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ing $2,933 borrowed money, had been $64,817. and the disbursements $65,418. The estimated value of supplies, clothing, etc., sent to missionaries in the field was $12,765. One hundred and four missionaries had been employed during the whole or part of the year, of whom 4 were students from the Missionary Training School at Raleigh, N. C. These missionaries had been distributed as follows: Among Americans on the frontier, 6; among the colored people, 40; among the Chinese, 4; among Bohemians, 1; among Germans, 16; among Jews, 1; among Danes and Norwegians, 4; among Swedes, 8: among Indians, 13; among Mexicans, 7; among Mormons, 4.

Missionary Union.-The American Baptist Missionary Union held its eightieth meeting in Saratoga Springs, N. Y., May 28. The receipts of the society for the year from all sources had been $485,000, and the appropriations $694,658, leaving an indebtedness of $203,596. The Union employed 2.138 laborers, of whom 993 were connected with missions to the heathen, 647 were in Sweden, and the remainder were in other countries in Europe. The 1,612 churches returned a total of 185,228 members, with 90,996 pupils in Sunday schools, and 11.450 baptisms in 1893. A series of recommendations were adopted respecting the policy to be pursued in the work of the missions, in which the meeting advised that the present methods of school work be continued, but with such changes as will, if possible, increase their efficiency in promoting evangelization; that unceasing effort be made to impress upon native converts their duty to provide for the education of their children; that none but outspoken and consistent Christians should be employed as teachers in the mission schools; that the teaching of Christian truth should hold the first place in the plans and efforts of all engaged in mission-school work; that the benefits to mission schools of state inspection are unquestionable and important, and to that extent those schools should be subjected to government control; that the reception of grants in aid from the British Government is possibly defensible in view of the nature of that Government and of the relation of the missionaries to it, yet the utmost caution was recommended in seeking and accepting such aid; because (1) of the tendency which a reliance upon it has to secularize the aim of teachers and pupils; because (2) of the danger of weakening the force of Baptist testimony at home against the union and in favor of the separation of Church and state, wherefore the discontinuance of the custom was advised as soon as practicable; and because (3) of the conscientious objections which some of the missionaries have to the practice; that special caution be used in founding schools and colleges, it being regarded as wise to wait for a "widespread interest and a pretty unanimous call" before taking steps to establish them; that some form of manual service be required of boarding-school girls, and that all Christian pupils be expected to take some part, under guidance of their teachers, in religious service, while the industrial training of boys was also commended; and that single women sent out by the Union be encouraged to devote themselves, as far as possible, to educational work. In view of

the financial situation no efforts were made to enlarge the missionary work, and the society decided to endeavor only to maintain the present mission fields with all proper economy, sending out new missionaries only when it might become necessary to fill vacancies made by disease or death. A committee was appointed to consider the question of the relationship between the Missionary Union and the several woman's missionary societies.

The twenty-third annual meeting of the Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society was held in Philadelphia, Pa., April 17, 18, and 19. Mrs. S. C. Durfee, of Providence, R. I., presided. The total receipts of the society had been $129,178, and the expenditures $127,880. The receipts of the Home for the Children of Missionaries had been $1,833, and the expenditures $1,788. Of the 64 missionaries of the society, 30 were laboring in Burmah. In India, at Madras, 8 Bible women and 14 teachers were visiting 46 zenanas and teaching 210 caste girls. In Assam, 880 pupils were reported in the village schools among Garos, Nagas, and Kohls taught by graduates of the normal school at Tura. In Japan, 16 Bible women were employed and 1.179 pupils were returned. In China the Bible women's and school work was carried on steadily. Work was going on among the women and children in the Congo, and reports were made from France and Sweden. The entire work of the society included 64 missionaries, 400 native teachers, 126 Bible women, and 294 schools, with 9,154 pupils, 578 of whom had publicly professed themselves Christians.

