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Prosperity.-Census bulletins issued in 1894 give the true value of real and personal property in California in 1890 as $2,500,000,000; the per capita valuation being $2,097, the largest in any of the States. In expenditure for State and local government California stands sixth, the amount being $24,437,780, and tenth in the amount expended for common schools. She leads in the production of beet sugar, wine, raisins, honey, olives, almonds, and small nuts; heads the list of barley producers, with 17,500,000 bushels; is second in wheat, with 40,000,000 bushels; second in bean culture, having 700,000 bushels; and third in hops, with 6,500,000 pounds; is third in the number of sheep, including spring lambs, and second in pounds of wool produced, shearing over 30,000,000 pounds. As a gold producer she is first; first in the production of quicksilver, of borax, of commercial asbestus, of chrome, and of asphaltum and bituminous rock. She is second in the production of paving blocks, third in granite for building, and sixth in petroleum.

Railroad Strikes.-Early in July all the railroads in the State became involved in a strike arising from the attempt to boycott the Pullman Company, and all through travel was stopped. Federal troops and the State militia were moved against the strikers in Sacramento, Oakland, Los Angeles, San José, and San Francisco. On July 4, 800 militiamen of Sacramento, Stockton, and San Francisco regiments, under the command of Gen. T. W. Sheehan, were ordered to clear the Southern Pacific depot at Sacramento. The militia advanced until they almost touched the compact body of strikers filling the shed, who did not give way. The order to Charge bayonets!" was given, but the soldiers did not obey it, and Gen. Sheehan, after trying to persuade the strikers to disperse, reported to Marshal Baldwin, who insisted that the depot should be cleared. Gen. Sheehan asked for a written order to fire upon the strikers; but this the marshal refused to give until after both the Sacramento river and American bridges should be placed under strong military guards. Gen. Sheehan thereupon withdrew the troops from the depot and its vicinity. On July 11 a train bearing soldiers left Sacramento for San Francisco; about 3 miles west of Sacramento it was wrecked at a trestle by the spreading of the rails, which resulted from the drawing of the spikes and fish plates. The engineer of the train and 3 soldiers of the Fifth Artillery were killed, and 4 soldiers were dangerously wounded. On July 13 an engine, protected by soldiers who were members of the company to which the soldiers killed on the 11th belonged, ran into the freight yards at Sacramento, which the troops had been ordered to keep clear, where a “dead line" had been established. A group of men found lounging upon one of the platforms jeered at the soldiers, and Capt. Roberts, stopping the engine, ordered his soldiers to arrest them. Most of the men began to run, followed by the soldiers with fixed bayonets, but some, with missiles in their hands, confronted them. From among the soldiers, who had been ordered not to fire unless attacked, came the order "Give it to them!" and firing followed, by which one of the fleeing men was killed and

one wounded. On the 13th, at Oakland, the militia charged with fixed bayonets upon a mob that had stopped and uncoupled a long freight train. The mob dispersed, and a Gatling gun was trained upon a house in which strikers had taken refuge. Many strikers were arrested, but no one was found to have been seriously hurt. On the 13th the first through train from the South in sixteen days reached Fresno. On the 15th trains from the East reached Oakland, and on the 21st the strike was declared broken, though it was many days before regular travel was resumed. The loss of money resulting from the strike was very great, shippers of fruit, especially, suffering heavily. In Sacramento, so early as July 7, the strikers issued an appeal for food.

Products. During the year ending Jan. 1, 1894, canned fruits to the amount of 48,576,000 pounds were shipped by rail from California. Of hops, 8,410,000 pounds, valued at $1,516,800, were shipped by rail, and 248,962 pounds, valued at $44,817, by sea, the total being 8,658,962 pounds, valued at $1,561,617. Of lumber, 217,148,600 feet of pine and 180,980,700 feet of redwood were received at San Francisco; 14,186,000 feet of redwood, valued at $287,940, were exported. Of quicksilver, 2,241,450 pounds, valued at $1,201,300, were produced. The wool production was 33,169,375 pounds; the wool exportation, 22,008,334 pounds, valued at $2,500,000. The treasure received at San Francisco by Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express was $23,326,685. Inland shipments from San Francisco were $29,868,388; overland shipments, gold bullion, $67,781; coin, $16,466,271; total, $16,534,052.

