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000 francs; post office, 11,095,820 francs; trade licenses, 6,800,000 francs; stamps, 6,050,000 francs; telegraphs, 5,850,000 francs; various indirect taxes, 5,843,000 francs. The ordinary expenditure for 1894 is estimated at 346,618,972 francs, distributed as follows: Interest and amortization of the public debt, 107,613,522 francs; Ministry of Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs, 103,411,772 francs; Ministry of War, 47,117,452 francs; Ministry of the Interior and Public Instruction, 23,286,017 francs; Ministry of Justice, 18,921,847 francs; Ministry of Public, Works, 17,513,468 francs; Ministry of Finance,' 15,556,305 francs; civil list and dotations, 4,786,160 francs; gendarmery, 4,367,600 francs; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2,515,828 francs; repayments, 1,529,000 francs. The public debt in 1893 amounted to 2,147,460,574 francs; the funded debt to 2,126,050,939 francs, of which 1,297,843,707 francs pay 3 per cent., 608,247,600 francs 3 per cent., and the share of Belgium in the old Netherlands debt, amounting to 219,959,632 francs, pays 24 per cent.

The production of raw sugar was 141,371,540 kilogrammes; of refined. 47,119,430 kilogrammes. The general commerce in 1892 amounted to 2,811,400,000 francs for imports and 2,644,300,000 francs for exports. Of the imports, 1,312,900,000 francs arrived by sea, and of the exports, 1,115,200,000 francs were shipped by sea. The imports for home consumption amounted to 1,536,500,000 francs, the domestic exports to 1,369,400,000 francs. The values of the principal groups of imports for home consumption were as follow: Grain and flour, 274,553,000 francs; raw textile materials, 158,218,000 francs; vegetable products, 93,812,000 francs; chemicals and drugs, 87,424,000 francs; mineral substances, 70,350,000 francs; gums and resins, 67,879,000 francs; manufactured textiles, 60,097,000 francs; timber, 58,764,000 francs; hides and skins, 58,485,000 francs; coffee, 56,819,000 francs; animal products, 41,912,000 francs; metals, 40,219,000 francs; live animals, 36,636,000 francs; meat, 34,394,000 francs; yarns, 27,245,000 francs; wine, 27,072,000 francs; coal, 26,468,000 francs. The values exported of the principal articles of domestic produce or manufacture were: Cereals and flour, 121,312,000 francs; woolen and linen yarns, 113,088,000 francs; machinery, 96,339,000 francs; coal and coke, 93,330,000 francs; raw textile materials, 86,866,000 francs; manufactured textiles, 66,278,000 francs; hides and leather, 58,834,000 francs; iron, 53,760,000 francs; meat, 49,827,000 francs; sugar, 48,745,000 francs; chemical products, 48,615,000 francs; glass, 44,274,000 francs; vegetable substances, 36,481,000 francs; mineral substances, 31,472,000 francs; steel, 25,945,000 francs; live animals, 24,715,000 francs; arms, 13,948.000 francs. The value, in francs, of the trade with each of the principal countries is given in this table:

The Army. The peace effective of the army for 1893 was 3,421 officers and 47,642 men, with 10,712 horses. The strength of the infantry was 1,745 officers and 28,810 men; cavalry, 304 officers and 5,744 men; artillery, 534 officers and 7,907 men; train, 29 officers and 402 men; engineers, 146 office and 1,434 men; gendarmery, 61 officers and 2,476 men; administrative services, 262 officers and 869 men; sanitary service, 187 officers; veterinary service, 35 officers; general staff, 79 officers; staff of districts and fortified places, 39 officers. The kingdom is divided into two military districts, one embracing the provinces of Anvers and East and West Flanders, with the central arsenal of Antwerp and the fortified towns of Dendermonde and Diest, and the other the rest of the country, including Liége, Huy, Namur, and the other strong places on the Meuse, and the fortifications on the French frontier at Mons, Tournai, and Ypres. France. The war strength of the army is 154,780 men, with 14,000 horses and 240 guns.

