council consists of 46 members, nominated by the Government, formerly for life, but since 1891 for seven years. They receive £150 salary. The members of the House of Representatives are elected for three years by universal suffrage. Women were admitted to the franchise in 1893. There are 70 members representing European districts, and 4 Maoris. They are paid £240 per annum.

The Governor is the Earl of Glasgow, appointed June 7, 1892. The ministry at the beginning of 1894 was composed as follows: Premier, Minister of Public Works, and Minister of Native Affairs and Defense, R. J. Seddon; Attorney-General, Colonial Secretary, and Minister of Marine, Sir P. A. Buckley; Minister of Education and of Labor, and Commissioner of Stamp Duties, W. P. Reeves; Minister of Lands and of Immigration. Minister of Agriculture, and Commissioner of Forests, J. Mackenzie; Colonial Treasurer, Postmaster-General, Electric Telegraph Commissioner, and Commissioner of Trade and Customs, J. G. Ward; Minister of Justice and Minister of Mines, A. J. Cadman; without portfolio, J. Carroll, representing the native race, and W. Montgomery.

The area of the islands is estimated at 104,471 square miles. The European population in 1891 was 626,658, of whom 332,877 were males and 293.781 were females. The population of the North Island was 281,445, and of the South Island 344,913. The total population in 1891 was 668,651, of whom 41,993 were Maoris and 4,444 Chinese. The population of Auckland, the capital, was 51,127, with the suburbs. Of the total population, 14:45 per cent. were primary producers, 11:25 per cent. industrial, 6-89 per cent. commercial, 3-98 per cent. domestic, 2.52 per cent. professional, 59.67 per cent. dependent, and 124 per cent. undefined. In 1892 there were 4,002 marriages, 17.876 births, and 6,459 deaths; excess of births, 11,417. The excess of immigrants over emigrants was 4,958. Education is compulsory in the settled districts. In 1892 there were 1.302 primary schools, with 3,180 teachers, 122.629 pupils, and an average attendance of 99,070. Instruction is purely secular.

The revenue of the Government for 1892 was £4,389,251, of which £676,369 was derived from direct and £1,716,427 from indirect taxation, £1,154.592 from railways, £299,603 from the post office and telegraphs, £192,410 from other ordinary sources, and £349,850 was territorial revenue. The total expenditure was £4.044.690, of which £1,601,706 was for the public debt, £690,627 for railways, £408,208 for public in

struction, £283,693 for postal and telegraph service, £164,371 for constabulary, militia, and volunteers, £672,157 for other ordinary purposes, and £223,928 was territorial expenditure. Out of loans £408.436 was expended. In 1891 the system of direct taxation was changed. Instead of a property tax on land and chattels above £500, a land tax at the same rate-1d. in the pound-was laid upon land, with exemption of improvements, mortgagees being taxed for their interest in the property, and a surtax on large properties graduated from d. on values between £5,000 and £10,000 to 1d. on estates worth £210,000 and upward. The personal property was replaced by an income tax. debt on March 31, 1893, was £38,144.070.


Out of 66,710,320 acres, 20,364,209 had been alienated before 1893. The area of valuable land remaining in the hands of the Government is about 34,000,000 acres, of which 10,000,000 acres are forest. The area under cultivation in 1893 was 9,713,745 acres, of which 8,262,045 acres were meadow and pasture. The crop of wheat in 1891 was 8,378,000 bushels, raised from 381,245 acres. The live stock consisted of 18,227,186 sheep, 831,831 cattle, and 308,812 hogs. The production of butter in 1890 was 16,310,012 pounds, and of cheese 9,975,698 pounds; of frozen meat for export in 1892, 869,600 hundredweight. The mineral products are gold, silver, coal, Kauri gum, manganese, and antimony.

