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Krupp battery on Caju Island; but armed launches and the war ship "Libertade," from whose deck Admiral Saldanha da Gama directed the operations, poured in a destructive fire and enabled the insurgents, re-enforced from the island of Conceição, to hold their ground until the Government troops, having spent their ammunition, again fell back. The National Guard, fighting admirably for raw troops, advanced once more, when reserves came up, and the sailors, demoralized at last, began to fire wildly and break ranks. Admiral da Gama then called them off, and they re-embarked without disaster, protected by the machine guns of the vessels. They had first dismantled the fort and spiked the heavy guns, and it was long before the Government, after re-occupying the position with 1,500 men, could remount the disabled batteries. Peixoto's losses in the battle were said to be 550 killed and wounded; and Da Gama, who was severely wounded in the neck and arm. lost 272 men. Not long after this defeat the rebels sustained the losses of the transport "Mercurio" and the war ships "Venus" and "Jupiter," which were sunk by shells from the Government forts. After Admiral da Gama's reverse the commanders in the South determined to strike at Santos, the principal commercial port of that part of Brazil. A portion of the National Guard of São Paulo joined the standard of Gen. Saraiva, who advanced on the city of São Paulo while Gen. Salgado kept in check the Government garrison at Porto Alegre, preventing it from moving northward. An engagement was fought at Itapeva, 160 miles west of São Paulo, in which Peixoto's troops were defeated. The capital, São Paulo, was still strongly held by the Government forces, and Santos and its outlying defenses were strengthened against the expected attack by land, while the harbor was protected by torpedo mines against the "Republica" and Aquidaban," which were off the coast.

Election of a President.-Such was the military situation when, on March 1, an election was held for a President to succeed Peixoto on Nov. 15, 1894. The rebels held that, according to the Constitution, the election should have taken place in October, 1893; but the naval revolt and the declaration of martial law made an election at that time impracticable. Senators from most of the States met in December, 1893, and placed in nomination Dr. Prudente Moraes, formerly President of the Constitutional Assembly, whose candidacy the rebels originally approved. Peixoto offered, on Dec. 12, 1893, to resign the presidency in favor of the President of the Senate, his legal successor, and take the field as commander-in-chief of the forces. Moraes at that time agreed to assume the responsibility in the hope of ending the civil war, but the leading statesmen, whom they called into consultation, objected to this arrangement, which would have made Moraes ineligible for the full term on the same ground that incapacitated Peixoto to succeed himself. When the time for the election approached, other candidates were put forward, among them Silveira Martins, also Ruy Barbosa, who was in exile and had acted as the financial agent of the insurgents and defended them abroad against the charge of harboring monarchistic designs. President Peixoto VOL. XXXIV.-A 6

suspended the state of siege, nominally at least, in order that the election might take place under constitutional forms. It was the first popular election held in Brazil for the presidency. The newspapers exalted their favorite candidates without vituperating their rivals. The voting was accomplished without undue excitement or disturbance, resulting in the election of Moraes and of Victorino Pereira, the official candidate for the vice-presidency. In Rio Grande, Parana, and Santa Catarina, where the insurgents were in the ascendency, no election was held, and in Minas Geraes the electors seemed to favor Silveira Martins, their State president.

Collapse of the Rebellion.-After the election the state of siege was prolonged till May. By a decree of Feb. 28 all crimes connected with the rebellion were declared amenable to martial law, even if committed by civilians. Another presidential decree, issued March 2, authorized the Minister of War to raise regular troops by forcible conscription, just as some of the national guards and so-called volunteer battalions had previously been raised. On March 11 Marshal Peixoto gave forty-eight hours' notice of a general engagement to the residents of Rio, and the ships in the harbor were warned to get into places of safety. The agreement made with the foreign naval commanders that the city batteries would not be used so long as the insurgent fleet refrained from firing on the town was abrogated. These batteries contained some heavy ordnance, especially the forts of São Bento and Morro de Castello on the water front. The whole population left the city, and the poor were provided with barracks and food by the Government.

