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311. Other words of this class are compounded of different terms; but generally in such a manner that they may easily be resolved into their elements; as, nevertheless, howsoever, tomorrow, peradventure, always, and others. The practice has prevailed to a considerable extent, more formerly than at present, of combining these words; and it is still thought more convenient, in many instances, to take the compound, as an adverb, than to explain the parts separately. Many of these words, in their compounded form, are going gradually out of use, as being inelegant and unnecessary.
But besides those adverbs which directly appear as compounds, there are others, the separate parts of which are only to be found by tracing them to their origin
312. The following is Mr. Murray's list of adverbs.
Once, twice, thrice, &c. First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, fifthly, lastly, finally. Here, there, where, elsewhere, anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither, thither, upward, downward, forward, backward, whence, hence, thence, whith
Now, 10-day, already, before, lately, yesterday, heretofore, hitherto, long since, long ago, &c. To-morrow, not yet, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward, by and by, instantly, presently, immediately, straightways. Oft, often, ofttimes, often-times, sometimes, soon, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, always, when, then, ever, never, again, &c. Much, little, sufficiently, how much, how great, enough, abundantly, &c. Wisely, foolishly, justly, unjustly, quickly, slowly. Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, perchance, verily, truly, undoubtedly, doubtless, certainly, yea, yes, surely, indeed, really. Nay, no, not, by no means.
not at all, in no wise, how, why, wherefore, whether, more, most, better, best, worse, worst, less, least, very, almost, little, alike.
CONJUNCTIVES OR CONJUNCTIONS.
“A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect sentences; so as, out of two or more sentences to make but
It sometimes connects only words." Mr. Murray, whose definition of these conjunetive words is given above, divides them into two kinds, copulative and disjunctive conjunctives.
The following is his list of conjunctions.
“And, if, that, both, then, since, for, because, therefore, wherefore."
“ But, or, nor, as, then, lest, though, unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding."
The conjunctives both, either, neither, and that, are always adjectives.
If, but, though, unless, and yet, are imperative verbs.
If is gif, give, grant, as was said before.
But has two meanings, which should not be confounded; botan, to boot; superadd. I have rode ten miles, but I wish to go ten miles farther.
But is also be-utan, be out, leave out, except ; as, "all but one." All be out, leave out, except, or save, one.
Unless is release, dismiss.
Yet is get, by the usual change of y and g in the old books, or rather by the use of a character in common for both.
314. The other conjunctions may all be as well considered and explained as adverbs. The word as never is a conjunction. The attempted distinction between copulative and disjunctive, and otherclasses of conjunctives, and all which is called explanation upon them, is a totally absurd, unfounded, and whimsical jargon; not surpassed in any dream book, or treatise on the juggling art. This mass of nonsense is not chargeable on any individual : but has been handed down from one compiler to an other, to the present time, because that no one thinks proper to inquire why seventeen hundred thousand scholars, now in school in the United States, should be taught to believe that joining two words together necessarily produces separation between them.
Mr. Murray's whole list of conjunctions amounts to twenty-two. Several of these never are conjunctions, in any possible instance, by any rational application of the words, according to his own scheme; and all of them may be better explained under other classes of words.
But Mr. Murray's “judicious and philosophical" system sinks down to relative soberness, and almost puts on the appearance of truth, when compared with the following classification of the different sorts of conjunctions, which has been palmed upon the schools, and called learning.
Conjunctive, adjunctive, disjunctive, subdisjunctive, copulative, negative copulative, continuative, subcontinuative, positive, suppositive, causal, collective, effective, approbative, discretive, ablative, presumptive, abnegative, completive, augmenta
tive, alternative, hypothetical, extensive, periodical, motival, conclusive, explicative, transitive, interrogative, comparative, diminutive, preventive, adequate preventive, adversative, conditional, suspensive, illative, conductive, declarative, &c. &c.
The book of Revelation contains twenty-two chapters, and nineteen of them begin with the copulative conjunction and. In this case, which is grammatically connected, “words, or members of a sentence?"
“ Et jacet Euxinis vates Romanus in oris."-Politian's Elegy on the Exile and Death of Ovid; Line I.
Here is a simple proposition beginning with the copulative conjunction et; and no one, probably, will question its Latinity.
Prepositions serve to connect words with one an other, and to show the relation between them. They are, for the most part, put before nouns and pronouns; as, he went from London to York. She is above disguise. They are instructed by him."
This is Mr. Murray's definition of this part of speech, and it is about as good as any other which could be made. The following is his list of the words.
Of, to, for, by, with, in, into, within, without, over, under, through, above, below, between, beneath, from, beyond, at, near, up, down, before, behind, off, on, upon, among, after, about, against.
316. Every one of these prepositions is a noun or a verb, capable of being clearly traced and defined as such, with much less trouble than to define the word preposition or adverb.
In, as a noun, is the old word innan, innen, the inner part of the human breast, enclosing the heart and vitals. In its extended meaning, it is the inner part of any thing else; an inn of court; as, Lincoln's Inn; an indwelling place; a traveller's inn ; a public lodging place.
Inn, as a verb, is from the noun: “to inn the harvestor grain,”as used by Chaucer, Shakspeare, Lord Bacon, Sir Philip Sydney, and other writers, means to put the harvest into barns. The participle inning is from the same. This is also used as a noun.
The adjectives in, inner, innest, innermost, inmost, inward, innerward, are from the noun.
The adverbs inly, innerly, and inwardly, are formed from the adjectives.
The word in has also many compounds, as inlet, inmate, inland, inlay, and others.
All these terms are pure old English.
Such is one of the least of these prepositions, without meaning, used to connect significant words and “show the relation between them."
If the general principles laid down in this work should be acceptable to the American public, an attempt will be made in a future edition, to reduce all words to four classes, in such a manner as to leave no possibility of doubt on the subject. It will greatly facilitate the whole process of teaching language, and is as applicable to other tongues as to