The value of imports in 1892 was £6,943,056, and of exports £9,533,851. The values of the principal exports were: Wool, £4,313,307; frozen meat, £1,033,377; gold, £951,963; grain, £860,151; Kauri gum, £517,678; hides and leather, £371,297: butter and cheese, £318,204; tallow, £165,513; timber, £87,581; preserved meat, £69,420; grass seed, £59,110; bacon and hams, £16,088. The imports from the United States in 1892 were £381,627 in value, and the exports to the United States £520,797.

The finances of this colony are in a very satisfactory state. The estimates of revenue for 1893'94 were exceeded by the receipts, while the expenditure was kept within the appropriation. The new land and income taxes had been collected without difficulty. After paying £250,000 out of the revenue for public works there _remained a surplus of nearly £300,000. The first elections in which the women of New Zealand exercised their newly acquired right of suffrage passed off quietly in perfect order after a canvass in which the liquor question, the various theories regarding religious instruction in the public schools, and all the subjects of political controversy were earnestly discussed in public meetings, which the women generally attended. Over 80 per cent. of the women on the rolls voted. In March occurred the first voting under the licensing law enacted in 1893. In each parliamentary district the voters, comprising all the adult men and women, decided whether the existing licenses should be continued for three years or whether the number should be reduced by one fourth, or, by three fifths majority, if all licenses should be annulled. The Prohibitionists were very zealous and well organized, and in two districts they gained the requisite majority, while in Port Chalmers, Wellington, Christchurch, and other places they lost by only a few votes, and polled more

than enough to secure a reform in the licensing system.

The new Parliament was convened June 21, 1894. The Government introduced a bill to exclude undesirable immigration, to double the poll tax on Chinese and impose a similar tax on other colored aliens, and to exclude all contract laborers. Shipowners bringing paupers or demented persons are subjected to penalties. The loose management of companies was made the subject of restrictive legislation. On June 30 a bill was passed as a measure of urgency guaranteeing £2,000,000 of additional shares to be issued by the Bank of New Zealand. They have preference over other shares, and must be canceled in ten years, during which a 4-per-cent. dividend is guaranteed by the Consolidated fund. The president of the board of directors is appointed by the Government, as are also auditors in New Zealand and London. This succor averted a financial panic. A special bill forbade the transfer of shares without the approval of the colonial Treasurer, and another extends till September, 1895, the authority to issue bank notes conferred in 1893. In the financial statement, delivered in the House of Representatives on July 24, Mr. Ward unfolded a scheme for borrowing £1,500,000 in London at 3 per cent. for the purpose of loaning money to settlers on freehold security at 5 per cent. He also proposed to create colonial consols to the amount of £1,000,000, one half to be issued in 1894 and the rest in the following year, which should be inscribed at the post offices and pay not above 4 per cent. interest. It was proposed to merge all private savings banks in the post office savings bank. Foreign insurance companies are to be required to make large deposits with the public trustee. The Government offers a bounty for the production of the sugar beet, and one of 28. per ton on the export of coal. The granting of a bonus for whaling, especially for the establishment of a station on the Kermadec Islands, northwest of New Zealand, is under consideration. Railroad fare to cities was made uniform for all distances. The Land act of 1892 enables any man over seventeen years of age, or any single woman, to become a selector of Crown lands on a lease of nine hundred and ninety-nine years, subject to conditions of residence and improvements and the payment of a rent of 4 per cent. on the capital value of the land. The minimum valuation placed on the land subject to selection is £1 an acre for first-class or agricultural land, and 5s, for second-class land suitable for pastoral purposes. Some village settlements have been in operation for six years in which the rent is 5 per cent. on the capital value of the land, which starts at £1 an acre. In these the number of settlers is about 900. No allotment is allowed to exceed 50 acres, and the average is about 25 acres. To these settlers the state has advanced an average of £1 1s. 2d an acre, and the settlers have made improvements valued at two and a half times the amount they borrowed. The loans proposed by the Government, amounting to £3,250,000, including a colonial loan of £750,000 for surveying, purchasing, and building roads and bridges in native lands, are to be applied chiefly in facilitating settlement under the new land act. The natives in the Waikato river district were seriously opposed to the surveys

that were made for the settlement of the lands, and in the neighborhood of Lake Taupo the police had to protect the officials of the land department and arrest many natives. In the King and Urewera districts the Maoris were also disaffected. The Premier made a journey through the King country, which was long forbidden ground to the whites, and the principal chief of Urewera gave up to him his scepter, saying that they looked to the Government for protection and would give no more trouble. Tawhiao, the Maori king, sent similar assurances. The Government has lately discouraged private purchases of Maori lands.