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The Government fleet had assembled at Rio de Janeiro on March 10. The "Nictheroy," the "Piratiny"-formerly called the "Destroyer "and the Aurora," a formidable European torpedo vessel, took position opposite Fort Villegaignon, while the America," the "Tiradentes," the Paranhyba," the "Bahia," and 5 torpedo boats purchased in Germany remained at the entrance of the harbor, ready to intercept the "Republica" and the "Aquidaban" should they return. The vessels purchased in the United States in the previous autumn were distinguished for high speed and modern appliances for the use of dynamite, especially the Ericsson submarine gun, the aërial torpedo gun, the Sims-Edison. Lay, and Halpine dirigible torpedoes, and Howell's automatic torpedo. Hitherto these vessels had done nothing besides transporting troops, nor had the insurgent vessels made a serious attempt to engage them. For a long time they had lain at anchor under the forts at Pernambuco, and afterward at Bahia. Frequent accidents to their engines and guns gave rise to suspicions of treachery among the Brazilian officers and crews that replaced the Americans who brought the ships to Brazil. The departure of Admiral de Mello from Rio harbor with the only formidable battle ships of the insurgent navy at the very time when Peixoto's fleet was known to be concentrating there was a mysterious proceeding that was supposed by many to signify that his aims and policy were divergent from those of the Royalist commander, and that he wanted to save the cause in the south without regard to the situation at Rio. Already in the

south the insurgent army had begun to break up, Gen. Salgado having disbanded his force in Parana and returned to Rio Grande do Sul. Saraiva and Cabeda, the other insurgent commanders in the south, were Uruguayans, and most of their men were foreign mercenaries.

On March 12 Admiral Saldanha da Gama offered through the Portuguese minister to surrender on the terms of immunity for all connected with the rebellion, the officers who were imprisoned to be amnestied, and all superior officers to be allowed to resign their commissions on promising never again to take up arms against Brazil. Then he took refuge on board the Portuguese man-of-war, and sent another message asking that the officers should be permitted to leave the country, and that the lives of the privates be spared. President Peixoto replied to both propositions that no terms would be accepted save unconditional surrender. At noon on March 13 Forts Santa Cruz, Lage, São João, and the Nictheroy batteries opened fire on Fort Villegagnon, and kept it up for an hour, when it was stopped because no shots were returned. Two hours later the city batteries and the forts poured shot and shell upon the forts on Cobras Island and Villegaignon, and into the rebel ships, except such as had sheltered themselves among the foreign shipping, and when this continued for another hour without getting a reply the fleet under Admiral Gonçalves moved up the bay and Government troops took possession of the forts. The forts were already deserted, and the officers and crews had abandoned the vessels before the firing began. After the second bombardment a launch was sent around from ship to ship and the white ensign of the rebellion was hauled down. The crews were taken to Enchadas Island, and only a surgeon remained with them when they surrendered themselves. The officers and a part of the sailors took refuge on the foreign vessels, and finally most of them, to the number of 518, came together on the Portuguese men-of-war. President Peixoto made a formal demand for their surrender, promising that they should be tried by the ordinary tribunals. The Portuguese commander refused to deliver them up without orders from his Government. When he attempted to leave the harbor he was stopped by the forts. Being allowed later to go outside, he set sail for Montevideo, and when the Uruguayan authorities refused to enter his vessels with the Brazilian refugees on board he went into quarantine at Buenos Ayres. The Argentine officials were willing to let them land, but the Portuguese watched them closely to prevent their escaping, though they suffered horribly for lack of proper food and shelter, and some of them succeeded in getting ashore by leaping over the vessel's side. In the controversy between the Brazilian and the Portuguese governments the English and Italian cabinets interposed to urge humane counsels and respect for the asylum of men who had committed no crime at common law. Thus encouraged, Portugal refused to surrender the refugees, maintaining that to comply with the Brazilian demand would be contrary to the principles of humanity and opposed to all precedents of international law established in similar cases. The governments of the United

