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317. This department of language does not consist of words, nor belong to conventional speech. It is made up of sounds, which are uttered by different orders of beings, as mere animals; sometimes by man among the rest. The bellowing of a cow, the barking of a dog, the neighing of a horse, are interjections. In many instances among men, sudden and violent starts of surprise, joy, pain, or anger, cause an indistinct sound, not reducible to the language of compact. Laughter, crying, or the groans of pain, are interjections : but if a man says hush, tush, or tut, to his children, meaning to have them be still, and they so understand him, it is as much an imperative verb, as if he said cease, stop, or any other form of parental command. To say hah, in order to call quick attention, is no less a verb than lo, look, or see there, used for the same purpose. The simple question is, on each utterance of this kind, whether it is given and received with a definite form and meaning.

Fruitless attempts have been made to arrange this set of words into different subdivisions, according to their meanings; but all words capable of being so classified, do not belong to interjections.




317. The noun is subject or object of a verb, or governed by a preposition; as, Henry VII. defeated Richard III. in the battle of Bosworth.

Exception. Nouns are sometimes used without grammatical connexion, in which case, they are said to be independent, or absolute. This takes place in the single words, or broken parts of sentences, placed as heads of chapters, or in terms of direct personal address; as, “It must be so, Plato, thou. . reasonest well.”


318. All nouns and pronouns meaning the same thing, and contained in the same member of a sentence, must agree in number, gender, and person, with the thing which they represent ; pas, ye blind guides, hypocrites.

Cicero and Hortensius rendered themselves great orators.

He showed himself a consummate general.
They are (

) excellent poets. These serve to explain each other, without enlarging the idea conveyed by one of the terms.

This form of speech is the identical proposition of the mental philosophers and logicians.

Nouns of multitude may be singular or plural in construction, according to the manner in which they are conceived by the mind.


Pronouns, as substitutes for nouns, take the same relation of person, number, gender, and case.

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Pronouns and nouns, connected by and, are to be taken together, as a collective plural, in the agreement of verbs or other words : as, Romulus and Remus were twin brothers. They were grandsons of Numitor.


Every adjective refers to a noun, expressed or understood; as, “ many are called; but few are chosen :" that is, many and few

persons. English adjectives never vary in their forms for number, gender, nor case.


320. The indicative verb, agrees with the number and person of its subject; as, “ Homer warms us." “Milton fixes us in astonishment.” “They are both sublime, and excel other poets.” “I learn." - Thou art the man.”


The infinitive verb is always consecutive, depending on some pre-supposed condition of things; as, - He prepared himself to go, at 12 o'clock.


Imperative verbs are invariable in form, and future in meaning : as, go, stay, depart in peace.


go, flee

Every verb and every participle in ing governs an object expressed or understood; as, thee away,

into the land of Judah." The tutor employs himself in teaching his pupils. They try (their skill) to learn (their lessons.)


321. “ They who forgive, act nobly." They, is a pronoun, standing for a supposed portion of mankind, to whom a certain character is attributed; third person plural, subject of the verb act.

Who, an other pronoun for the same persons, subject of the verb forgive, in the third person plural, like they, because standing for the same thing.

Forgive ; indicative verb, present tense, meaning, in general, or at any time, agreeing with its subject, who, in the third person, plural; and governing injuries, as its object understood.

Act; indicative verb, present tense, agreeing with its subject they, third person plural; governing part, or an equivalent word understood, as its object.

Nobly, an adverb, expressing the manner of acting

322 “ Peace and joy are virtúe's crown.? Peace, a common noun, third person, singular number, neuter gender, subject of the verb are.

And, past participle, signifying added, connecting peace with joy.

Joy, common noun, third person singular, connected with peace, as subject of are.

Are, irregular verb, indicative mood, present tense, agreeing with its two subjects, peace and joy, governing the word themselves, as its object, understood.

Virtue's, a specifying adjective, referring to crown, to point out what one is meant.

Crown, common noun, third person singular, subject of are, as being identical with peace and joy, in the same member of the sentence.

Wisdom or folly governs us." Wisdom, noun common, third person, singular, conditional subject of governs.

Or, adverbial contraction, signifying otherwise ; and as placed, between wisdom and folly, in this sentence, implies the alternative, that one governs, if the other does not. This is always the character and use of the word or.

Folly, common noun, third person, singular, placed alternatively, or conditionally, with wisdom, as subject of the verb governs.

Governs, regular verb, indicative mood, present tense, agreeing with either wisdom or folly, according to the alternity; but not with both.

“ If Celia would be silent, her beholders would adore her.; if Iras would talk, her hearers would admire her; but Celia's tongue runs incessantly, while Iras gives herself silent airs and soft languors; so that it is difficult to persuade one's self that Celia has beauty, and Iras wit; each neglects her own excellence, and is ambitious of the other's character; Iras would be thought to have as much beauty as Celia, and Celia as much wit as Iras."-Addison.

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