Fiji. The natives of the Fijian Islands are governed by 12 superior and 160 lesser chiefs. supervised by three European commissioners. The dependency of Rotumah has also a European commissioner. The Governor of Fiji, who is also High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, is Sir John Bates Thurston.

The estimated population at the end of 1892 was 125,442, composed as follows: Native Fijians, 107.745; Rotumans, 2,207; Europeans, 2,281; half castes, 1,102; Polynesians, 2,452; Indians, 9,103; others, 552.

The revenue for 1893 was estimated at £72,406, and expenditure at £70,447. The public debt amounts to £243,235, including £114.235 advanced by the imperial Exchequer. The principal commercial products are sugar, copra and desiccated cocoanut, tea, bananas, peanuts, and cotton. The value of the imports in 1892 was £253,586; exports, £434,791.

The native taxes are paid in produce, which they prepare and which is sold by the Government in their behalf by annual contract. The revenue obtained from this source in 1892 was £18.256. This method of taxation causes much disaffection among the natives, because the officials often seize produce that they require for their own sustenance. In the summer of 1894 an outbreak occurred on this account, which was suppressed by the Governor with a loss of 7 lives.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, a dual monarchy in central Europe, composed of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary, two inseparable monarchies, hereditary in the dynasty of Hapsburg-Lorraine to the male posterity in order of primogeniture. Legislative powers in regard to affairs common to the two halves of the empire-namely, foreign affairs, the army, common finances, and the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina-are exercised by the Delegations, which are committees of the Legislatures of the two monarchies, each composed of 40 members of the Lower House and 20 of the Second Chamber, elected anew for each session. The Delegations are convoked annually alternately in the two capitals, and sit separately, but hold a joint session when there is a disagreement.

The Emperor is Franz Josef, born Aug. 18, 1830. The heir presumptive is the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, nephew of the Emperor, born Dec. 18, 1863. The common ministers, responsible to the Delegations, are the following: President of the Council, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Minister of the Imperial Household, Count G. Kalnoky, appointed on the retirement of Count Andrassy; Minister of Finance, Benjamin de Kallay; Min

ister of War, Gen. Edmund von Krieghammer, appointed Sept. 25, 1893.

The Common Budget.-Certain customs receipts are applied to the common expenditure. Of the amount required in excess of the common revenue. Hungary, under the decennial financial arrangement, pays 2 per cent. and 30 per cent. of the remainder, and Austria the remaining 70 per cent. The expenditure for 1894 was fixed at 147,926,992 florins (1 Austrian florin 41 cents). The revenue from customs was estimated at 44,370,000 florins; receipts from the ministries, 2,677,492: Hungary's 2 per cent. of the remainder, 2.017,566 florins; Austria's contribution, 69,202.528 florins; Hungary's contribution, 29,658,226 florins. The expenditures were estimated at 130,738,027 florins for ordinary and 17,187,965 florins for extraordinary purposes. Of the ordinary expenditure, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is debited with 3,690,900 florins, the Ministry of War spends 114,882,703 florins for the army and 10,012,680 for the navy, and the Ministry of Finance and Board of Control require 2,151,744 florins. Of the extraordinary expenditure, 14,576,565 florins go for military, 2,565,000 for naval, and 46,400 for diplomatic purposes. The revenue of Bosnia and Herzegovina is estimated at 10,187,450 florins, and the expense of administration 10,136,149 florins, not counting 3,610,000 florins of extraordinary expenditure, representing the expense of the military occupation.