Commerce and Production.-The land is owned in small plots, and the subdivision is continually going on. In 1880 there were 910,396 owners, two thirds of whom held less than 24

acres.

Two thirds of the surface of the kingdom is kept in a high state of cultivation, producing cereals, leguminous plants, the sugar beet, potatoes, flax, grasses, tobacco, ornamental plants, etc. There is an agricultural commission in every province, and the Ministry of Agriculture has divisions to deal with planting, irrigation, culture, veterinary science, agricultural laboratories, and forestry. About one sixth of the area of Belgium is devoted to forests, which are economically exploited, yielding in 1890 a revenue of 4,830,884 francs. The Ministry of Public Works has a department for the administration of industry. The production of coal in 1892 was 19,583,000 tons, valued at 201,288,000 francs; of pig iron, 753,268,000 tons, value 38,716,000 francs; of manufactured iron, 479,008,000 tons, value 64,879,000 francs; of steel ingots, 260,037,000 tons, value 23,277,000 francs; of steel rails, 208.281,000 tons, value 27.601.000 francs; value of zinc, 46,568,000 francs; of lead, 2,690,000 francs; of silver, 4,380,000 francs.

COUNTRIES.

United States
Great Britain..
Netherlands.
Germany..
British India.
Russia..
Roumania.
Argentine Republic.

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Navigation. During 1892 there were 7.063 vessels, of 5,782,157 tons, entered at Belgian ports, of which 3,838, of 2,201,292 tons, arrived from England, and 358, of 717,831 tons, from the United States. The number cleared was 7,085, of 5,802,111 tons; 4.770 of them, of 3,381,865 tons, for English, and 259, of 574,030 tons, for United States ports. The merchant navy in 1892 consisted of 6 sailing vessels, of 11,039 tons, and 47 steamers, of 69,356 tons.

Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs.-The railroads open to traffic in 1893 had a total length of 2,810 miles, of which 2,018 miles were state lines and 792 miles were managed by companies. The state lines in 1891 took in 140,652,251 francs, and the companies' lines 39,662,190 francs, while the expenses were 82,635,967 francs for the state and 20,428,896 francs for the companies. The capital invested by the state was 1,359,000,000 francs.

The post office during 1892 carried 99,295,241

private and 17,891,763 official letters, 39,260,182 postal cards, 88,274,979 circulars, and 100,693,346 newspapers. The receipts for 1892 were 17,513,873. and the expenses 9,954,020 francs.

The number of messages sent by telegraph in 1892 was 7,975.523. The length of lines was 4,617 miles, with 22,739 miles of wire. The receipts for the year were 3,445,599 francs, and expenses 4,535,192 francs.

The Electoral Law.-It was incumbent upon the Parliament elected under the old electoral law to frame the act regulating the application of the new law before its own mandate expired in June, 1894. The new fundamental statute provided that the suffrage should be universal, plural, and obligatory; but it did not state how the electoral lists should be formed, nor whether a system of representation of minorities should be introduced or whether the sole representation of majorities should be continued. The Prime Minister espoused the theory of the proportional representation of minorities, though his own, as well as the other parties, was divided in opinion as to its wisdom or expediency. The Cabinet and the Right, however, approved the submission of the question to Parliament. The principle was embodied in the electoral bill submitted by the Government, but in a separate bill. The electoral bill passed the Chamber after three months of discussion, on Feb. 17. Propositions of the Left to disqualify persons convicted of petty offenses and recipients of charity were rejected, and also one to create a special jurisdiction to control electoral lists, and thus relieve the courts of appeal. The triple vote was accorded to priests and schoolmasters.

