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standing thinks and the will intends, and in the fore-part of the head, that is, in the face, the five sensories are situated, and both the former and the latter receive their life from the soul only, which resides within the head : but where it may have its immediate residence, I dare not take upon me to determine ; at one time, however, I agreed with those who assign it a seat in the three ventricles of the cerebrum; at another I incline to favour those who fix it in the corpora striala; sometimes those who fix it in the medullary substance of each sphere of the brain ; sometimes those who fix it in the cortical substance; and sometimes those who fix it in the dura mater; for arguments, and those too of weight, have been urged in favour of each of these opinions. The arguments in favour of the three ventricles of the cerebrum, were, that those ventricles are the receptacles of the animal spirits, and of all the lymphatic juices of the cerebrum : the arguments in favour of the corpora striata were, that they form the medullæ, by which the nerves are emitted and branch out, and by which both spheres of the brain are continued into the spine, and that from both these, that is, both the medulla oblongata and medulla spinalis, the nerve ous fibres shoot forth, which serve for the contexture of the whole body: the arguments in favour of the medullary substance of both spheres of the brain were, that that substance is a collection or congeries of all the fibres, which are the rudiments or initiaments of the whole animal frame: the arguments in favour of the cortical substance were, that in that substance are contained the first and ultimate ends, and consequently the origins of all the fibres, and thereby of all the senses and motions: the arguments in favour of the dura mater were, that it is the common covering of both spheres of the brain, whence it is extended by a kind of continuity over the heart, and over the viscera of the body. With relation to myself, I am undetermined which of these opinions is the most probable, and so request to leave the matter to your judgment and decision.” Thus saying, he descended from the desk, and pulling off his gown, his tunic, and cap, he gave them to a third, who, mounting the desk, began as follows: “How little qualified is a youth like myself for the investigation of so sublime a theorem! I appeal to the learned persons in the seats on each side; I appeal to you wise ones in the orchestra; nay, I appeal to the angels of the highest heaven, whether any person, by the light of his own reason, can form to himself any idea of the soul : nevertbeless I, like others, can form conjectures about the place of its residence in man, and my conjecture is, that it resideth in the heart, and thence in the blood. Now, I ground my conjecture on this circumstance, that the heart with its blood rules both the body and the head; for it sends forth the large vessel called the aorta into the whole of the body, and vessels called carotids into the whole of the head; hence it is universally agreed, that the soul, from the heart, by means of the blood, supports, nourishes, and gives life to the whole organical system of both body and head. As a corroboration of this position it may be urged, that in Holy Scripture so frequent mention is made of the soul and heart, as for instance, 'Thou shalt love God with all thy soul, and with all thy heart;' and 'God createth in man a new soul and a new heart, Deut. vi. 5, chap. x. 12, chap. xi. 13, chap. xxvi. 16, Jerem. xxxii. 41, Matt. xxii. 37, Mark xii. 30, 33, Luke x. 27, besides other passages, particularly Levit. xvii. 11, 14, where it is said expressly that the blood is the soul of the flesh.” At these words the cry of “ Learned ! Learned!” was heard in the assembly, proceeding from some canons or regular priests. When the cry had ceased, a fourth speaker, putting on the garments of the former, ascended the desk, and thus began : “I also am inclined to suspect, that not a single person can be found of so refined and penetrating a genius, as to be able to discover what the soul is, and what is its nature and quality ; wherefore I am

of opinion, that in attempting to make such a discovery, all refinement and penetration will be exhausted with fruitless labour : still however I have from my early years continued firm in the opinion of the ancients, that the soul is in the whole, and in every part of man, and consequently that it is both in the head and in all its parts, and the body and all its parts, and that it is an idle conceit of the moderns to fix its residence in any one particular spot, without admitting it to extend every where : besides, the soul is a spiritual substance, and so falls not under the predicates of extension or place, but only of habitation and impletion : moreover, when the soul is named, is not the idea of life generally suggested and who doth not allow, that life is in the whole and in every part ?" These sentiments were favourably received by a great part of the audience. Next rose up a fifth speaker, who putting on the oratorical robes, and mounting the desk, thus delivered himself: “1 shall not waste your time and my own in determining the place of the soul's residence, whether it be confined to some particular part, or every where diffused throughout the whole, but from my mind's storehouse I will communicate to you the sentiments I have embraced in relation to the proposed inquiry, "What is the soul, and what is its nature and quality?' The general idea concerning the soul is, that it is a pure somewhat, which may be likened to æther, or to air, or to wind, animated by a vital principle within it, in consequence of the rationality which man enjoys above the beasts. This too is my opinion, which I have founded on this circumstance, that man at his decease is said to breathe forth, or emit, his soul or spirit; hence also the soul, in its state of life after death, is supposed by some to be such breath or vapour, animated by a cogitative life, which is called soul; and what can the soul be else? But as I heard it declared from the orchestra, that this problem concerning . the soul, its nature and quality, is not above the understand

ing, but within its sphere and apprehension, I intreat and beseech you who sit in that exalted station, to unfold to us this eternal mystery.'

Then the elders in the orchestra, turned their eyes towards the head-master that had proposed the problem, who understood, by their signs, that they wished him to descend, and unfold it to the audience ; so he instantly quitted the pulpit, passed through the cro

rowd, and mounted the desk, and there stretching out his hand, be thus began : “May I bespeak your attention ? Who does not believe that the soul is the inmost and most subtile essence of man? but what is an essence without a form, but a mere mental abstraction? wherefore the soul is a form; but what sort of a form I shall now proceed to describe : It is a form of all things belonging to love, and of all things belonging to wisdom; all things belonging to love are called affections, and all things belonging to wisdom are called perceptions, and these from the former, and thus together with them, constitute one form, in which are contained things innumerable in such an order, series and coherence, that they may be called a one ; and they may be called a one for this reason, that nothing can be taken away thence, nor any thing added, but the quality of the form is wholly changed. What is the buman soul but such a form ? Are not all things of love, and all things of wisdom, the essentials of that form ? and are not all these with man in his soul, and by derivation from the soul in his head and body? Ye are called spirits aud angels, and ye supposed in the world that spirits and angels are like mere wind, or æther, and thus mere rational and animal minds (mentes et animi), but now ye see clearly, that ye are truly, really, and actually men, who, during your abode in the world, lived and thought in a material body, and were aware that it is not the material body which lives and thinks, but that life and thought must originate in a spiritual substance in that body, and this ye called soul, whose form ye were then ignorant of, but now ye have seen and

continue to see it; ye all are souls, of whose immortality ye have heard, thought, said, and written so much ; and because ye are forms of love and wisdom from God, therefore ye cannot die to all eternity. The soul is, therefore, a human form, from which nothing can be taken away, and to which nothing can be added, and it is the inmost of all forms in the whole body; and as the forms, that are without, receive from the inmost both their essence and form, therefore ye are, as ye appear both to yourselves and us, souls ; in a word, the soul is the real man, because it is the inmost man, on which account its form is the human form in all its fulness and perfection; nevertheless it is not life, but the proximate receptacle of life from God, and thus the habitation of God." At these words, many expressed their approbation, but some said, “We will consider of it.” I then departed and went home; and lo! over the gymnasium, instead of the former meteoric appearance, there was seen a white cloud without the streaks or rays that seemed to combat with each other, which cloud, penetrating through the roof, entered the building and enlightened the walls; and I was informed that they saw some pieces of writing upon them, and this among others : « Jehovah God breathed into man's nostrils the BREATH OF LIVES, and man became a LIVING SOU L," Genesis ji. 7.

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