Southern Baptist Convention.-The Southern Baptist Convention met in Dallas, Texas, May 11. The Hon. Jonathan Haralson, of Alabama, was chosen president. The report of the Home Board of Missions showed that the treasurer's total receipts had been $73,321, of which $11,145 had been on account of the Centennial fund; while of the disbursements, $39,127 had been paid to missionaries. The report further showed that $107,544 had been received and expended by co-operative bodies in missions and church building. The Home Board had everywhere strengthened the State boards, enabling them to do a larger work and thus create a wider interest in the churches for all mission work at home and abroad. The woman's missionary societies had contributed $21,613 to the work of the board. The missionary work had been prosecuted among foreign populations, with which are included the Indians; among the negroes among the native white people; in Cuba; and in aid of church building. The work among the Indians had been confined to the Indian Territory, and had been so successful and so long continued that it now closely approximated in its character and conditions that among the white people of the frontier. There were now in the Indian Territory 16 associations, 301 churches, and 13,844 church members. The work in Cuba still exhibited the same feature of interest that had characterized it from the beginning, and was described as "never so prosperous as now." One hundred and fifty new candidates had been baptized. The convention had been interested in the welfare of the negroes from its very organization. At the time of the

drafting of the constitution, in 1845, a resolution was passed instructing the Domestic Board "to take all prudent measures for the religious instruction of our colored population." At the first meeting after the civil war, these negroes then being free, the convention resolved "that in our changed relations to the colored people we recognize as heretofore our solemn obligation to give religious instruction to them by all those means which God has ordained for the salvation of men." Twice the convention had made formal overtures to the brethren of the North to aid them among these people, to neither of which, says the report, was any favorable response ever made. A committee was appointed by the convention to confer with a similar committee of the American Baptist Home Mission Society with reference to co-operation in work among the colored people in the South, and with reference to a more definite understanding in regard to the territorial limits of the work of the two societies among the white people, the Indians, and the foreign population of the country. The business affairs of the Sunday-school Board were in a very satisfactory condition. The cash receipts for the year had been $48,529, an increase of $5,460 over those of the previous year. During 1892-'93 the board had distributed of its earnings $1,413 among the States, paying the money to State mission boards to be used in such Sunday-school work as they were doing. During the past year a different policy had been pursued, and the surplus funds had been used rather with a view to encouraging and developing distinctively Sunday-school work.

The Foreign Board had received from all sources $106,332, of which $23,515 were from the woman's missionary societies. Twelve missionaries had been sent out, 7 more were under employment, and a number of persons had applied for appointment. The missions in Italy, Brazil, Mexico, China, Africa, and Japan returned 84 churches, 3,328 members, 629 baptisms during the year, 42 men and 38 women serving as missionaries, 25 ordained and 66 unordained native agents, and 2,271 pupils in Sunday schools.

A report was adopted recommending that the societies of young people be under the control of the local churches. A paper from the General Convention of the Disciples of Christ, inviting conference with the various denominations with reference to Christian union, was referred to a committee to prepare a courteous answer. The paper declared against any union at the sacrifice of principle and loyalty to Christ, and set forth as three points essential to a proper basis of union -the primitive creed of the Church, defined as faith in Jesus as the Christ and the Son of God; the ordinances as Christ left them to the Church, of which baptism was affirmed to be the immersion of a penitent believer, while only baptized believers are regarded as scripturally entitled to partake of the Lord's Supper; and the Christian life as commanded in the New Testament.

An enumeration of the churches in the States represented in the convention-Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indian Territory, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi. Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia—prepared by the secretary of the body, shows that they comprise, in

all, 684 associations, 9,610 ordained ministers, 17,346 churches, and 1,368,351 white members; with 20 colleges, 29 seminaries for young women, and 24 academies, having 1,782 instructors and 10,138 pupils. Educational property, including endowments ($2,286,306), $6,110,581; reported value of church property, $17,361,794. The same enumeration gives the number of colored Baptist churches as 12,454, with 1,291,046 members; whole number of Baptist members, white and colored, 2,654,397.

Co-operation.—The committee appointed by the Southern Baptist Convention and the Executive Committee of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, in response to the overture of the Southern Baptist Convention to confer with reference to co-operation between the Home Board of the Convention and the society in work among the colored people of the South, met at Fortress Monroe, Va., in September. The Hon. J. L. Howard, of Connecticut, was chosen chairman. The Southern Committee presented a paper containing the expression— That, desiring to avoid discussion of past issues, or of matters on which it is known that the views of the brethren North and South are widely divergent, we will in all sincerity address ourselves to the task of securing for the future such co-operation as may be found practicable without attempting at once to adjust all differences. The committee desires to state that, in making this overture, the Southern Baptist Convention is prompted not by any necessity of its own work or that of the Home Mission Board, but, believing that the time has come when it should enlarge its work among the colored people of the South, it entertains the hope that a proper co-operation with the Home Mission Society in its work already established would contribute to the efficiency of both.