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States, France, and Germany refused to join in the petition of England and Italy. The Portuguese Government declared that the refugees would be landed nowhere except on Portuguese territory, and under such conditions that they would not be able to return to Brazil to take further part in the civil strife. While a vessel was coming over the ocean to take them to Portugal, 150 of the insurgents, with the aid of friends, escaped, April 8, on lighters that came alongside on the pretense of delivering provisions, the Portuguese sailors making no effort this time to detain them; but the " Albuquerque" pursued one of the rescuing vessels, and by force of arms took from her 250 of the escaping Brazilians. The Brazilian minister demanded the surrender of those who succeeded in landing at the quarantine station, but the Argentine officials declared that they would never surrender political refugees. The Argentine Government made a demand on the Portuguese authorities for the liberation of the refugees who were retaken from an Argentine craft, and finally the Portuguese Government conceded the point and apologized. In the end, Admiral da Gama and most of the insurgents detained by the Portuguese made their escape from the transport to which they had been transferred in Uruguayan waters, aided by friends in Montevideo.

The nominal head of the Provisional Government established at Desterro was Frederico Guilherme de Lorena, who was regarded only as a figurehead, having done nothing besides sending a circular to the powers praying for the recognition of the insurgents. When Mello returned to the south he rallied Salgado again to the Autonomist cause, had a line of fortifications built on the São João frontier, and reorganized the Provisional Government, assuming the presidency himself on the retirement of Lorena, and appointing in the place of the Cabinet a commission of 3 men representing the 3 revolted States. Lorena and the officers of his Cabinet, as well as others who had been identified with the revolt, condemned Mello's new programme as a menace to the unity of the republic, and accepted the election of a civilian president as a moral triumph for their party. The naval force consisted of the "Republica,' Aquidaban." "Iris," "Meteor," "Uranus," Esperanza," 2 seagoing torpedo boats, and 6 transports. Gen. Saraiva had about 3,000 men and Gen. Salgado 1,500, equipped with Krupp and other artillery. In Rio Grande were about 3,800 men, in the commands of Gen. Tavares and Gen. Cabeda, fighting against Gov. Castilhos and the loyal faction. A victory was won by Gen. Pena, who defeated the loyalists and captured the town of Santa Maria. But the enemies of Gov. Castilhos soon repudiated the Junta at Desterro while continuing to fight their own battles under Gen. Tavares. When Peixoto's troops, under Gen. Ferreira, entered Parana the rebels evacuated Curitiba and the inland points, falling back upon Paranagua, where the "Republica" was stationed. Early in April Admiral de Mello attacked the city of Rio Grande by sea and Gen. Salgado by land with 3,000 men that were brought by the fleet from Desterro. They gained possession of the suburbs, but through want of harmony and co-operation be


tween the naval and the military commanders they were severely beaten, losing 200 men. When they re-embarked Mello conveyed the Uruguayan auxiliaries to their own country.

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In the mean time the Government fleet sailed for the south. On April 15 they bombarded the forts at Desterro, which returned the fire. In the night the torpedo boats advanced cautiously to attack the Aquidaban." The "Aurora," now called the "Gustavo Sampaio," approached within 200 yards before being observed, and, manoeuvring quickly when the ironclad opened fire with machine guns, threw a Whitehead torpedo, which missed, and then immediately another, which struck under the forward turret, causing the vessel to fill and sink in the shallow water. The "Sampaio" was allowed to approach through being taken for a steamer that was expected from Desterro. The bow torpedo that went wide of the mark was launched in too great haste before the torpedo cruiser was in position. The "Sampaio" then backed and turned under the stern of the "Aquidaban," steaming slowly along the port side not more than 20 yards from her, and when she was nearly past the starboard after torpedo was discharged, striking just abaft the stem with terrific effect, lifting the bow out of the water and tearing a great hole in the hull. The "Aquidaban" fired on the attacking vessel with her secondary battery, but owing to the darkness of the night and the proximity of the vessels few of the shots hit, most of them going over. The Aquidaban " was the mainstay of the revolt, which would easily have been crushed but for her operations, and was the principal target of all the guns of the Government forts in Rio harbor, and yet she sustained but little harm. After she went down all the forts and vessels at Desterro were abandoned by the insurgents. The rebel junta fled to the south. Gen. Saraiva's forces retreated toward the frontier, and Gen. Pena's band was shattered near Porto Alegre. Admiral de Mello, after leaving Gen. Salgado with 400 men on Uruguayan territory, departed for Argentina, and on April 16 surrendered himself and command of 1,200 men, his 5 vessels and his arms, on condition that his people should not be delivered up to the Brazilian Government. President Peixoto, while he continued the state of siege till June 30, proclaimed amnesty to all privates concerned in the rebellion, and on April 20 sent a communication to the members of the diplomatic body informing them that the revolt was at an end except for small and powerless disaffected groups that would speedily be brought into subjection. The fugitives, numbering in all 2,600, who landed in Uruguay and Argentina in a destitute condition, were cared for by means of generous subscriptions raised in Montevideo and Buenos Ayres.