In staking the existence of his Cabinet on the proposal for minority representation, M. Beernaert was inspired by the desire of reacting against the tyranny of party organizations and leaders. The bill was opposed by Deputies who thought their seats endangered by the innovation, and by leaders who felt confident of their ability to crush out the opposite party in their districts, while others, who were likely to lose or were not sure of gaining a majority in their districts with extended suffrage, favored minority representation. Therefore, when the question came to a vote, the Government was not solidly supported by its party; and though it received many votes from the opposition parties, the measure was defeated on March 16 by 75 votes to 50, with 16 abstentions. The Ultramontane party of Woeste and the Left Center, or party of Frère Orban, gave most of the adverse votes, while many members of the Extreme Left voted with the Moderate Right. M. Beernaert on the following day sent in the resignations of the Cabinet to King Leopold. M. Woeste, who had the support of a large part of the Catholic masses, could not assume the direction of the Government without provoking violent political disturbances and perhaps revolution, especially if he should carry through an electoral bill cutting up the large electoral districts in such a way as to leave the political preponderance for many years in the hands of the ultra-Clericals, who are also Protectionists and enemies of the army, for they are representatives of agricultural interests and certain great industries in whose behalf they would reverse

the free-trade policy that has prevailed since 1847, and they have been able to frustrate the military reorganization, being in favor of a voluntary standing army, like the English, whereas the Liberals and Democrats would abolish not only enlistment but conscription and substitution, and establish universal compulsory service, as in Switzerland. When Gen. Brialmont proposed a royal commission in the interest of the promised military reforms, the Minister of War deprecated such action, and the anti-military majority negatived the motion by 62 votes to 34. M. Beernaert was anxious to leave the military question and the question of a protective tariff also to be decided by a Parliament elected under the new franchise.

The ministerial crisis was settled after several conferences with the King, who tried to induce Beernaert to remain by the reorganization of the Cabinet, with M. de Burlet for President. M. Lejeune retired with M. Beernaert. All the remaining ministers retained their portfolios. The late Premier was succeeded as Minister of Finance by M. de Smet de Naeyer, and M. Lejeune, as Minister of Justice, by M. Begerem. The Cabinet was constituted on March 26. The proposal for proportional representation was withdrawn, as raising too many difficulties. The Cabinet promised to propose new duties on grain required for distillation, but not on alimentary cereals. M. Feron, of the Extreme Left, offered a scheme of proportional representation which the Chamber rejected, at the same time deciding to retain the existing apportionment, thus pronouncing against M. Woeste's scheme of single-member districts. The electoral bill was finally passed by the Chamber on June 6, and by the Senate on June 27, whereupon the session was declared closed. The Government had abandoned its bill to place import duties on butter and margarine, flour, oatmeal, chicory, canned goods, and textile fabrics, and one subsidizing the Congo Railroad with 10,000.000 francs, because the Antwerp Deputies, called to account by their constituents for voting in favor of the "famine act," resigned their seats.

The Elections.-In preparation for the electoral contest in October, an effort was made to unite the Liberals, Radicals, and Socialists on a single platform under the name of Progressists. A programme was drawn up, including universal equal suffrage for all citizens at the age of twenty-one; proportional representation; free trade; a state monopoly of alcoholic liquors; eight hours a day for coal miners and legal limitation of hours of labor in other industries; a weekly day of rest; regulation of landlords and agricultural employers by rural councils; prohibition of night work for women; abolition of conscription and paid substitutes; separation of church and state; obligatory primary education; and security of the right of every citizen to be instructed in school, judged in court, and commanded in the army in his own language. The incompatibility of the principles of the doctrinaire Liberals and the Collectivists wrecked the proposed anti-Clerical alliance. The two wings of the Clerical party, on the contrary, in a measure patched up their differences, and agreed on a programme embracing defense of religion, property, and the family;

assimilation of private and communal schools in respect to state subsidies; amelioration of the condition of the working classes by means of necessary reforms; protection of agricultural interests; and a considerable reduction of the term of military service. But a new party of Catholic Democrats sprang up, especially in Flanders, which went much further in proposing remedial labor legislation, and which advocated proportional representation and the establishment of Flemish as a language of Parliament on an equal footing with French. The Collectivists adhered to their dogma that "wealth and the means of producing it are the patrimony of the entire human race, and must be restored to mankind collectively." The Liberals attempted to adjust their platform by declaring in favor of boards of conciliation to facilitate agreements on wages and hours of labor, and of measures for the amelioration of the lot of the working classes as far as is compatible with respect for individual property.