The general debt of the monarchy on July 1, 1893, was 2.823,792,000 florins, not including the floating liabilities, amounting to 411,994,377 florins. The debt charge in 1893 amounted to 128,133,415 florins. of which Austria paid 97,821,879 and Hungary 30,311,536 florins. A new gold loan of 40,000,000 florins, which was taken by the Rothschild group in 1893, the equivalent being paid to the Government in gold, was successfully placed on the market in March, 1894.

Area and Population. The area of the Austro-Hungarian Empire is 240,942 square miles, exclusive of the occupied Turkish provinces. The population at the census of Dec. 31, 1890, according to the latest corrected figures, was 41,231,342. Austria proper, 115.903 square miles in extent, had 23,895,413 inhabitants, of whom 11,689,129 were males and 12,206,284 females. The population of Hungary, including Transylvania, Croatia-Slavonia, and the town of Fiume, was 8,667,971 males and 8,795,502 females; total, 17,463.473 for an area of 125,039 square miles, being 139 to the square mile, against 206 in Austria.

The number of marriages recorded in Austria in 1891 was 186,418; of births, 947,017; of deaths, 700,829; excess of births, 246,188. In Hungary the number of marriages was 150,720; of births, 756,204; of deaths, 580,222; excess of births, 175,982. Vienna, the Austrian capital, had 1,364,548 inhabitants on Dec. 31, 1890. The other cities having over 50,000 inhabitants are Prague, the capital of Bohemia, with 310,483, including suburbs; Trieste, the Adriatic seaport, with 158.344; Lemberg, chief town of Austrian Poland, with 127.943: Grätz, 112.069; Brünn, 94,462; Cracow, 74.593; Czernowitz, 54,171; Pilsen, 50,221. Buda-Pesth, capital of Hungary, has 506,384; Szegedin, 85.569; Theresienstadt, 72,737; Debreczin, 56,940; Hod Mezö Vasarhely, 55,475; Presburg, 52,411. Fiume, the seaport of Hungary, has 29,

000 inhabitants. In 1894 the National Legislature voted to expend 25,000,000 crownors 12,500,000 florins in building a new quay and improving the docks and the railroad and warehouse facilities, and the Government proposes to devote as much more to deepening the harbor. The annual increase of the population of Austria for the ten years between 1880 and 1890 was 9.76 per cent., while in the lands of the Hungarian Crown it averaged 1.09 per cent. The number of emigrants who left Austria-Hungary in 1891 was 78,524 against, 74,002 in 1890 and 55,667 in 1889. The number whose destination was the Argentine Republic fell off from 4,225 in 1889 to 1,918 in 1890 and 216 in 1891, while the number departing for North America increased from 42,170 in 1889 to 63,119 in 1890, and in 1891 to 70,711, of whom 43,163 were Austrians and 27,548 Hungarians.

In Austria, 79.2 per cent. of the population are Roman Catholic in religion, 11.8 per cent. Greek Catholic, 24 per cent. Greek Oriental, 18 per cent. Evangelical, and 4.8 per cent. Jewish. In Hungary, where the Roman Catholic, the Evangelical of both the Augsburg and the Helvetian confessions, the Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic, the Gregorian, and the Jewish creeds have an official status, the Roman Catholics constitute 50-84 per cent. of the population, the Evangelicals 19-77 per cent., Oriental Greeks 15.17 per cent., Greek Catholics 961 per cent., Unitarians 0.36 per cent., Jews 4.18 per cent., and others 0-07 per cent.

