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are good trades; but more so the three former. A labourer may get plenty of work, if he is good for anything, and can keep sober. But there are many of them who will work one week, and do nothing the next, but eat and drink. The working hands are chiefly from Ireland. You
may think it strange, but a man can come over here without a sovereign, and buy a farm, and build a house. But when he gets here, the neighbours are all ready to assist him, and liis house is finished immediately. They will let him have any thing he wants, and he can work for them in return when he can best spare the time. You may buy land at 5s. per acre of the Company, for ready money; that is, 100 acres for £25; with free title, and no more expense.
Without ready money, the cost of 100 acres is £50; to be paid off in twelve years. Government is giving every man fifty acres, who will go out and take it up; and fifty more adjoining it are kept for him until he can pay for it. This is in the “ Queen's Bush,” on Lake Huron. Wheat is 32s. ; barley, 168.; white peas, 20s.; and oats from 8s. to 10s. per quarter. I have bought four quarters of beef at 10s. per cwt. (rather more than 1d. per lb.) Veal, pork, and mutton, £l per cwt. Geese and turkeys, from 10d. to ls. each. Potatoes, rather scarce, 5d. per peck.. Apples plentiful, and the finest I ever saw, 3d. per strike. Most occupiers have large orchards, some as much as ten or twelve acres. You may go and pull them any where; it is the way of the country.
We have no markets or fairs for the selling of stock ; but trade amongst one another. There are no butchers. When they have any thing to kill, they go round to see who wants to buy, and divide it into nothing less than quarters. The cows are turned out with a bell round their neck. You may see and hear them all over the country. They will come home to be milked'; and if sometimes they do not, it is not much minded. You can buy a cow for £3 or £4, and pigs you may have for next to nothing. They turn them out at the spring of the year, and they are any where until the winter; so they cost nothing in keep: I have seen them, half fat, in the woods. All young cattle are
turned out, and never seen by the owner during the
The horses are very light, being no heavier than your hunters, and quite as fine. They run them from fifty to sixty miles a day. But most of the hard work, such as drawing of timber, ploughing, &c. is done by oxen. Some have no horses at all. You may see an old farmer and his wife going to church or chapel in a waggon, drawn by a pair of oxen.
There are very few landlords. Each owner mostly works his own land, and there is a great deal worked on the half. There is a tax of 8s. 4d. on every 100 acres ; but no other rates or dues, of any kind whatever. No man with a ldrge family need be discouraged; for there is plenty for all, and places, as soon as they can do any thing, and good wages. Men take from £25 to £30 per year, and girls from £10 to £15. My eldest daughter has £12, and the next £9. They are within half a mile of each other, and three miles from me.
Clothing is about one-third dearer than at home. Shoes are dearer, and not so good. Tea is 2s. 6d. per lb. Soap and candles, high; but most make their own. Sugar, id.; tobacco, 8d. per lb. You can put a boy apprentice to any trade, and they will find him clothes, and give him money, (to the amount of £20 or £30,) when out of his time. They will take girls in the same way.
Upper Canada is an extensive country, and fine land. It contains more than sixty-four millions of acres. England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, contain together, about seventy-five millions, so that Upper Canada is not much less in extent than the British Islands. About onethird only is supposed to be inhabited at present. The summer is hotter than that of England, but the day not so long. The longest day is fifteen hours. The winter is colder. We have no coal; but as much wood for chopping as we please. There a few hares, partridges, pheasants, wild turkeys, deer, and plenty of fish. The timber grows to an immense height; and all the lakes are wonderful, so that in crossing you lose sight of land, and steer by the compass.
I am near Lake Ontario, and have good employment, but shall not go to farming, until I can make a fair start. My wife has
plenty of work at dress-making and tailoring. With kind love to all our family, and remembrances to all inquiring friends, and hoping that we may all end our days in peace and happiness,
I remain, The cost of passage from Liverpool to Toronto, as detailed above, will be about £5 for adults, and half the sum for those under fourteen years of age. This includes provisions, as far as New York, but no farther. The charges, during the summer months, i. e. after March, may probably be higher. The writer of this refers any one disposed to make further inquiries, to Messrs. Fitz Hugh and Walker, 12 Goree Piazzas, Liverpool.
Sent by a Clergyman.
EXTRACTS FROM NEWSPAPERS, &c. EFFECTS OF DRAINAGE on HUMAN Life.—The Rev. Professor Buckland, at a public meeting held in Oxford last week, said that in the parish of St. Margaret, Leicester, containing 22,000 inhabitants, it appeared that one portion of it was effectually drained, some parts but partially so, and others not at all. In the latter the average duration of life is 13 years and a half, while in the same parish, where the drainage is only partial, the average is 22 years and a half, thereby showing the frightful effects of a bad atmosphere.