Political.-In the November election James H. Budd, Democratic candidate for Governor, 6 out of 7 Republican candidates for Congress, and a Republican Legislature, were elected. The Populist vote was nearly double that of 1892. In San Francisco, Adolph Sutro, the builder of the great tunnel beneath the Comstock lode in Nevada, who for several years has been opposing the Southern Pacific Railway Company with great vigor, was elected mayor by a larger vote than all his four opponents received. He was nominated by a municipal Populist convention, was opposed by the railway company, the entire local press, and all the regular political organizations, and was supported by property owners and the mercantile community. The election of Budd was contested.

California Midwinter Fair.-The first idea of a midwinter fair to be held in California is due to M. H. de Young, second vice-president of the World's Columbian Exposition Commission, who, learning that many of the foreign exhibitors in Chicago wished a further opportunity to display their goods in the New World, conceived the idea that such a desire might be taken advantage of for the benefit of his own State. At a banquet of the foreign commissioners he invited them to attend a meeting of Californians to be held in the California Club, in Chicago, on May 31, 1893. The proposition, then originally presented, was received with enthusiasm, and prompt co-operation was obtained from the State and city authorities in California. Within a month an organization was effected, a site chosen, and money subscribed. A commission

of 50 was named by the Mayor of San Francisco, who chose from its members an executive committee that organized on July 28 as follow: M. H. de Young, President and Director-General; Irwin C. Stump, Vice-President; P. N. Lilienthal, Treasurer; and Alexander Badlam, Secretary; to whom were added later the following representatives from the interior of California: Fulton G. Berry, Fresno; Eugene J. Gregory, Sacramento; Jacob H. Neff, Colfax; and J. E. Slauson, Los Angeles. Two important problems demanded immediate solution-that of the installation of the fair, and that of financial ways and means. A second committee of 50 was named by Mayor Ellert, of San Francisco, with W. H. L. Barnes as chairman, to consider the raising of funds. At first Herman Schainwald was financial manager, and later Louis Sloss, Jr., and Frank Johnson succeeded him. An active canvass was made, and soon more than $400,000 was obtained. An act of Congress was procured making the exposition international in character, and securing to foreign exhibitors the same privileges that they enjoyed in Chicago. On Aug. 24, in the presence of the largest gathering ever witnessed in San Francisco, ground was broken for the fair. Meanwhile the directorgeneral, aided by his assistant, René Cornely, was busy in Chicago, where he secured the most desirable exhibits for the Midwinter Fair.

Site. There is not a place more picturesquely beautiful in or about any American city" than Golden Gate Park. It is back of the hills that surround the Bay of San Francisco, and extends to the ocean. It has a beauty of landscape in hill and valley, with broad, smooth roads, majestic trees, and semitropical plants and flowers in profusion, with a great green carpet of grass in the dead of winter. Such was the site chosen for the Midwinter Fair. A place of shifting sands, with here and there a tree known as Concert valley, and reserved as the permanent music area-was assigned to the exposition authorities. It included 160 acres, and when selected had not yet been beautified.

Buildings. Great and small, there were more than 300 structures contained within the grounds of the Midwinter Fair, although not more than 70 were of special importance. The chief buildings were constructed of plaster and staff, and were highly ornamented. They included the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Palace, designed by A. Page Brown. This was 462 feet long and 225 feet wide. Its annex was 370 feet long and 60 feet wide, and together with galleries afforded an area of 177,000 square feet. The cost was $120,000. The Mechanics' Art Palace was designed by Edward R. Swain. It was 330 feet long and 160 feet wide. Its annex was 249 feet long and 45 feet wide, and together with galleries afforded an area of 37,041 square feet. The cost was $72,000. The Horticultural and Agricultural Palace was designed by Samuel Newsom, and was of the old Spanish mission style. It was 400 feet long and 190 feet wide. The total area of the building, including hall floors, was 77,297 square feet. It cost $63.300. The Administration Building was designed by A. Page Brown, and was of a mixed Indian and Siamese style. It was 70 feet square, and had a total floor area of 16,800 square feet. It cost