Education. In Austria, the number of the totally illiterate diminished between 1880 and 1890 from 9,858,364 to 9.605,337, and in Hungary the number increased from 9,341,355 to 9,465,172; the percentage diminished from 59 to 54 in Hungary, and that in Austria from 44 to 40 per cent., almost exactly the same rate of progress. The school districts are obliged to provide schools, and elementary education is compulsory in both countries from the age of six or seven up to the completion of the twelfth, thirteenth, or fourteenth year, the period varying in different provinces. Gymnasia and Realschulen are maintained by the state or by provinces, towns, or religious corporations, with subventions from the state, and there are 8 universities in Austria, with 1.150 professors and 13,383 students, and 3 in Hungary, with 296 professors and 4,498 students, all maintained by the Government, besides 7 technical schools, with 428 professors and 2,502 students.

The Army. In both halves of the empire military service is obligatory. Those who are conscripted serve three years in the line, seven in the reserve, and two in the Landwehr. Those who escape are attached for ten years to the depot reserve or for twelve to the Landwehr in Austria, and in Hungary serve two years in the Honvedseg or national militia, receiving eight weeks' instruction and being called out to drill for several weeks every two years. Young men of education who will pay for their own board and equipment need serve only a year in the active army, but if at its end they are not qualified to serve as officers of the reserves they are kept another year. All citizens who do not belong to the army or navy from their nineteenth to their forty-second year are inscribed in the Landsturm, which can only be called out in time

of war. The contingent of recruits for 1894 was 103,100 men for the army and navy and 23,000 for the Landwehr. The peace effective of the army for 1893 was as follows:


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and pelts, 23,000,000 florins; silk, 22,400.000 florins; leaf tobacco, 20,500,000 florins; woolen yarn, 19,400,000 florins; machinery, 18,700,000 florins; leather, 16,200,000 florins; cotton yarn, 13,900,000 florins. The values exported of the staple commercial products were as follow: Sugar, 74,000,000 florins; grain, 69,300.000 florins; timber, 55.600,000 florins; cattle, 31,400,000 florins; coal, 29,200,000 florins; hardware, 23,700,000 florins; eggs, 23,400,000 florins; woodenware, 18,700,000 florins; gloves, 18.400,000 florins; glass and glassware, 18,300.000 florins: woolen manufactures, 17,300,000 florins; paper and paper manufactures, 17,200,000 florins; feathers, 12,600,000 florins; iron and iron manufactures, 12,500,000 florins; minerals, 10,700.000 florins; leather goods, 9,500,000 florins; wool. 9,100,000 florins: silk manufactures, 8,600,000 florins; flour, 7,200,000 florins: linen yarn, 7,100,000 florins; wine, 6,300,000 florins.

The wheat crop of Hungary in 1892 was 138.000.000 bushels, and that of Austria 46,600,000 bushels. The crop of barley was 59,900,000 bushels in Austria, and in Hungary 50,300,000 bushels. The product of the sugar beet in Austria was 55,156,000, and in Hungary 13,368,000 metric centners. The culture of the silkworm has advanced under the encouragement and direction of the Government, and in 1892 there were produced 970,248 kilogrammes of cocoons in Hungary and 1,506,524 kilogrammes in Austria. The principal mineral products in Austria are common and brown coal and iron, which are mined in Hungary also. Lesser products are silver, zinc, lead, quicksilver, and copper in Aus8,944 tria, and silver and some copper in Hungary. The produce of Austrian mines for 1892 was valued at 70,438,000 florins, and the furnace products at 32,900,000 florins. The mineral produce of Hungary had a value of 29,600,000 florins in 1891. The salt works of Austria in 1892 produced a value of 19,700,000 florins. The manufacturing industries of Austria support more than 20 per cent. of the population. There are 58,500 persons directly employed in the woolen industry, 96,000 in the cotton factories, and 29,168 in the glass works of Bohemia. The breweries produce 293,500,000 gallons of beer.






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42,930 28,500 65 144
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Total, 128 vessels 126,123 177,090 232 524 12,080

Bosnia and Herzegovina. - The Turkish provinces placed under Austrian administration in 1878 by the treaty of Berlin have an area of 23,262 square miles, and a population of 1,336,091, of whom 705,025 are males and 631,066 females. The Fifteenth Corps of the Austro-Hungarian army occupies the provinces, counting 28,648 men, of whom 2,833 are stationed in the Sanjak of Novi-Bazar.

