Sivut kuvina

complete it, by supplying every word, necessary to the whole construction.

The great art of writing and speaking is to make these contractions, in the most compendious manner, without being deficient in perspicuity.

To the foregoing lessons in parsing, the following are added, which may serve, at once, as exercises for the scholar, and as specimens of the progressive changes in the language.

The first is a Saxon specimen from King Alfred.

Nu pe sceolan herigean
Heofon rices peard
Metodes mihte
And his mod gepanc
Yeonc puldor pæder.
Spa he puldrer gehpas
Ece drihten
Ord onstealde.
He ærest gescop
Eorpan beannum
Heofon to rose
Halig scyppend.
Da middan geard
Mon cynner peard
Eco Drihtne
Efter toode. .
Firum yoldan
Pres almibtig.

For the convenience of those unacquainted with the Saxon alphabet, the same is given in Roman letters.

“Nu we sceolan herigean
Heofon rices weard
Metodes mihte
And his mod gethanc
Yeorc wuldor fæder.
Swa he wuldres gehwaes
Ece drihten
Ord onstealde.
He ærest gescop
Eorthan bearnum
Heofon to rote
Halig scyppend
Tha middan geard

Mon cynnes weard
Ece drihtne
Æfter teode.
Firum foldan

Frea ælmihtig."-Alfred's Translation of Bede. P. 597.

Now we should to praise
Heaven's riches Guardian :
Maker's might
And his mind thoughts
Works of glory Father.
How he glorious was,
Eternal Lord;
Made the beginning.
He first formed
Earthen children,
Heaven to roof :
Holy Creator !
The middle expansion
Man kind's Guardian,
Eternal Lord,
Afterwards made.
The earth for man.

Ruler Almighty. The reader will certainly be struck with the seeming awkwardness of this translation; so destitute of “ articles,” conjunctions, adverbs, or prepositions; but barren as it is of these modernized appendages, he will perceive that the number is greater than in the original

In this construction the sense is determined, in a considerable degree, by the relative collocation of the words.

Much also depended on their accepted import in practice.

" He first formed

Earthen chidren
Heaven to roof:

Holy Creator.” With these identical words the sense will be plair by changing the arrangement.

“Holy Creator!

He first formed
Heaven, to roof

Earthen children." To shelter or protect the children belonging or pertaining to earth. This kind of translation gives the reader a more clear idea of the real structure of the original, than one which should be rendered in more elegant modern English.

This piece, singular as it may appear, is the language of the man who was at once the chief glory of the English throne, and one of the best scholars in the kingdom for the age in which he lived.

328. The following is given as an exact copy of the xiii. chapter of 1 Corinthians, from an ancient manuscript, and which is the oldest English translation of the New Testament, at present known to exist. The precise date of it is not known; but supposed to be about the year 1350, or about twenty years before the introduction of printing into England.

It is taken from a copy given by Dr. Adam Clarke, the only alteration being the substitution of Roman print for the old black letter English.

"GifI speke with tungis of men and aungels sotheli I have not charitee: I am maad as brasse soundynge or a symbale tinking. And gif I schal have prophecie and have knowen alle mysteries and alle kunnynge or science. And gif I schal have al feithe so that I over bere hills fro on place to other. forsothe gif I schal not have charitee : I am


nought. And gif I schal departe al my goodis into metis of pore men. And gif I schal bitake my body so that I brenne forsothe gif I schal not have charitee, it profiteth to me no thing. Charite is pacient or sufferinge. It is benynge or of good will. Charity envyeth not. It doth not gyle. It is not inblowen with pride it is not ambyciouse or covetouse of wirschippis. It seekyth not the thingis that ben her own. It is not stirrid to wrath it thinketh not yvil. it joyeth not on wickednesse. forsothe it joyeth to gydre to treuthe. It suffreth alle thingis. it bilieveth alle thingis. It hopith alle thingis, it susteeneth alle thingis. Charite fallith not doun. Whether prophecies schuln be doid eyther langagis schulen ceese: eyther science schal be destruyed. Forsothe of party we han knowen: and of partye prophecien. Foršothe whenne that schal cum to that is perfit: that thing that is of partye schal be avoydid. When I was a litil chiilde: I spake as a litil chiilde. I understode as a litil childe: I thoughte as a litil chiilde. Forsothe when I was maad a man: I avoyded tho thingis that weren of a litil chiilde. Forsothe we seen now bi a miror in darcnésse : thanne forsothe face to face. Nowe I know of partye : thanne forsothe I schal know as I am knowen. Now forsothe dwellen feith hoope charite. These three: forsothe the more of hem is charite.".

329. Example in philosophic parsing.

You may show a child a house and teach him the fact that such an edifice could not have made itself; in proof of which opinion, you may show him masons and carpenters at their work. Then direct his attention to the heavenly orbs; the earth; and the numerous animals and vegetables, and minerals

which God has formed for the use of man, and say to the little boy or girl, how much superior is the world we inhabit, to that house! Can the universe, then, have organized its own structure. How ought our souls to glow with gratitude and admiration for the Author of such wisdom and goodness.--Paraphrase from Fenelon.

Child, absolute name of persons.

All names of persons are mixed or complex ideas, including the union of body and mind.

House, sensible object.
Fact, attendant circumstance of matter.
It alludes to some operation on material substan-


Edifice, sensible object.

This name is general and always in some degree relative, as implying what is raised, built, or constructed.

Proof, attendant circumstance having a mixed relation to matter and mind.

Opinion, attendant circumstance of mind.
Masons, relative name of persons.

Carpenters, same as masons.
Work, attendant circumstance of matter and mind.
Attention, attendant circumstance, chiefly of mind.
Orbs, sensible objects.

This name is always in some degree relative, as implying a body rolling in a circle.

Earth, sensible object; but extensive and complex in its idea.

Animals, class of sensible objects, including the relative idea of life.

Vegetables, sensible objects; but the name always relates to the manner of growth.

Minerals, sensible objects; but always relative, as being found in mines.

God, highest mental object,

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