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The Revolt in Rio Grande.-A guerilla war had been in progress in the southern province for more than a year before the naval revolt occurred. The Government at Rio Janeiro be came involved in the contest by throwing the protection of its authority over one of the contending parties and upholding Gen. Castilhos in the governorship by force of arms. After Admiral da Gama had surrendered, and after Admiral de Mello, having lost all foothold on the land and having neither money, nor ammunition,

nor coal, nor provisions left, had thrown himself on the protection of the Argentinian authorities, the savage and protracted struggle still went on in Rio Grande do Sul, especially near the southern border, where the insurgent bands, when hard pressed by the loyalist forces, could escape into Uruguay and there reorganize and collect strength for a fresh raid. Mello's old ally, Gumersindo Saraiva, after retreating from Parana, assumed the leadership of the Rio Grandensian guerrillas. Sometimes he had 5,000 or 6,000 men, operating in military formations and laying regular siege to the posts occupied by the Government forces with Krupp batteries and Gatling guns. Some of the German and Italian colonists joined his bands, also many of the soldiers and sailors who had fought under Mello and Saldanha da Gama. In June there were risings in Santa Catarina and Parana, which the Government had difficulty in suppressing. A battle occurred on June 27 near Passo Fundo, in the State of Rio Grande, in which a large part of Saraiva's forces were defeated by Gen. Lima. By the end of July the insurgents were exhausted, and Gen. Saraiva was reported dead. The Uruguayan Government, as a precaution against fresh incursions that the rebel committees in Montevideo and Buenos Ayres were organizing, ordered all Brazilian refugees to register their names and to notify the police if they desired to leave the country. In the beginning of October new bodies of raiders gathered on the Uruguayan frontier, and, taking the Government unawares, gained several successes.

Diplomatic Disputes.-When the Congress met early in May, President Peixoto sent a message in which he declared that Brazil enjoyed friendly relations with all the world except Portugal. The attitude of Portugal, sending gunboats to Rio at the outbreak of the rebellion, had appeared suspicious to the Brazilians; the attitude of the English officers and merchants also. But Peixoto's Government would rather avoid a rupture with England, and when English officers were arrested among the rebels on Enchadas Island the Brazilian Government not only apologized, but gave a salute to the British flag, as was demanded. When Capt. Castilho, of the Portuguese corvette "Mindello," allowed the conquered insurgents to go aboard his ship for safety, Peixoto protested against the right of asylum that is not founded on international law, but has been formerly accorded in South American revolutions; when, furthermore, he allowed them to escape, then the Brazilian Government took serious umbrage. On May 14 Count Paraty, the Portuguese representative at Rio de Janeiro, received his passports, and the Brazilian minister at Lisbon, Vianna de Lima, was ordered to withdraw. The English Government undertook to act as mediator, the Portuguese Government having court-martialed and dismissed Capt. Castilho. Of the refugees who obtained an asylum on the Portuguese ships 148 were finally carried to Portugal. A controversy with the Government of Uruguay regarding the violation of the frontier by Peixoto's forces in 1893 was settled by the payment of $19,000 to the families of Uruguayan officials who were killed while giving shelter to fugitives. The Italian Government brought claims against Brazil for pecuniary

damages resulting from the stoppage of railroad contracts, the impressment of its citizens, interference with navigation, etc., and proposed to refer them to the arbitration of the President of the United States.