A NOULE EXAMPLE.-Much has been said and written, and many are the little anecdotes recorded, of the liberality and determination of the Duke of Wellington. A striking instance of the former occurred a short
A needy agriculturist being compelled by necessity to advertise a small farm adjoining the park at Strathfieldsaye for sale, his Grace's steward made an offer for it, which was readily accepted ; and when the Luke, a few days afterwards, arrived in town, the steward acquainted his Grace of the judicious purchase he flattered himself he had made, adding, doubtless with inward satisfaction, that he was happy to inform his Grace that the land had been bought cheap. “ Cheap, sir," exclaimed the noble Duke, "cheap, sir, I want no man's land cheap. Let two proper persons be immediately appointed to survey and value the farm.” Crestfallen and sorely disappointed, the steward returned to fulfil his Grace's directions, and at the next interview handed his Grace the report of the surveyors, who had estimated the value of the land at several hundred pounds beyond the purchase money previously agreed upon. His grace carefully perused the document, and then remarked, “This is correct, is it, sir ?”
* It is, your Grace," was the reply. “ Then,” continued the Duke, “then, sir, pay the amount at once. I can better afford to pay a fair price than the owner can to take an unfair one; and bear in mind, I want no man's land cheap."Morning paper.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. We have received the communications of E. A.; M. H.; P. S. L.; R. M.; E. G.; T. P. O.; J. I. B.; and an Anonymous Correspondent.
COTTAGER'S MONTHLY VISITOR.
PAGE Missions to the Heathen ; a Di. “My Soul thirsteth for God.".. 161
alogue between a Father and Of the Small Farms in Belgium 162 his Son...
145 Weekly Directions for the MaFamily Religion
149 nagement of the Vine, from The Death of the Righteous.. 151 the Bursting of the Bud to the The Gas Microscope ... ib. Fall of the Leaf.
167 Extracts from my Family Bible 155 The Bastile
169 Epitaph on a Beloved Child, who True Faith
171 died at the early Age of Nine Dangers of Chartism ...... 176 Years ......
... 157| Extracts from Newspapers, &c. 179 Extracts from different Authors ib.
MISSIONS TO THE HEATHEN.
A DIALOGUE BETWEEX A FATHER AND HIS SON.
Thomas. Father, why is it that I hear you talking so much, since I have come home, about people in foreign countries, and clergymen going abroad to preach to them?
Father. My dear Thomas, I hope there is something more than talking in it; for it is a thing in which we ought to be doing besides; for there is much indeed to be done. It is true, you hear me speak about it more than when you left us to go
into service : but that is now many years
your mother and I have been much more instructed and interested in it than we were before. Still it is no new thing with us; for we have felt a great deal on that subject these six or seven years, and, I think, more and more every year, since we were first taught that it was our duty to pity the heathen.
T. Do then tell me something about it, for I seem to have heard very little yet. It's all quite strange to me.
F. And so, I fear, it is with a great many. But this is very wrong; since we all know that there are millions of people, called heathens, who have heard nothing of that VOL. XXIV.
only name whereby we must be saved," and which we profess to love and value ourselves as the most precious under heaven;" and when we belong to a Church which sends out missions to these poor heathens, and only wants the help of our money and our prayers to make it prosper in this great and blessed work.
T. Well, I think that many of us know nothing of this.
F. It may be so; and if we don't know of it, we may not be held responsible for feeling nothing on the subject : but when we do hear of it, I think we cannot remain guiltless if we are careless and without thought about it. St. John tells us, " Whoso seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love. of God in him?" And when he needs spiritual things, if we have them to give, is'nt it as bad as if he wanted this world's goods ?" There are thousands and thousands, more than you or I could count in a year's time, who are as ignorant of true religion as the stocks and stones they worship: now how can we think of that, and stop ourselves from pitying and loving their souls? How I wish they could all hear our rector preach! How they would rejoice to hear the glad tidings of pardon and peace which we are taught every week! It makes one wish that one could go out oneself, just to name the name of Christ to them, and to tell them that He died save sinners! Some might, then, die in peace who will now have no hope in their death! Now, Thomas, is there not something worth talking and thinking about, in all these things?
T. I see there is a great deal to be done; but how are we to do anything? You, father, could not leave mother and all the little ones, and go nobody knows where to preach to people who talk in a language we never heard.
F. Thomas, I could do even that, if it was God's good pleasure to call me to such a great work: but if you will wait a little, I will tell you some other ways in which we may do something for the heathen, although we are not called to preach to them ourselves. Have a little patience, and I will let you know. If we are not called to that work, there are those who are ; and I have been told, that