An agreement was unanimously reached

I. As to Schools among the Colored People.-1. That the Home Board of the Southern Baptist Convention appoint an advisory local committee at each point where a school controlled by the American Baptist Home Mission Society is located, and that the committee shall exercise such authority as shall be conferred upon it from time to time by the American Baptist Home Mission Society. 2. That the control of the schools shall remain in the hands of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, but these local advisory committees shall recommend to the American Baptist Home Mission Society any changes in the conduct or in the teaching forces of these schools, including the filling of vacancies, with the reasons for their recommendations. 3. That the Southern Baptist Convention, through the Home Mission Board, shall appeal to the Baptists of the South for moral and financial support of these schools, and that these local committees shall encourage promising young colored people to attend these institutions. 4. That the joint committee recommend to the respective bodies appointing them the adoption of the foregoing section as unanimously expressing their views as to the work in the schools among the colored people,

II. As to Mission Work among the Colored People. -It is unanimously voted by the joint committee to recommend to our respective bodies that the American Baptist Home Mission Society and the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention co-operate in the mission work among the colored people of the South, in connection with the Baptist State bodies, white and colored, in the joint appointment of general missionaries, in holding ministers' and deacons' institutes, and in the better organization of the missionary work of the colored Baptists, the details of the plan to be left to be agreed upon by the bodies above named.

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That for the promotion of fraternal feeling and for the best interests of the Redeemer's kingdom, it is inexpedient for two different organizations of Baptists to solicit contributions, or to establish missions in the same localities; and for this reason we recommend to the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, and to the American Baptist Home Mission Society, that in the prosecution of their work already begun on contiguous fields, or on the same field, all antagonisms be avoided, and their officers and employees be instructed to co-operate in all practical ways in the spirit of Christ. That we further recommend to these bodies and their agents, in opening new work, to direct their efforts to localities not already occupied by the other.

The Committee of the Home Mission Society not being instructed to act upon any subject except co-operation in labor for the colored race, this proposition was recommended to the Board of the American Baptist Home Mission Society for favorable consideration.

Young People's Union. The fourth international convention of the Baptist Young People's Union of America was held at Toronto, Ontario, July 19 to 22. The treasurer's report showed that the total assets of the Union were $20.141, and its liabilities $47,868. The society included, according to the report of the Board of Managers, 30 State unions and 2 provincial unions. New State unions had been formed in Virginia and West Virginia. Many new local organizations had sprung up, especially in the Southern States. Statistics of the extent of local organization were still difficult to secure, but progress was being made. Progress was also reported in the organization of junior societies, and in the addition of the educational methods of the Union. The prominent feature of these methods is presented in the three Christian culture courses, viz.: the Sacred Literature Course, the Bible-reader's Course, and the Conquest Missionary Course. These had been supplemented by an experimental junior course, which promised well. Special books were in publication for the use of these courses. The Conquest Missionary Course, with its scheme of studies for four years, had been approved by the representatives of the American Baptist Publication and Home Missionary Societies and Missionary Union. Numerous addresses on subjects appropriate to the objects of the Union were delivered during the meetings.

The Baptist Congress.-The thirteenth annual meeting of the Baptist Congress was held in Detroit, Mich.. Nov. 13 to 15. President A. G. Slocum, of Kalamazoo College, presided. The subjects were discussed, by appointed speakers and volunteers in general discussion, of Tradition as a Formative Force in Baptist Doctrine and Church Life," "What does the Denomination owe to its Colleges, and what do its Colleges owe to the Denomination?" "The Formation of Criminal Classes: Its Causes and

its Cure," "What is the Kingdom of God?" "The Interpretation of the Old Testament as affected by Modern Scholarship," and "Christ the Liberator: Christ the Unifier."

II. Convention of the Maritime Provinces.-The forty-ninth meeting of the Baptist Convention of the Maritime Provinces was held at Bear River, Nova Scotia, in September. About 400 delegates were present. The Rev. Dr. J. H. Saunders presided. The Board of Foreign Missions reported concerning its work carried on in the Telugu country, India, with an expenditure of $18,943, exceeding the receipts by $1,939. The woman's work auxiliary to the main society was described as being very helpful. The Board of Home Missions returned an income of $7,963, with an indebtedness of $2,053. The condition of the educational institutions, of which Acadia College is the most prominent, was described as being one of progress, with a good outlook, and a call for enlargement if the means were in hand.