$30,000. The building for Fine Arts, designed by C. C. McDougal, was of brick and staff. It was in style a modern adaptation of Egyptian architecture, and in coloring more subdued than many of the other structures. It contained 2,000 running feet of space for exhibits of paintings. The cost was $30,000. These five principal buildings were grouped around a parallelogram called the Grand Court, in the center of which stood the Bonet Steel Tower, 272 feet high, a number of artistically ornamented fountains, and many beautiful features of attractive landscape gardening. Beyond this court were the various national, State, and county buildings; while to the east was the Festival Hall, designed by A. Page Brown, in the Spanish-Mexican style of architecture. It was 141 feet long and 133 feet wide. The cost was $20,000. The total expense of the buildings is said to have been $1,500,000.

Concessions. Many of the spectacular side shows of the Midway Plaisance were transferred to the Midwinter Fair at the close of the exhibition in Chicago, notably the Oriental Village with its Turkish theater, Street in Cairo, Café Chantant, and scores of Turkish and Syrian booths. Then there were several Moorish restaurants and the Moorish Mirror Maze. The '49 Mining Camp included 29 buildings, among which was the identical cabin occupied by Senator George C. Perkins in 1849. The ethnological concessions included an Arizona Indian village, a Sioux Indian village, an Eskimo village, a Dahomey village, a Chinese village, a Japanese tea village, and a Hawaiian village, containing the cyclorama of the volcano of Kilauea. There was a reproduction of Heidelberg Castle, with a German village at its base, a part of the Public Prater in Vienna, and a bit of old Paris, as well as a Swiss chalet, in all of which were attendants in their particular national costumes. An Arizona museum, a St. Bernard dog show, Col. Boone's arena of wild animals, a scenic railway, an electric theater, as well as many restaurants and kiosks, were scattered around the grounds to cater to the various wants and interests of the visitors. Finally, the Haunted Swing and Dante's Inferno deserve mention.

Opening Day.-Notwithstanding the short time that elapsed between the day when the project was announced and Jan. 1, wonderful progress was made toward the completion of the buildings and the installation of the exhibits. As the enterprise developed, apathy became enthusiasm, and additions in the way of annexes to the larger buildings became necessary, and hence the exposition was not ready for opening on the first of the year. The day was therefore set for Jan. 27, which day was made a legal holiday by the State authorities. The morning dawned brightly, and the ceremonies began with a procession, of which Gen. John H. Dickinson was grand marshal. It started exactly at 10 o'clock from the junction of Van Ness and Golden Gate Avenues. The officials of the fair, the Governor of the State, the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of California, the foreign commissioners, and others rode in carriages, and were followed by special features, including the '49 Mining Camp, with its old stagecoach, cowboys, and miners, and at the end

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came the concessional features, represented by Oriental merchants in costume and donkeys and camels from Cairo. The grounds were reached early in the afternoon, and the crowds were gathered on the Recreation Ground, where a grand stand had been erected. Here the military were dismissed and the exercises proper began. These included the national anthem by the bands, an introductory address by James D. Phelan, the president of the day, a prayer by Bishop William F. Nichols, & welcome by Governor Markham, and an address by M. H. de Young, the directorgeneral. As the latter closed his remarks, Mrs. de Young advanced, and exactly at 2.15 P. M. pressed the electric button that started the machinery, and the Midwinter Exposition in the "Palm City" was opened. An informal luncheon followed, and in the evening fireworks were displayed, and thus the fair was inaugurated. It was estimated that over 85,000 people were on the grounds, and the record showed 72,248 paid admissions.

