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Among his numerous pupils, Raffaelle entertained a partia cular affection for Francesco Penni, surnamed Il Fattore , as being his master's factotum; and for Giulio Pippi, who was only seven years younger than himself, and who aided him in his most important works, and was named his universal legatee.

Giulio Pippi , more commonly called Giulio Romano , was born at Rome, in 1492. Nothing is known of his family; but they are presumed to have been above want, as Giulio had received a liberal education, and bad made a particular study of medals and antiquities.

Gifted with a fertile genius and ardent imagination, young Giulio quickly out-stripped his companions; and having bad no master but Raffaelle, he was soon qualified to assist him in the execution of his labours in the Vatican ; and at his death, in 1520, he' continued, with the aid of Francesco Penni, the works begun by their master. In 1523, he was charged by Pope Clement VII., to paint the frescoes of the Hall of Constantine, for which Raffaelle, had


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HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL NOTICE left designs; and he executed those representing Constantine's address to his army, at the appearance of the labarum, no. 343; and his victory over Maxentius, on the banks of the Tiber, no. 355.

Hitherto, Giulio Romano had been considered only as the accomplished pupil of an unrivalled master; but henow prov. ed the sufficiency of his own powers, and if he lost a part of the grace which so eminently distinguished Raffaelle, he still continued sublime, majestic and profound, both in his compositions and his style. He painted several Madonnas, for different convents, and a Scourging of Christ for the church of St. Praxede. But his master-piece was a Martyrdom of St. Stephen, which he executed for Matteo Ghiberti, the Pope's datary. This picture was first placed over the grand allar of the church of the Monks of Mount Olivet at Genoa ; in the revolution, it was given, by the city of Genoa, to the French government, and was taken back in 1814; and it is now in the Museum of Turin, where it still commands the admiration of connoisseurs.

Giulio Romano's reputation was now so great, both, as a painter and an architect, that he was appointed by Frederic de Gonzaga, to direct the immense works which that prince had resolved upon , for the embellishment and salubrity of Mantua. This cause sufficiently explains his leaving Rome, without admiltiug lhe ridiculous story told by Vasari, that he fled to avoid imprisonment for a scandalous offence

This anecdote, which subsequent biographers have repeated as an undoubted fact, is far from being proved. In the first place, it is not agreed whether Giulio Romano drew the figures, to illustrate Areline's sonnets or Aretiue composed the sonnets to explain Giulio's designs, It is asserted that these postures were engraved by Marc Antonio; and that the Pope, not daring to punish Aretine, whose pen he feared, and unable to chastise the painter, who had fled, visited the

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offence on the engraver ; who was imprisoned for multiplying licentious drawings. But no facts are adduced in support of these assertions; though it is incredible that, if twenty such engraving had existed, some copies of them should not have escaped, and bave since been brought to light. The researches of Mariette, Heinecken and Bartsch for more than sixty years , have discovered nothing of this kind which could reasonably be attributed either te Guilio Romano, or to Marc Antonio. Those of the author of this article bave been equally unavailing, in the cabinets of Mnnich, Vienna, Dresden and Leipsic ; and in the collections of Amsterdam and the Hague, Buckingham , Stowe and the British Museum. Iu Paris, no trace of these engravings is found, either in the Royal Library, or in private cabinets. Still these are amateurs who affirm that they existed, and that they have seen fac similes of them; though, on closer examination, they are compelled to admit, that these facsimiles were made from others, and not from the cngravings of Marc Antonio. Why then iterate a charge, which is substantiated by no positive evidence ?

One of Giulio Romano's most imporlant works at Mantua, was the magnificent 'palace of the T; of which the architecture and the painting are alike admirable. It was bere tbat, giving scope to his imagination, he produced an inn-, mense multitude of pictures; in contemplating which, we are at a loss whether most to admire the astonishng fertility of his invention, or his wonderful powers of execution. He subsequently painted, in the palace of Mantya, a gallery representing the war of Troy; and also executed a variety of other pictures, among which should be mentioned the Adoration of the Shepherds; which was first placed in the chapel of St. Andrew at Mantua, and in the sequel given by the Duke to Charles I. of England; after whose death, it'

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was bought by Jabach ; and it is now in the Gallery of the Louvre.

Giulio Romano also constructed a great number of public and private edifices in Mantua, which wholly changed the face of that city. The Duke was an admirer of his talents, and evidenced his esteem by frequent benefactions.

After the death of Duke Frederic, Giulio removed to Bologna; where he furnished the plan of the new façade for the church of St. Petronius : and he would doubtless have succeeded Antonio San Gallo, as architect of Rome; but his health was now totally dilapidated, and he died soon after, on the Ist. Nov. 1546, at the age of fifty four.

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Polidore Caldara naquit, en 1495, à Caravage, dans le Milanais, et n'est ordinairement désigné que sous le nom de Polidore de Caravage. Ayant été à Rome fort jeune, c'est en voyant travailler au Vatican qu'il pensa à se livrer à l'étude de la peinture. En peu de temps il devint assez habile, pour que Raphaël lui confiátl'exécution de quelques-unes des frises, placées au-dessus des grandes fresques, qui ornent les chambres du Vatican.

Polidore dessinait correctement, et plus qu'aucun autre il s'est approche du style antique. Ses dispositions sont nobles, ses attitudes naturelles, ses têtes pleines d'expression, et généralement d'un beau caractère. Son coloris est vrai et plein de vigueur, mais souvent il a peint en camaïeux, imitant ainsi des bas - reliefs quelquefois rehaussés d'or dans les lumières.

Ayant été faire un voyage en Sicile , il fut assassiné par son domestique en 1543, n'étant agé que de quarante-huit ans, et fut enterré dans la cathédrale de Messine.

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