III. Convention of Ontario and Quebec.The Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec met in St. Thomas, Ontario, in October. Mr. J. S. Buchan, of Montreal, was chosen president. Reports were made concerning educational interests, home and foreign missions, and the Grande Ligne mission to the French population in the Province of Quebec. Woodstock College, McMastan University, with Moulton College, its Ladies' Department, and the Grande Ligne School, were represented in the educational reports. Of the 3,172 baptisms returned in the two provinces, about 1,600 had been in the home mission fields. Missionary reports were received from fields in India, Manitoba, and the Northwest.

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IV. Baptists in Great Britain.-Out of 2,825 Baptist churches in Great Britain and Ireland, statistical returns from 2,495 appear in the "Handbook for 1894, and approximate estimates are given for the rest. Connected with these churches are 3,777 places of worship, affording accommodation for 1,242,038 persons. Other items give 1,881 ordained ministers, 4,534 local preachers, 342,507 communicants (showing an increase during the year of 5,098), 47,969 teachers, and 495,284 pupils in Sunday schools; 18,006 baptisms during the year; 10 colleges, with 246 students; and 24 new chapels or mission halls built during the year, at a cost of £31,870, with accommodation for 9,225 persons.

The "Handbook" gives the number of Baptist churches in the world as 46,502 (as against 44,558 in the preceding year), with 30,548 ordained ministers or missionaries, 4,136,152 members-a gain for the year of 123,465-and 2,002,877 pupils in Sunday schools.

The "Baptist Missionary Centennial Volume," published at the end of 1893, shows that, of £114,670 promised to the Centennial fund, only £7,696 then remained unpaid.

The Annual Assembly of the Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland was held in London, beginning April 23. The Rev. T. Mew Morris presided, and delivered an opening address on "Baptists in Relation to other Christians and to some of the Special Questions of the Day." The statistical reports showed a gain during the year of 5,098 members and 7,483 pupils, and an increase of 2,822 baptisms. The income

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had been £15,982, of which more than £13,000 had been distributed to pastors and widows on the Annuity fund, and to pastors and churches aided by the home mission. Twenty-five churches had joined the Union, and 14 personal members had been received. The churches were showing a greater disposition to seek information from the Board of Introduction about candidates for pastorates, and inquiries were answered in many cases with satisfactory results. Amendments to the constitution of the Union were adopted respecting the ratio of representation in the Assembly, and the method of electing the vicepresident, which is hereafter to be made by the Assembly by ballot, without nomination. A resolution was adopted deprecating lynching in the United States, and calling upon all lovers of justice, of freedom, and of brotherhood in the churches of this country" to demand for every citizen of the republic accused of crime a proper trial in the courts of law."

The report of the Home Missionary Society showed that there were 92 mission churches upon the council's list, 52 of which were formed into 24 groups of 2 or 3 churches each, besides 38 mission stations, with 63 mission pastors serving 135 preaching places; 5,099 communicants (365 baptized during the year); 8,423 children in Sunday schools, and 1,042 in Bible classes. The mission churches had raised for various purposes during the year £8,349. The expenditure of the society on the general account had been £5,039, including the adverse balance of £786. The deficit chargeable to the year was £94.

From the Baptist Building fund £11,000 had been lent to 40 churches, in sums varying from £80 to £600. The capital of the fund now stood at £51,583, showing an increase of only £14 for the year. At the close of the financial year applications for £7,500 were awaiting votes, and fresh appeals were constantly being made. The Baptist Young Men's Missionary Society returned an income of £1,107, of which £181 were devoted to Bengali schools, £55 to schools in China, £679 to Congo and general account, and £185 for home expenses.

The Irish Home Mission is independent of the Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland, but receives help from England, as well as from Wales and Scotland. It had 60 students in its training college at Rockferry, and was sustaining a home for those who could not care for themselves.