Festivals. In order to develop special interest in the fair, the executive committee arranged that days be assigned to each section, State, and county that exhibited. Societies and fraternities had days, and so the Grand Army of the Republic had its day as well as the California Pioneers. The butchers, the firemen, the letter carriers, the dentists, and others had days set apart for

them. Flower and music festivals were held. Washington's Birthday. St. Patrick's Day, and May Day were appropriately observed. Athletic contests and tournaments were held. Special attractions, such as fireworks, and music by Souza's band, were provided. Conspicuous among the entertainments was that of the Carnival. Advantage was taken of the occurrence of this wellknown pageant in New Orleans on Mardi Gras to reproduce it at the Midwinter Fair. On April 17 Rex arrived in the royal barge at the foot of Market Street, whence he was escorted to the fair grounds. There he was received by Mayor Ellert, who presented three golden keys to his Majesty. On the following evening (April 18) the New Orleans pageant was reproduced. A procession of 10 large floats, with other novelties, moved through the grounds, and then circled around the space set apart for athletic sports. As each float and feature passed a large frame that had been erected for the purpose the search light at the top of the electric tower was turned upon it. thus bringing out all the artistic beauties of the display. A carnival ball was held on the 19th, in which the representatives of foreign concessions and exhibits took part, and with which the pageant ended.

Exhibits. It is not possible in this place to enter into a detailed description of the exhibits. Of the fifty-three counties contained in California

nearly every one had an elaborate display of its special products. Two large special buildings, representing respectively southern California, with the counties of Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura, and northern and central California, with the counties of Butte, Colusa, Lake, Napa, Placer, Sacramento, Shasta, Siskiyou, Solano, Tehama, and Yuba; also special buildings representing the counties of Alameda, Humboldt, Monterey, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, San Mateo, and Tulare, were erected, in which to display all the magnificent products of this great State. Its agricultural, horticultural, mineral, and viticultural wealth were exhibited in a richness never before equaled. Luscious fruits, brought to the Palm City by car loads, succeeded each other in their appropriate season, and were heaped in abundant masses in various exhibits, to the wonder of the visitors. From Jan. 15 to Feb. 15 the fifth annual Northern Citrus Fair was held in the Northern and Central California Building, and on Feb. 20 it was succeeded by the annual Citrus Fair of Southern California in its own building. These fairs were arranged to be held in San Francisco, so that the residents of the counties exhibiting might include the Midwinter Fair in their annual outing. Oregon and Nevada had special buildings in which their own products were systematically displayed. Besides the United States, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Ceylon, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Siam, Spain, Switzerland, and various smaller Oriental countries had official exhibits, but they were chiefly a duplication of the goods shown at the World's Fair held in Chicago during 1893. The display of paintings, sculpture, and other objects of art in the Fine Arts Palace was undoubtedly the best ever seen on the Pacific coast. It included many of the gems shown in Chicago, and was specially rich in the productions of Californian artists.

Special Features.-Among the instructive features worthy of more than passing notice were the many that had to do with California life. The beautiful building devoted to agriculture and horticulture, with its heavy walls, low, redtiled roof, long, shadowy loggias, and arcades, and deep-set windows, recalled by its architecture the style of the early Spanish missions. Several of the county buildings were likewise indicative of special historical phases. Monterey erected a quaint old ranchero casa in imitation of a Spanish adobe, with tiled roof and large, sheltered porch, upon which were heaped, after the early California custom, pumpkins and squashes. Within the building were shown a collection of priestly robes and vestments, and a set of bells from the early mission of Father Junipero Serra, while in front of the structure was the first cannon landed in California, and the flagpole on which the Stars and Stripes were first raised on July 7, 1846. Humboldt and Mendocino Counties each erected characteristic structures with the logs of their famous redwoods. San Joaquin reproduced in staff her courthouse, finished on the inside with oiled redwood. Santa Barbara erected a unique structure in the form of a pyramid, its interior walls decorated with jute in its natural color. A concession from Santa Barbara also built a