An old boundary dispute with France regarding the limits of Cayenne demanded settlement on account of discoveries of gold and consequent rapid settlement of the debatable territory. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 fixed the Japock river as the boundary. This river has been identified by the French with the Mapok, which flows into the ocean opposite the island of Maraça, near Cape North, and by the Brazilians with the Oyapok, 60 miles north of the other river. The country between them is covered with dense forests which have not been explored and contain no inhabitants except the Roucouyenne Indians, who pay no taxes or allegiance to either Government. Both governments having refused to exercise jurisdiction, a French merchant named Jules Gross once proclaimed an independent republic which he called Counani, after the principal Indian settlement, of which he assumed the presidency; but he laid down his office when informed by President Grévy that France claimed the sovereignty, but did not exercise it because her rights were disputed. Along the Carsevenne river, south of the town of Counani, a negro from Cayenne found, in April, 1894, remarkably rich deposits of alluvial gold. In a short time the country was flooded by prospectors from the Guianas, the West Indies, Venezuela, and Central America. Many who returned with treasure were waylaid by robbers or pirates. The Brazilian Government proposed that a joint commission should survey the contested territory.

Induction of a New President.-After the war was over, the rigorous military government and the ascendency of the army against which the naval patriots took up arms were more pronounced than ever. The state of siege continued, and a great many persons, some of them prominent in politics or the services, were imprisoned. There were complaints of arbitrary and groundless arrests, the outcome of private grudges. Frequent changes were made in the Cabinet. President Peixoto strengthened all branches of the army, and increased the number of troops from 14,000 to 24,000. Large purchases of rifles were made in Germany. Bitter attacks were made against the President in Congress, but in the beginning of November, when all fears of his assuming a dictatorship were dispelled, Congress passed a resolution approving his acts by 108 votes to 12. A bill was passed providing for the expulsion of seditious foreigners.

Prudente José de Moraes was inaugurated President on Nov. 15. He promised, in his address, to do all in his power to eradicate sectional differences, and to secure to every law-abiding citizen the fullest liberty; his administration he meant to make one of economy, to be distinguished by the reduction of the public debt, the restoration of a sound currency, and the reduction of the standing army and navy. He chose as ministers moderate men, most of whom had left Vice-President Peixoto's Cabinet because of the extreme measures adopted by the latter during the revolution. The portfolios were allotted as follow: Minister of Finance,

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Benjamin Vasques: Minister of Marine, Admiral Elisario Barbosa. The new President immediately upon assuming office dispatched Gen. Niemeyer to Rio Grande do Sul with a commission to treat with the Federal revolutionists with a view to bringing the rebellion to an end.

BRETHREN, OR TUNKERS. The Tunkers were divided in 1882-'83, as a result of the growth of modern ideas and a disposition to tolerate innovations on the part of a portion of their membership, into three branches, which are currently known as the Progressive, the Conservative, and the Old Order Brethren. The Progressive Brethren separated from the main body because they regarded the decisions of the annual meeting against conformity to the world and in respect to matters of dress and manner of living too strict. They are represented, according to the statistics given in the United States census, in 15 States, being strongest in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana, and have 8,089 communicants. The Conservative Brethren are the largest of the three branches, and are represented in 28 States and 2 Territories, being strongest in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana, and have 61,101 communicant members. They have established Sunday schools and schools for the higher education, and conduct missionary enterprises. The Old Order Brethren adhere more strictly to the principle of nonconformity than do either of the other bodies, and oppose as innovations such institutions as Sunday schools and schools for the higher education and all yielding to worldly customs. They even oppose the collection of statistics of themselves. They are represented in 19 States, being strongest in Ohio, and have, as nearly as can be ascertained, 4,411 communicants.

The National Conference of Brethren Churches, representing the more progressive branch, was held in Ashland, Ohio, in the last week in August. The society has a college and publishing house

at Ashland. Much of the attention of the conference was given to the interests of those institutions and to the concerns of different organizations for religious work. Eighty-three churches were represented by delegate or by letter. The Rev. J. M. Tombaugh, Chancellor of Ashland University, presided. The Book and Tract Committee reported a balance on hand of $113: the publishing house returned $898 of credits and $759 of debts. A. J. McFadden, as a committee appointed to attend the World's Fair at Chicago, reported that after reading a paper on "Channels of Usefulness in the Brethren Church," in their Church congress, and distributing many thousand pages of tracts, he went, with much tribulation, before the Parliament of Religions, and placed on record the fact that the Brethren Church is an anticreed Church, having the gospel alone as its rule and guide." The National Mission Board represented that it had held itself in readiness to work, but no assistance had been offered. The Church was requested to pay an average of 10 cents per member each year to this cause. An organization of young people, the King's Children, had grown from about 250 members in 1893 to 2,000 members. Thirty societies of the Sisters' Society of Christian Endeavor had been organized. Resolutions were passed expressing sympathy with the work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, pledging opposition to intemperance, and promising support to every effort "to protect the home, the state, and the Church"; upholding the State and national mission boards in efforts to spread the gospel; and approving the objects of the King's Children and the Sisters' Society of Christian Endeavor.