The one hundred and second annual meeting of the Baptist Missionary Society was held in London, April 24. The expenditure of the past year had been £70,622, a decrease of £1.232 from the preceding year, but the receipts exhibited a deficiency of £14,183. The expenditure was undergoing examination with a view to reduction wherever possible. The cash receipts for the Centenary fund amounted to £111,765, and sums still due were estimated at £5,677, which would raise the fund to £117,442. The work of the society in India, Ceylon, China, Africa, the West Indies, Brittany, and Italy was reviewed. Seventy-nine missionaries and 113 native evangelists were laboring in India, 5 missionaries and 25 evangelists in Ceylon, 21 missionaries and 23 evangelists in China, and 29 missionaries on the Congo. Reports were received from the West

Indies of encouraging progress of the native churches, and of their increasing ability to stand alone. The Baptist Zenana Mission was carrying on its work in 22 stations, with a staff of 60 missionaries, 200 native Bible women and teachers, and 80 schools, with 3,080 children. Regular instruction was given in 1,394 zenanas, besides which 2,500 houses were visited for Bible teaching alone. The balance sheet for the year showed a deficiency of £1,695, the payments having amounted to £9,235, and the receipts to £7,539.

The autumnal assembly of the Union was held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, beginning Oct. 2. The Rev. George Short presided. Reports were made of 7,272 places of worship, having 1,242.038 sittings, with 322,507 members, 4,534 local preachers, and 1,791 pastors, while 18,006 persons had been baptized during the year. Ninetyfive mission churches were returned, with 5,000 members and 9,000 young people; and 360 baptisms during the year, the number of baptisms being equivalent to 7 per cent, of the membership. These mission stations had raised £9,000 during the year, including £1,300 for church debts and £400 for foreign missions. The opening address of the president of the Union was on "The Religious Instruction of the Young: The Relation of Baptists to the Subject." A resolution was passed denouncing the traffic in slaves, and calling on all the churches of the Baptist Union, especially in view of recent events in Egypt and the Soudan, to support all lawful measures for securing the abolition of slavery throughout Africa. Another resolution expressed the gratification of the assembly at learning that the Government was pledged to an early submission to Parliament of a bill for the disestablishment and disendowment of the Church of England in Wales, and its trust that nothing would be allowed to interfere with the passing of such a bill into law. A third resolution was in favor of the immediate passing of the Grocers' License Abolition bill. One hundred and eighty-one applications had been received and accepted on account of the Augmentation fund. The amount needed to pay £20 in each case was £3,620, to which £100 was added for working expenses. The amount received up to Sept. 25 had been £2,368, leaving a balance required of £1,352. An appeal was made for the increase of the Retired Ministers' Annuities fund, which was not now sufficient to maintain full payment of the allowances.

V. General Baptists in Great Britain.— The two hundred and forty-first annual assembly of the General Baptist Churches was held at Bethnal Green. Sept. 16, the Rev. W. E. Mellone, of Tunbridge Wells, being moderator. A message was received from the sister assembly in America, expressing a desire for union in mission work. The Rev. W. M. Jones, D. D., was elected moderator, and the Rev. A. J. Marchant vicepresident, for the next year.

VI. The German Baptist Bund. The sixteenth triennial Bundes Conferenz of the German Baptist churches was held in Berlin, Aug. 19 to 24. Besides Germany, the Bund comprises Baptist churches in Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Switzerland, Roumania, Bulgaria, Holland, and the Cape Colony. The Bund has an incorpora

tion obtained from the free city of Hamburg. The members of the churches are composed chiefly of persons of the laboring classes, and the churches are not recognized by the governments of the German states. The conference was attended by about 275 delegates. The reports showed that the past three years had been more fruitful than any similar period in the history of the Bund. A net increase was returned of 2,821 members, there having been 5,518 additions by baptism against 2,694 losses. The present number of members in Germany was 24,021, and the whole number in all the Union was 29,556. The number of churches had increased from 124 to 149, the number of preachers and helpers from 200 to 300, and the number of pupils in Sunday schools from 18,452 to 21.524. Twenty-five chapels and churches had been built, 15 of which were in Germany. The publishing interests were in a prosperous condition. A debt of nearly $4,000 had been paid within the past three years, and about $2,000 from the profits had been given to the sick fund and to the support of the work of colporteurs. The publishing house, which was established at Hamburg in 1828, had at last reached a selfsupporting basis, and was able to give from its profits to missionary work. Seven periodicals were published; 127,000 copies of a religious almanac had been printed; 61 books had been issued, with total editions of 382,635 volumes; and 132,549 Bibles and Testaments had been printed. The establishment still occupied rented quarters. About half of the sum required to build a house of its own had been collected. The conference decided that when a publication house is built it shall be in some more central city than Hamburg; and a committee was appointed to consider the question of location, and report to a future meeting of the conference.