The result of the elections was a complete overthrow of the Liberal party by the Clericals and Socialists and a great increase of the parliamentary strength of the latter, who gained 23 seats from the Liberals and 2 from the Clericals. The Clericals won in the capital on the second ballot over the Liberals and the Socialists. The new Chamber was composed of 104 Conservatives, 29 Socialists and Socialist-Radicals, and 19 Liberals.

BOLIVIA, a republic in South America. The members of the House of Representatives, 64 in number, and the Senators, numbering 16, as well as the President, are elected by the suffrage of all who can read and write. Mariano Baptista was elected President for the quadrennial term ening Aug. 6, 1896.

Area and Population.-The area of the republic is 567,360 square miles, the loss of the coast districts to Chili having reduced it from 842,729 square miles to that figure. The population is officially estimated at 1,192,162, exclusive of about 245,000 aborigines. La Paz, the capital has 45,000 inhabitants.

Finances. In the budget for 1893 the revenue was reckoned at 5,737,200 bolivianos or silver dollars, and the expenditure at 5,937,200 bolivianos. The internal debt in 1891 was 4,484,916 bolivianos. The external debt had been reduced to $622,121.

Commerce and Production. The silver mines have been more profitably exploited since the construction of a railroad from Ascolan to Oruro and to the port of Antofagasta, which was opened to traffic on May 8, 1892. Gold is also mined, and so are tin, antimony, copper, bismuth, and cobalt. The forests abound in the best caoutchouc, and formerly cinchona was obtained in great quantities, but the trees that were most accessible have been destroyed. Other important products are coca and alpaca wool. cultivation of coffee is a growing industry. BRAZIL, a federal republic in South America, proclaimed Feb. 25, 1891, by a Constitutional Assembly elected at the call of the Provisional Government established by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca after the fall of the Emperor Dom Pedro II on Nov. 15, 1889. The Senate contains 63 members, 3 being elected by each State and

The

3 by the capital for the term of nine years, one third retiring every three years. The Chamber of Deputies has 205 members, 1 for every 70,000 inhabitants, elected for three years. The President and Vice-President, who hold office four years, are elected, as well as the members of both houses of Congress, by the direct suffrage of all Brazilian male citizens over twenty-one years of age who are able to read and write or pay taxes or exercise a trade or profession. Vice-President Floriano Peixoto became acting President on Nov. 23, 1891, when Deodoro da Fonseca was compelled to resign. The President's Cabinet in the beginning of 1894 was composed of the following secretaries of state: Agriculture, Commerce, and Public Works, J. F. Pereira; Finance, Dr. F. Freire; Justice and Interior, Dr. Fernando Lobo; Foreign Affairs, C. A. de Carvalho; War, Gen. Francisco A. de Moura; Marine, Admiral F. Chaves. The President of the Senate was Dr. Prudente de Moraes.

Area and Population.-The area of the republic is 3,209.878 square miles. The population was officially estimated in 1888 at 14,110,936. The immigration in 1892 was 86,513, and the emigration 16,776. Of the immigrants, 54.993 were Italians, 17,797 Portuguese, 10,468 Spaniards, 802 Germans, and 574 Austro-Hungarians. The city of Rio de Janeiro in 1890 had 422,756 inhabitants.

Finances.-The budget for 1894 estimated the receipts at 233,521,890 milreis, and the ordinary expenditure at 250,457,908 milreis. The requirements of the various departments were calculated as follow: Interior and Justice, 14,473,833 milreis: Industry, 100,716,824 milreis; Finance, 85,645,244 milreis; War, 29,959,815 milreis: Marine, 17,846,200 milreis; Foreign Affairs, 1,815,992 milreis. The Government obtained besides extraordinary credits amounting to 116,384,000 milreis, of which 44,694,000 milreis were for war material, the campaign in Rio Grande do Sul, and other military expenses, 30,184,000 milreis for the navy, 6,096,000 milreis for the Interior Department, 33,769,000 milreis for the Department of Industry, 1,429,000 milreis for financial administration, and 400,000 milreis for foreign affairs.