huge water tank, called "the Amphibria,' " and exhibited in it trained sea lions from Santa Barbara channel. The irrigation system was shown by a model California ranch, with irrigating gates, flumes, and ditches, and other means by which the deserts have been made to bloom. This appeared in the exhibit from Tulare County. An ostrich farm with an incubator attachment was one of the exhibits, showing a valuable industry that flourishes in southern California. On the west side of the grounds was the '49 Mining Camp, toward which at stated intervals a weather-scarred old stagecoach drawn by six horses, followed by a train of laden pack mules, made its way. An old tollhouse from the interior of the State stood near the entrance of the Camp, which consisted of a narrow street under a panoramic view of Mount Shasta. The tavern, the blacksmith shop, the dance house, the gambling house, were all there with living tenants, showing the practices of the time when all California was filled with seekers after gold. On every hand were appliances of practical mining-sluice boxes, cradles, and pans, a line or two of precipitous flume, and the black mouth of a shaft or tunnel. Elsewhere on the grounds was an automatic working gold mine, in which everything connected with a mine was shown in detail, from the men working 700 feet below the surface to the crusher under which the ore was placed. Two conspicuous engineering features were the Firth Wheel and the Bonet Steel Tower. The former, almost a counterpart of the Ferris Wheel of the Columbian Exposition, reached to a height of 150 feet, and carried 16 cars with a capacity of 10 persons in each. The Steel Tower was in the Grand Court, and was 272 feet high. Elevators ran almost to the top of the structure, and at night thousands of electric lights manifested its presence. Two great flash lights were operated on its top.

Congresses.-As at Chicago, so in San Francisco, a series of literary and scientific congresses were held in connection with the fair. These were organized under an executive committee consisting of the following gentlemen: James D. Phelan, President; Mayor L. R. Ellert, First Vice-President; John H. Boalt, Second VicePresident; Sheldon G. Kellogg, Treasurer; T. C. Judkins, Secretary; William G. Harrison, David S. Jordan, Bernard Moses, W. B. Harrington, George T. Gaden, Dr. W. F. McNutt, and Charles A. Murdock. During the last three months of the fair sessions were held in Golden Gate Hall, on Sutter Street. The list of topics considered came under the following divisions: Congress of Economics and Politics, Congress of Literature, Congress of Religion, Congress of Mines and Mining, Congress of Astronomy, Congress of Medicine, Congress of Education, Congress of Art, Congress of Music, Congress of Temperance, Congress of Chemistry, and a Woman's Congress under the sole charge of the Woman's Congress Auxiliary. The Congress of Religion was the first to be held, and its sessions began on April 16.

Results.-The fair was officially closed on July 4. The visitors numbered 2,250,000. It was kept open unofficially until Sept. 1, when the buildings were closed. The big days were the opening day (Saturday, Jan. 27), when 72,243 people were present; "Chronicle" children's

day, 91,872; and San Francisco day (July 4), 79,082. As in the case of the Chicago World's Fair, the outlook at first was gloomy, as the weather was bad and the attendance light; but the management provided many special attractions for certain days, and soon the improvement was marked. Before the fair was half ended it was a financial success.

The managers have not yet made a financial statement, as much business remains to be settled; but it can be said that the profits will exceed $100,000, and they may reach $200,000. Already over $100,000 of these profits have been spent for the Midwinter Fair Memorial Museum, which will permanently occupy the art gallery of the fair. A brick annex is being constructed to this building, in which is housed the Royal Pavilion, erected by the German Government at the Columbian fair. This is 72 by 40 feet, and consists of three rooms, beautifully decorated. The middle room has panels painted by Lenbach. These rooms will be the gold, silver, and jewel rooms of the museum. They will be separated from the main museum by the wrought-iron gates that stood at the entrance to the German exhibit at the Chicago fair. Mr. de Young bought, as a nucleus for the museum, the fine Napoleonic collection, recently exhibited in New York city, and many rare gems. The fair was of great benefit to San Francisco, as it tided the city over a period of extreme dullness in trade and stimulated many branches of business. It was especially beneficial to the counties that made good displays of their products, and in this regard it helped the whole coast.

CANADA, DOMINION OF. Legislation. -The fourth session of the Seventh Parliament of Canada opened on March 15, 1894. The passages of special interest in the Governor-General's address were as follow:

My predecessor was able to express gratification to you last year on an increase in trade, and on the continued progress of the Dominion. It is gratifying to me to observe that the expectation which was then formed that the volume of trade during the then current year would exceed that of any year in the history of the Dominion-has been fully realized, and that Canada's progress continues with every mark of stability and permanence.