BELGIUM, a monarchy in western Europe, hereditary in the male line of the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The Constitution of Feb. 7, 1831, was revised on Sept. 7, 1893. The Senate contains half the number of the House of Representatives. Senators are elected for eight years, one half retiring every four years; twenty-six of them are elected by the provincial councils, and the rest by the direct suffrage of citizens paying at least 1,200 francs of direct taxes, or possessing real estate worth 12,000 francs a year, and being, if the Legislature so decrees. over thirty years of age. Representatives are elected in the proportion of 1 to 40,000 of population for four years, one half retiring every two years, by the direct suffrage of all male citizens over twenty-five years of age, and domiciled for a year in the commune, except such as are disqualified by law. Plural votes are allowed: 1 supplementary vote to each citizen thirty-five years of age having legitimate issue and paying a personal tax of 5 francs; 1 vote to every citizen twenty-five years of age who possesses 2,000 francs' worth of immovable property or derives an income of 100 francs from the public funds, or savings-bank deposits; 2 supplementary votes to every citizen who has a diploma of superior instruction, or who fills or has filled a public office or a position presumptively implying superior education. A Deputy receives 4,000 francs annual pay and free pas

sage on the railroads between his home and the seat of legislation. The new Constitution not only quintupled the number of electors, but made voting obligatory.

The reigning sovereign is Leopold II, King of the Belgians, born April 9, 1835. The heir presumptive is the King's nephew, Prince Albert, born April 8, 1875, in whose favor the Count of Flanders, his father, resigned the right of succession.

The ministry, which was organized on Oct. 26, 1884, consisted in the beginning of 1894 of the following members: President of the Council and Minister of Finance, A. Beernaert; Minister of Justice, J. Lejeune; Minister of the Interior and Public Instruction, J. de Burlet; Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Public Works, L. de Bruyn; Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count de Merode-Westerloo; Minister of War, Lieut.-Gen. J. J. Brassine; Minister of Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs, J. van den Peereboom.

Area and Population.-The area of Belgium is 29,455 square kilometres or 11,373 square miles. The population at the census of 1890 was 6,069,321, and on Dec. 31, 1892, it was computed at 6,195,355, of which number 3,090,466 were males and 3.104,889 females. The population at the time of the census comprised 5.897,888 Belgians, 56,306 Netherlanders, 47,338 Germans, 45,430 French, 9,716 Luxemburgers, 4.523_English, 7,318 other Europeans, and 807 non-Europeans. The language statistics show that 2,485,072 spoke only French, 2,744,293 Flemish only, 33,026 no language but German, 700,519 French and Flemish, 58.059 French and German, 7,195 Flemish and German, 36,185 all three languages, and 4,972 foreign languages. Of the total population, 826,502 men and 255,001 women were employed in mining, manufacturing, and agricultural industries, 215,559 men and 111,532 women in commerce, 505,847 men and 153,440 women in intellectual and liberal professions, 509,261 men and 362,246 women in various occupations, and 1,151,093 males and 2.199,592 females were dependent or without occupation. The density of population in Belgium is 548 per square mile. The number of marriages in 1892 was 47,209; of births, 177,485; of deaths, 133,693; excess of births, 43,792. The number of emigrants was 22,532; of immigrants, 21,774; excess of emigration, 758. The population of the chief cities at the end of 1892 was: Brussels, 183,833 within the boundaries and 488,188 with suburbs; Antwerp, 240,343; Liége, 155,898; Ghent, 151,811.

Finance. The ordinary revenue for 1891 was 346,346,000 francs, and the extraordinary 55,601,000 francs; while the ordinary expenditure was 338,723,000 francs, and the extraordinary 63,445,000 francs; making the total receipts 401,947,000 francs, and disbursements 402,168,000 francs. The budget for 1894 makes the total ordinary revenue 349,316,198 francs, derived mainly from the following sources: Railroads, 139,000,000 francs; excise taxes, 42,182.409 franes; direct property tax, 24,812,000 francs; customs, 24,505,570 francs; registration dues, 20,200,000 franes; succession duties, 19,575,000 francs; personal taxes, 19,180,000 francs; securities, bank, amortization fund, etc., 15,723,

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