The foreign debt in 1893 amounted to £29,453,500 sterling, equivalent to 261,809,000 milreis, most of it funded at 4 per cent. interest. The internal funded debts, paying from 4 to 6 per cent. interest, amounted to 445,686,000 milreis, and other obligations to 203,356,000 milreis. There were outstanding 215,111,964 milreis of treasury notes, besides 355,173,310 milreis of bank notes. The gold payments in Europe for 1893 were £5,550,195, of which £3,099,057 were for the debt, and the balance guaranteed railroad interest, payments for war material. etc.

Commerce and Production.-Coffee and rubber are the chief commercial products, and as the extension of the foreign demand for them keeps pace with the increasing supply the balance of trade is constantly in favor of Brazil. The value of the rubber exports in 1893 was $175,000,000. The cultivation of tobacco in the north of Brazil has proved highly profitable and is extending, as is also cotton-growing in Bahia, Pernambuco, and Sergipe. During 1891-'92 there were 3,701,845 bags of coffee exported

from Rio, 3,508,007 bags from Santos, and 105,270 bags from Victoria; in 1892-'93, 2,808,657 bags from Rio, 3,411,498 from Santos, and 185,606 from Victoria. The export of sugar from Pernambuco in 1892 was 51,935 tons. The total value of the imports in 1890 was 260,100,000 milreis, and of the exports 317,822,000 milreis. Navigation. In 1892 there were entered at the port of Rio Janeiro 1,379 vessels, of 1,948, 547 tons, and 1,187 vessels, of 1,856,347 tons, were cleared: at the port of Rio Grande do Sul, 251 vessels, of 80.283 tons, were entered from distant ports, and 196, of 79,764 tons, were cleared; at Bahia, 965 vessels, of 1,297,712 tons, were entered and cleared. The merchant marine in 1893 consisted of 553 vessels, of 196,981 tons, of which 179, of 114,102 tons, were steamers. Under a law that went into force in November, 1894, all coastwise trade must be carried in Brazilian bottoms.

Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs. The length of railroads already built in 1893 was 6,651 miles, while 3,815 miles were partially built, 5.340 miles were being surveyed, and 9.071 miles more were projected. Of the railroads open to traffic, 1,586 were state lines, 1,815 miles were subsidized, and 2,485 miles were constructed without subventions, though most of the railroads have a guarantee of 6 or 7 per cent. interest from the Government.

Mello was not prepared to declare for the restoration of the empire; still less some of the civilians connected with the Provisional Government. Stormy conferences were held at Desterro between them and Gens. Saraiva and Salgado, commanders of the rebels of the south, the upshot of which was that Cardozo, the Minister of War, resigned, and a number of dissentient politicians were placed on a vessel and sent away to Montevideo.

