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ESSAY ON LANGUAGE.

INTRODUCTORY DISSERTATION.

1. LANGUAGE has been long considered as a subject of great interest, and has occupied the ablest writers among most civilized nations. Yet, after all the learning employed in its investigation, a slight research will show, that most of the contradictory systems which have been proposed are radically defective, and that much remains to be done. It is not expected that the expositions about to be offered will be free from defect. The intention is to present, in a new point of view, a branch of learning deeply interesting to the literary world, and particularly to the American States, under existing circumstances.

2. The plan of the present treatise differs, probably, from what has been attempted in any country. The ideas advanced will vary in several important particulars from the received doctrines of the schools, and the prejudices of inwrought sentiment. Novelty, however, is not sought for the sake of innovation. The leading object is simple philosophic truth.

1

AS CONNECTED WITH THE

Faculties of the Mind,

AND AS APPLIED TO

THINGS IN NATURE AND ART.

SOCIA MENTIS LINGUA.

BY WILLIAM S. CARDELL.

.1

NEW-YORK.

CHARLES WILEY, No. 3 WALL-STREET.

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Southern District of New-Yorke, ss.

E IT REMEMBERED, That' on the sixteenth day of February, A. D. of America, William s Cardell, of the said 'District, has deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as author, in the words following, to wit :

“Essay on Language, as connected with the Faculties of the Mind, and as applied to things in Nature and Art. Socia mentis lingua. By William S. Cardell'

lo conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “An Act for the encouragemeot of Learning. by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned." And also to an Act, entitled "an Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled an Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other pripts "

JAMES DILL, C'lerk of the Southern District of New-York.

3. SEYMOUR, PRINTER, JOHN-STREET.

94

7.27.39

CONTENTS.

moral causes,

07 - 37 - 39 DOT

Introductory dissertation,

1 General view of language as intimately combined with

the mental powers, the instruction and welfare of nas
tions, and the whole social and commercial intercourse
of rational beings,

26. Structure of speech in its earliest known forms, deduced

from the nature and wants of man, and the condition of
savage life,

hanya Brief history of the progress of letters, from the time of

their invention, with a slight notice of the changes to
which language has been subjected from political and

13 General character of the English language, and its his

tory, from the invasion of England by Julius Cesar, to
the present time,

24
Philosophic exposition of speech in its practical adapta-
tion to the purposes of life,

34 Elementary principles and definitions,

39 Classification of words,

44 Naines of things grammatically considered, do. do. philosophically do.

ib. Pronouns or substitutes,

62 Words of relation and description, adjectives,

66 Actions or affirmations-verbs,

107 Logic and philosophic elucidation of moods

tenses,

121 Etymons and practical explanations of the words erroneously called auxiliaries,

138 Verb to be,

141 Participles always adjectives by use,

165 Contractions in terms and in construction,

ib. Adverbs,

178 Conjunctions,

180 Prepositions,

182 Irregular articolations called interjections,

184 Structure of sentences,

185 Lessons in parsing, grammatical,

187 do. dos philosophic,

193 Specimens giving a slight view of the changes in language, 194 Examples of errors in practice,

203

ib.

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