Commerce and Production.-The general commerce of Austria-Hungary in 1892 amounted to 627,200,000 florins for imports and 723,600,000 florins for exports. The imports of specie were 83,995,000 florins, and the exports 17,938,000 florins. The following were some of the principal imports and their values: Cotton, 48,600,000 florins; wool, 36,100,000 florins; coffee, 35,900,000 florins; coal, 24,300,000 florins; hides

Navigation. During 1891 there were 70,988 vessels, of 9,339,454 tons, entered at the ports of Austria, and 70,814, of 9,337,037 tons, were cleared. Of the total tonnage 89 per cent. was Austrian. At the Hungarian port, of Fiume 4,616 vessels, of 639,999 tons, were entered, and 4,459, of 774,114 tons, cleared.

The number of registered Austro-Hungarian vessels in 1893 was 10,533, of 285,415 tons, having in their crews 31,536 men. Of these, 274, of 214.180 tons, were seagoing merchant ships 1,684, of 50,195 tons, were coasting vessels; and 8.575, of 21,040 tons, were vessels engaged in the fisheries, etc.

Railroads.-On Jan. 1, 1893, the railroads of Austria had a total length of 16,543 kilometres, or 10.273 miles. Of this, 7.001 kilometres belonged to the state, and 3,860 kilometres more were under state management, while 5,682 kilometres were operated by companies. In Hungary the length of all the lines was 11.813 kilometres, or 7,336 miles, of which 4,336 kilometres were state lines, 5,601 kilometres belonged to

companies but were worked by the Government, and 1,876 kilometres were worked by companies. Posts and Telegraphs.-The number of letters carried by the Austrian post office in 1892 was 532,911,070; of newspapers. 72,606.840; of circulars and samples, 75,097,170. In Hungary were carried 141,089,240 letters, and 22,140,880 circulars and samples. The telegraphs in Austria had 17,609 miles of line and 50,154 miles of wire; in Hungary, 12,473 miles of line, with 35,320 miles of wire; in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1,780 miles of line, with 3,870 miles of wire. The number of messages transmitted in 1892 was 10,835,302 in Austria, 5,671,579 in Hungary, and 425,696 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The receipts from posts and telegraphs in 1892 were 32.993,560 florins in Austria and 13,723.856 florins in Hungary; the expenses, 31,993,560 florins in Austria and 9,561,836 in Hungary.

Currency Reform.-In pursuance of Dr. Wekerle's project of monetary reform, designed to place the currency on a gold basis, the Government proposed to withdraw 200,000.000 florins of state notes from circulation during 1894 and 1895, and replace them with 160,000,000 florins of gold, which it will deposit in the Austro-Hungarian bank, taking silver or notes in return. All the 1-florin notes are to be destroyed, and 80,000,000 1-crown silver pieces put into circulation, with 20,000,000 or 30,000,000 silver florins besides. The crown, equal to half a florin or gulden, is the new standard of value, but it is coined in silver, not gold. There are 20-crown and 10-crown gold pieces, and the gold ducat, worth 9 crowns 60 heller (= $2). The subsidiary coins are the silver half crown, the nickel 20-heller and 10-heller pieces, and the bronze 2-heller piece, equivalent to the old kreutzer, and single heller or half kreutzer.

Russian Commercial Treaty.-Negotiations for a new commercial treaty with Russia were not begun until the conclusion of the RussoGerman treaty, and were prolonged through the resistance of the Hungarian Government to the Russian demand for a reduction of the tariff on rye. The Russian Government finally agreed to the continuance of the existing tariff of 1 florin per quintal. The treaty was formally ratified on July 6.