When the year opened, Admiral de Mello, with a large part of the fleet and nearly 800 men, had gone to the south to assist in organizing the land forces, with the object of establishing the Provisional Government firmly in Santa Catarina. International law requires that a revolutionary government must administer some considerable portion of the territory before it can be recognized as a belligerent power; but the insurgents held only the little island of Santa Catarina, and hence were anxious to form a junction with the Federalist leaders of Rio Grande do Sul and establish their power over the State of Santa Catarina, where the adherents of the legitimate government were still undisputed masters. The monarchical governments of Europe sympathized with the insurgents to such a degree that their naval representatives warned the merchantmen waiting in Rio Janeiro harbor not to load or to discharge cargo, and refused, The telegraphs, which belong to the Govern- to the dismay of the foreign mercantile comment, had 8,620 miles of lines in 1891. The munity, to protect their lighters. Admiral Salnumber of dispatches in 1891 was 1,001,535. danha da Gama concentrated his forces in the The postal traffic in 1890 was 18,822,148 let- stronghold of Villegaignon and the fortificaters, and 19,280,135 newspapers and circulars. tions of Cobras Island, and posted his ships in The receipts were 3,243,421 milreis, expenses such a way as to keep up a desultory fire on the 9,323,108 milreis. town and draw the fire of Peixoto's batteries, and thus keep up the virtual blockade until he could establish a legal blockade that would bring Peixoto to terms by shutting off supplies and stopping all commerce. In the mean time he was almost deprived of supplies himself until the "Aquidaban "returned on Jan. 12, 1894. steaming past the forts at the entrance of the bay without receiving material damage. Thus re-enforced, Admiral da Gama was enabled to maintain his position in the bay, which was seriously menaced, for the Government troops had compelled the insurgents to retire from the island of Gobernador and had captured Mocangue and other points. Peixoto was not able to take the offensive, for he also had weakened his force, detaching the flower of the army to hold the province of Santa Catarina and cope with the rebels in Rio Grande, retaining only 3,000 regulars to assist 4,000 untrained militia in defending the city and the shores of the bay. On Jan. 16 the insurgents, who had previously reoccupied the island of Engenho after a sharp fight, landed on Mocangue under cover of the quick-firing guns of the Aquidaban," and drove out the Government troops, capturing the works and several pieces of artillery. They also took and garrisoned Conceição, Velha, and Vianna, and from this time Admiral da Gama was able to stop all commerce until the bold stand of the American admiral put an end to the factitious blockade. Having ascertained the views of VicePresident Peixoto, Admiral Benham summoned the insurgent commander, on Jan. 23, to an informal conference on board the New York,"

The Civil War.-Marshal Peixoto was placed in power by the conservative element that took a stand against the inflation of the currency and loose financial methods adopted deliberately by Barbosa and the other ministers of President da Fonseca with the object of creating a specious prosperity that would divert the people from politics. The strong administration of the new President gave offense to the advocates of State rights, while the occupation of the principal posts in the Government by military officers awakened the jealousy of the navy, which had taken the initiative in the overthrow of the empire and the deposition of President da Fonseca, and therefore was not disposed to yield the first place to the other branch of the service. Hence Admiral de Mello and his associates were able to drag into the rebellion nearly the whole navy. The Clericals and Imperialists gave every encouragement and assistance to the revolt, and the European population furnished financial aid. Admiral de Mello made the fight as an avowed republican against what he called a "military dictatorship," and in favor of a government by civilians. Admiral da Gama, although a monarchist, declared in the beginning that he would support the de facto Government, but in the end he deserted, and conveyed in his manifesto his belief that the republic was a failure. After he relieved Mello in the command of the insurgent force in the Bay of Rio de Janeiro in the beginning of December, 1893, the existence of the republic was felt to be at stake, although

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and counseled him to give up the struggle. The terms demanded by the rebel commander who had supplanted Admiral de Mello, though the latter was still the nominal chief of the insurgent forces, were the unconditional resignation of Marshal Peixoto, and a free vote throughout the country as to the form of government and representation in the Congress. Marshal Peixoto's proposals were that neither a military nor a naval man should be eligible as the next President, but that he must be a civilian; but Da Gama declared that no election would be acceptable to the insurgents so long as Peixoto remained in power. The European naval commanders had tacitly allowed Da Gama to enforce arbitrary orders relative to the movements of merchant vessels. The senior German naval officer even refused to protect his compatriots in case of seizure or the deliberate firing on the German flag. Three foreign sailors had been killed by an unexpected fusillade. Admiral Benham told the Brazilian admiral that he had no belligerent rights whatever, and that American vessels were not to be hampered in their movements or searched for contraband, and that he would protect them in case of interference. Afterward he made a formal demand in writing that all arbitrary orders relative to American ships must be rescinded. Da Gama defied the American officer, being willing to incur anything rather than forego the advantage that he had secured; for if he could not induce the United States Government to grant him belligerent rights, European Governments would not do so, lest all the trade should fall into the hands of American merchants. Several times American and other vessels were fired upon by the batteries on Cobras Island. The naval commanders held a conference on Jan. 25, at which the American commander did not assist, and they decided that nothing should be done. Admiral Benham gave Admiral da Gama notice that he intended to convoy American vessels that wanted to go to the wharves on Jan. 29, and cleared the fleet, consisting of the cruisers "New York," "Charleston." "Newark," "Detroit," and "San Francisco," for action. The matter was decided on that day, when the "Detroit" convoyed the bark "Amy" to the wharves, and, when Admiral da Gama carried out his threat to fire on the first American ship that approached the wharves, put a shot into the Trajano." Admiral da Gama had excused the blockade on the ground of his difficulties and novel position, but after the vigorous action taken by the American naval representative there was no more interruption of

