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reported to me. I found him disheveled and unkempt and I procured a home for him in Brooklyn. He stayed there a week and a half and was put out because he disturbed the quiet of the place. He came to me and I got his father to take him back. Then after a week he secured a position earning three dollars a week. He came and said, “I think my job is going to terminate at the end of the week; they are not giving me enough to do in the place." I said, “William, if you give up that job, I am afraid we will have to return you to the judge and get you a position where you get no pay.”
I find that the great difficulty of these boys is their fatigue, a condition which is caused oftentimes by the use of cigarettes, by over-indulgence in sexual matters, also by congestion, homecrowding, poor food and such things. I find anybody that wants a job and is not too anxious as to the price and labor they are to perform can easily get it.
Mr. John J. SHANAIIAN, PROBATION OFFICER, CHILDREN'S COURT: It has been my experience in investigating cases in the juvenile court that over 50 per cent of the boys between fourteen and sixteen years of age have not worked within three months of the time before being brought to court. They have working papers and they seem to think that these working papers give them a license to loaf, and that they are immune to arrest by the truant officer. The Board of Education should make some rule that would compel a boy to have a job to go to before granting these papers, and the papers should be granted conditional to his holding that position.
A great many boys, of course, secure work as soon as they are given working papers, but they either lose the job or give it up. After three months of loafing and hanging around pool rooms and corners, they arrive at the Children's Court. This is a question for the school authorities to take up.
Miss OLIVE M. JONES, PRINCIPAL, PROBATIONARY SCHOOL: The suggestion is a very pertinent one indeed and one which we have been trying to put into effect for at least five years. When I first went into the probationary work for the Board of Education that probation work being of a preventive character and intended to keep children from coming into court,- about the first thing that came to my attention was the question of the boy who goes out with working papers, and I have been all of five years trying to get the necessary legislation. In the first place, we have a rule standing on the books which says a boy must not leave school until he has a job. We cannot enforce that law because we are met with the question, “How can a boy find a job if going to school? He cannot attend school at the very hours that he must be finding a job.” In the second place, no law is of any use unless some one enforces it, and I do not know of any one who will enforce that law for us. The attendance officers cannot do it. They have all they can do now without taking care of these cases who are no longer the wards of the Board of Education, neither will the police enforce it. I have had many bitter personal experiences in that respect. I have tried to get policemen to arrest those boys and have been met with an absolute refusal on the part of the police unless I could present what would be legal evidence that the boy had committed some crime; that the mere fact that the boy had an employment certificate and was not working was not a crime.
Tomorrow there will come up for trial, probably in General Sessions, a boy who became sixteen years of age last Tuesday. He produced his evidence of age on Wednesday and demanded permission to leave school; he was no longer of school age. On Saturday he gathered together a group of four boys in my school and carried them out with him and robbed a candy store of $500 worth of supplies. Those supplies were received by a small candy shop that instigated the whole crime. No one can help me handle those cases at all, because of this very matter brought up now, and I know that we in the schools would be agreeable indeed for any suggestion or co-operation in getting through an effective law and effective means of enforcing it.
THE CHAIRMAN: Why cannot the Board give a child sufficient holiday to find his place? It seems to me the Board of Education could hold back those papers, have a sort of indeterminate release. Miss Jones: I find that is an impossibility because the employer will not even consider the boy's application unless he has that working certificate to present as a certificate of the right to go to work. We had a suggestion which we still hope to be able to put into effect, and that is that upon leaving the employment the employer will then mail the employment certificate back to the school that the boy left when he went to work. Of course, that puts the responsibility up to the employer, and whether employers would co-operate with us, we cannot say.
Friday Evening, April 23, 1915
PROBATIONARY TREATMENT OF DRINK, DRUG AND OTHER
MR. CHARLES L. CHUTE, SECRETARY, STATE PROBATION COMMISSION: I think all of us here last night felt we would have liked to have had more time for discussion, to get back at the speakers of the evening. The hour, however, was late and it seemed best to postpone the discussion until this evening and the other evenings that follow, when we will have plenty of time for discussion. In fact, we will give up these meetings almost entirely to discussion. We want to have you all speak on this important topic of the evening. We will begin without further introduction, and I will call on Dr. Charles F. Stokes, Medical Director of the Board of Inebriety, to tell you about his work and his experiences in the New York City Farm for Inebriates.
Dr. CHARLES F. STOKES: I am very glad to have this opportunity to lay before you what I believe to be an absolutely new, original conception of the whole problem of drug addiction and alcoholic abuse. The literature on this subject is vague, unsatisfactory, unscientific, the treatment impractical, and the results attained are not understood oftentimes by those who employ the treatment.
To begin with, let us consider the human frame from a psychological point of view. As far as I can, I am going to refrain from indulging in anything in the way of technical description. The mind, the brain, is susceptible of all sorts of impressions. What we do with those impressions oftentimes depends on the activities of certain glands which until recently were very little understood. For example, the overwhelming and dominating emotion in all the animal kingdom, man and the animal, is fear. Fear supersedes everything else. Music may be going on in a theatre, yet at the cry of fire everything else vanishes; the animal impulse is to flee. 'In order that we may successfully flee and thus carry out the impulse or instinct of self-preservation, the heart action is increased, and the brain action is stimulated. The muscles, in response to the brain messages, are called into activity. Now, the extent of that activity is determined by the secretions of three glands, one of which is the thyroid gland which you see enlarged in the neck in cases of goitre.
In the case of animals, for instance, the cat or rat, if you attempt to kill or destroy the cat or rat by aggression and strike them they will flee. It isn't as a result of thought; it is involuntary; it is hereditary; it is the result of the impress of generations, of centuries in. this type of animal. The moment that animal flees, the rat toward a hole, the cat up a tree or elsewhere, they have secured safety, but suppose the cat or the rat are cornered. They realize that there is no avenue of escape. The glands that stimulate the heart and brain, that stimulate the muscles to activity, stimulate that cat and rat to turn and fight. In other words, in that lies their safety. Fight. They have forgotten all about flight.
Now, in the matter of cases of drug addiction, in cases of alcoholic abuse, we find men confronted with all sorts of difficulties in every-day life; there is no outlook for them in the way of pro motion; there are certain deterrents; they are not given a security by their employers. They become fagged out through insanitary conditions; they worry; they fret; they fume; they seek flight, but their flight is in turning to drugs, in turning to alcohol, in turning to some one or other of the so-called narcotics. They attempt and believe that they do attain a measure of safety. At any rate, there is oblivion from their anxiety and worry, from all the conditions that are depressing and discouraging, but that shortcut is short-lived. By taking these drugs, the morphine or cocaine or alcohol, they blunt the impulse that comes to the brain normally to pour out these juices of the glands to stimulate an impulse to fight.
I don't know whether I made it clear or not, but that is my conception of the beginning of alcoholic addiction. Heredity may play a large part. Some authorities say 70 per cent of the addicts are addicts by reason of heredity. I do not mean that the child is born a drunkard, but the child is born with a kind of temperament that is restless and disturbed; it has longings, appetites, tastes