It may be observed with satisfaction that a large proportion of this increase is shown to have been due to an extension of our commerce with Great Britain. It is cause for thankfulness that our people have been spared in a great degree from the sufferings which have visited the populations of some other countries during many months past, and that, while the commercial depression prevailing abroad could not but affect the activity of business in the Dominion, we have been free from any extensive financial disaster or widespread distress.

The peaceful conclusion, by the award of the arbitrators at Paris, of the controversy which had prevailed so long with respect to the seal fisheries in the Pacific Ocean and the rights of British subjects in Bering Sea, has removed the only source of contention which existed between Great Britain and the United States with regard to Canada. There is every reason to believe that her Majesty's Government will obtain redress for those Canadians who were deprived of their property and liberty without just cause while the controversy was in progress.

At an early date a measure will be laid before you having for its object a revision of the customs duties, with a view to meet the changes which time has effected in business operations of all kinds throughout the Dominion. There will also be laid before you

measures on the subjects of bankruptcy and insolvency; for more effective provisions for our lines of steam communication on the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; for improving the law with regard to Dominion lands, Indian affairs, joint-stock companies, fisheries, etc.

The speech in reply to the Governor-General's address was made by Sir James Grant and seconded by Mr. Lachapelle, the reply in behalf of the Opposition being made by Mr. Laurier, the Liberal leader. All the speeches were highly eulogistic of the Earl and Countess of Aberdeen.

The new members introduced at the opening of the session were Sir James Grant, Henry Stanislaus Harwood, Joseph Martin, and Andrew Hasham.

Finances.-Hon. George E. Foster, Minister of Finance, delivered his budget speech March 27. The following epitome contains the important facts in it:

Last year I gave a gross estimate of $38,000,000 as

the probable revenue for the current year. The actual revenue has exceeded the estimate by $168,608, the customs overrunning the customs receipts of the preceding year by $452,944, the excise overrunning the excise receipts of the preceding year by $422,267, and the miscellaneous revenue or earnings overrunning those of the preceding year by $371,526. So that the excess of revenue from these three sources, besides being $168,608 more than was estimated, shows $1,246,737 in advance of the revenue of the preceding year.

I stated about a year ago that my estimate of expenditure for the year 1892-'93 was $86,500,000, whereas the actual expenditure was $36,814,052. The revenue and expenditure up to March 10 of the present year, and of last year, respectively, were as follow:

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Last year, from March 10 to June 30, revenue accrued to the amount of $12,397,000, and expenditure was incurred to the amount of $14,579,000. If I were to calculate on the basis of receiving as much money from revenue from March 10 this year up to the end of it as was received during the same period last year, and making an equal expenditure, we should have a revenue of $37,493,000, and an expenditure of $37,212,000.

The trade and commerce of the country last year showed not only well, comparatively to itself in preceding years, but exceedingly well relatively to the experience of other countries. The Australian colonies, in their trade, ran down by hundreds of thousands; British commerce decreased in 1892-'93, as compared with the preceding year, to the extent of $133,291,535, her exports decreasing to the extent of $41,678,026. French commerce declined $97,811,239, her exports declining $49,883.914 of that amount. The United States trade fell off $133,182,229, her exports showing a decrease of $68,499,544. With this record of decrease and decadence in trade it is pleasing to contrast Canada's experience, which shows an increase in trade of $6,269,177, and an increase in exports of home products of $6,459,344.

More miles of railway have been operated in Canada, namely, 15,020, compared with 14,585 in the preceding year. There has been an increase in the passengers carried; about an equal amount of freight has been moved-22,000,000 tons; and the earnings are larger than in the preceding year, amounting to about $52,000,000.

In 1877 there was entered for home consumption, of imported agricultural products, animals and their products: From Great Britain, $56,588 worth; from the United States, $16,066,963 worth; from other countries, $7,798 worth; total, $16,131,349. In 1878

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