commerce.

Admiral da Gama was not confident of holding his own in the harbor for more than a few weeks. His support came from the Churchmen and the Imperialists in Brazil and Europe, with whom the Federalists of the South had nothing in common except hostility to the Peixoto régime. Gen. Gusermundo Saraiva and Gen. Salgado obtained successes in the States south of Rio de Janeiro; but even if they and their troops desired to join the forces of Admiral da Gama, they must first crush the garrisons in São Paulo, and then march over pathless mountains. In Rio Grande do Sul, whence the insurgent leaders had drawn a large part of the fighting men hostile

to the Government, the loyal troops of Gen. Hippolito were able to raise the siege of Bage and recapture Santa Anna, pursuing to the border of Uruguay the routed insurgents, whose ammunition and provisions were exhausted. The Federalists soon afterward obtained fresh supplies, captured Bage, and regained the military supremacy. Gen. Isodoro Fernandez, the Castilhista commander, who died later from his wounds, was made prisoner with his entire brigade. The Opposition party continued to be strong enough in this State to keep the Government troops confined in the fortified places. The insurgent troops that advanced into Santa Catarina and Parana likewise gained ground, being generally welcomed by the people, who, like the inhabitants of Rio Grande, resented any form of rule or interference emanating from the Rio Janeiro authorities. The Government troops were re-enforced in Parana, and succeeded in dispersing some thousands who were collected near the border of Rio Grande do Sul and cutting off communications with the bands, numbering about 2,000, that were with Gen. Saraiva in central Parana. Gen. Saraiva formed a junction with Admiral de Mello, and with the cooperation of the sailors captured the port of Paranagua after a sharp fight, obtaining a large supply of rifles and cartridges and 6 Krupp guns, besides many recruits from the garrison, whose commander, Gen. Lima, fled to São Paulo. Curitiba, the capital of Parana, was also taken, and after a provincial government had been established there by Admiral de Mello the insurgent army advanced into southern São Paulo. Disaffection was so rife among the Government troops that the garrisons were changed, and impressment, suppression of newspapers, and wholesale arrests were among the measures taken to maintain the authority and prestige of the Central Government. The foes of the Government in Rio de Janeiro were likewise exasperated by the harsh application of martial law, and sympathizers with the rebellion were increased. The Acting - Minister of War, Gen. Eneas Galvao, resigned because he did not approve Peixoto's treatment of political prisoners. Suspicion of clandestine issues of paper money shook the confidence of many solid people in Peixoto. Admiral da Gama received some accessions to his ranks from the country districts of Rio de Janeiro and some re-enforcements and supplies by sea. the "Aquidaban" having again forced the entrance of the harbor, putting in and out again under the fire of the forts. She was struck several times by shot which failed to pierce her armor, but her success in passing the batteries led Peixoto to suspect the loyalty of Gen. Macedo, commandant of the fort of Santa Cruz, and to place him under arrest.

No longer expecting the land forces to join him, and believing that the arbitrary measures of Peixoto had so angered the people that the National Guard was ready to revolt, most of the regulars having been drafted off to defend São Paulo, Admiral da Gama determined to make a bold stroke. Before dawn on Feb. 9 a landing party of 500 men surprised Armaçao, and after heavy firing on both sides captured the works. A force of 1,000 men, hastily summoned, came to the rescue and were supported by a

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