The annual meeting of the Conservative Brethren was held in Meyerstown, Pa., in the last week in May. While the meeting gave considerable attention to the discussion of matters of form and dress and questions of worldly conformity, it also considered and acted on the subjects of education, publication, and missions. BRITISH COLUMBIA. Legislative Session. The fourth session of the Sixth Legislative Assembly of the province was opened on Jan. 18, 1894, at Victoria, by the Hon. Edgar Dewdney, Lieutenant Governor. The following epitome conveys the important passages in the Lieutenant Governor's address:

The measure of redistribution, which was necessarily postponed on account of imperfect census returns, will be introduced during the present session. Under the authority conferred by the Railway Aid act of last session a guarantee of interest has been given in favor of the Nakusp and Slocan Railway Company, the work of construction has been vigorously pushed, and the line will be in running order during the present year, so that the valuable trade of cantile centers of the province. In arranging the details of the agreement with the company I have reserved the alternative right of guaranteeing the bonds of the company, both as to principal and in

the Stocan region will be attracted toward the mer

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The long-standing dispute with the Dominion Government on the subject of the title to railway lands upon the mainland was not brought before the courts during last year. Negotiations looking toward an amicable settlement are pending, the successful result of which would obviate the necessity of a reference to a judicial tribunal.

The session closed on April 11, after the transaction of much business, the following being the most important bills passed:

For the redivision of British Columbia into elec

toral districts, and for amending the law applicable to elections to the Legislative Assembly.

To incorporate the Delta, New Westminster and Eastern Railway.

To extend the application of the Marriage act and the registration of births, deaths, and marriages to the Salvation Army.

To incorporate the Victoria, Vancouver and Westminster Railway.

To incorporate the Great Western Telegraph Company.

To incorporate the Consolidated Railway and Light Company.

To authorize the Hall Mines Company to construct tramways and electrical and other works in the vicinity of Nelson.

To amend "An Act respecting the union of certain Methodist churches in Canada."

Respecting the drainage, diking, and irrigation of lands.

To provide for the formation from time to time, as disputes may arise, of councils of labor conciliation and arbitration.

To assess, levy, and collect taxes on the property of railway companies.

Finances. The surplus funds in hand July 1, 1893, were $334,919.38; cash in agent's hand and treasury, $40,347.68; subsidy deposit, Nakusp and Slocan Railway, $118,400; estimated revenue for the year ending June 30, 1894, $1,058,691.45; total, $1,552,358.51.

The expenditures were estimated at $1,277,157.45; additional amount required to provide for special warrants, $81,180.99; total, $1,358,338.44.

The estimated surplus at the close of the fiscal year June 30, 1894, was $194,020.07.

The 3-per-cent. loan of $600,000 authorized by the Government for the construction of the new legislative buildings at Victoria was brought 92 per cent. of par value, showing an placed upon the London market in 1893, and increase in the value of provincial securities. In January, 1894, the Dominion Government paid the province the half-yearly subsidy under the terms of union, amounting to $122,464.73.

Trade. Notwithstanding the financial and business depression so generally prevailing, the trade of the province for the year ending June 30, 1894, showed a considerable increase over that of the preceding year, as evidenced by the subjoined figures:

The exports from the province for the year ending June 30, 1893, were: From mines, $2.888,947; fisheries, $1,501,831; forest. $454,994; animals and their products, $310,621; agricultural products, $30,173; miscellaneous, $446,231; total, $5.642.797. The exports for the year ending June 30, 1894, were: From mines, $3.521,543; fisheries, $3,541,305; forest, $411,

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