Austria. The Reichsrath or Parliament consists of a House of Lords, the Herrenhaus, and a House of Deputies, the Abgeordnetenhaus. The Upper House is composed of the 19 adult archdukes, 68 feudal proprietors, who are hereditary members, the 9 archbishops and 8 prince bishops, and 131 life members. The Abgeordnetenhaus has 353 members, elected for six years, of whom 85 are chosen by landowners paying 50 florins or more in taxes, 21 by chambers of trade and commerce, 118 by the towns, and 129 by the indirect suffrage of the peasantry. For the two latter classes the electorate is restricted to male citizens twenty-four years of age, who pay 5 florins in direct taxes or are qualified by their occupation or education.

The Austrian Cabinet, constituted Nov. 11, 1893, is composed as follows: President of the Council, Prince A. Windischgrätz; Minister of the Interior, Marquis de Bacquehem; Minister of Finance, Dr. von Plener; Minister of Worship and Education, Ritter von Madeyski; Minister VOL. XXXIV.-5 A

of Agriculture, Count Julius Falkenhayn; Minister of National Defense, Count Zeno von Welsersheimb; Minister of Commerce, Count G. von Wurmbrand-Stuppach; Minister of Justice, Count Friedrich von Schönborn; without portfolio, Ritter von Savorski.

There are 16 provincial diets, which deal with local taxation, education, worship, charities, agricultural regulations, and public works. The bishops of the Roman and Greek Churches and rectors of universities have seats ex officio, and the landed proprietors, the chambers of commerce and trade guilds, and the municipalities and rural communes are represented as in the Reichsrath.

Finance. The revenue for 1891 was 600,708,000 florins, and the expenditure 587,091,000 florins. The estimates for 1894-'95 make the revenue 619,105,779 florins, including 16,497,746 florins of extraordinary receipts. The direct taxes produce 110,045,000 florins, of which 35,890,000 came from the land tax, 30,713,000 from the house tax, 28,698,000 from the income tax, 11,659,000 from the tax on industries, and 3,085,000 from other taxes. The customs revenue is 43,404,777 florins. Indirect taxation gives 293,599.632 florins, of which 108,865,080 come from excise taxes, 21.007,602 from salt, 86,616.450 from the tobacco monopoly, 20,442,000 from stamps, 37,419,000 from legal fees, 16,678,000 from a state lottery, and 2.571,500 from other sources. The receipts from railroads are 123,857,130 florins; from posts and telegraphs, 36,825,000 florins; from state property, 5,178,830 florins; from forests and domains, 5,001,960 florins; from mines, 7,910,921 florins; from universities, etc., 6,157,204 florins.

The expenditure for 1894-'95 is estimated at 582,759,548 florins for ordinary and 35,934,689 florins for extraordinary purposes; total, 618.694,237 florins. Of the ordinary expenditure, the chief items are 158,328,038 florins for the debt service, 107,875,608 florins contribution to common expenditure, 101,268,120 florins for railroads, posts, and telegraphs, 88,190,825 florins for financial administration, 21,307,820 florins for justice, 18,694,750 florins for pensions and grants, 18,458,896 florins for the Ministry of the Interior, 17,989,840 florins for the Ministry of National Defense, 14,196,609 florins for education, 14,108,253 florins for agriculture, 7,148,050 florins for public worship, 6,065,135 florins for subventions, and 4,650,000 florins for the imperial household. The special debt of Austria amounted in 1893 to 1,219.184,000 florins.

Electoral Reform.-The agitation for universal suffrage, which appeared to subside after the accession of the Windischgrätz ministry, was renewed in 1894, and meetings were held on nearly every Sunday and holiday everywhere throughout the country. The Social Democrats discussed the advisability of a general strike, such as had been successful in Belgium. When the proposition was brought forward in the Social-Democratic congress at Vienna, Dr. Adler, one of their foremost leaders, deprecated it as unnecessary, and warned his followers against violence or illegalities, reminding them that the troops, with quick-firing guns and small-caliber rifles, would make short work of a popular ris

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