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timations of the mind, are names of sensible objects, or of obvious actions, with direct reference to things in the material world, capable of being traced to their origin, and clearly defined as nouns and verbs, bis comprehensive intellect would hardly have been satisfied with the metaphysical approximation to which his views were so mistakingly confined. A deeper and broader knowledge of comparative etymology, would have led him, instead of studying the meanings of words in the unseen stands, limitations, and exceptions of the mind, to seek them in the real views, postures, and turns, of the early framers of speech.

10. Lord Bacon, speaking of the advancement of learning, says-—"And lastly, let us consider the false appearances that are imposed upon us, by words, which are framed and applied according to the conceit and capacities of the vulgar sort : and although we think we govern our words, and prescribe it well-loquendum ut vulgus, sentiendum ut sapientes ;* yet certain it is, that words, as a Tartar's bow, do shoot back upon the understanding of the wisest, and mightily entangle and pervert the judgment. So as it is alınost necessary in all controversies and disputations, to imitate the wisdom of the mathematicians, in setting down in the very beginning, the definitions of our words and terms, that others may know how we accept and understand them, and whether they concur with us

For it cometh to pass, that we are sure to end there where we ought to have begun, which is in questions and differences about words."

Profiting therefore by the suggestions of so able a counsellor, we shall lay down a few elementary

or no.

* Speaking as the vulgar, thioking as the wise.

the body, the affections of the heart, and the operations of the understanding; in other words, there are these three kinds of excitement, action, or instrumentality, by which ideas are interchanged between one percipient being and an other.

16. The bodily sensations are manifested, perhaps, in some degree, by all organized beings. The writhing or the groans of pain, the cries of hunger, and other evidences of feeling, are manifested in different modes and degrees by most animals. The young bird raising its open mouth for food, is the natural indication of corporeal want. Man has the various bodily sensations and their outward signs, in common with brutes, and has some expressions of sensation which they have not : of these are laughter and weeping. This class of signs is the lowest in order, least extensive in application, and most remote in its nature from conventional language.

17. It is doubtful whether any portion of what we understand as the affections of the heart, can properly be ascribed to inferior animals. The attachment of brutes for their young, is a wise ordination of Providence for the preservation of the species : but it extends no farther than is necessary for this specific purpose. The fidelity of a dog for his master, is the instinct or attribute of his nature ; and this obsequious trustiness is as readily subservient to the highwayman or pirate, as to the person of most upright conduct.

It is only in the human species, that the moral and social affections assume their expressive signs, and become an intelligible and powerful language. The indications of sentiment assume a variety of forms, as they appear in the countenance, attitudes,

and gestures. The dejection of sorrow, the smile of joy, the scowl of contempt, the frown of anger, are a universal language, read and understood alike by all nations. These natural signs may exist, independent of conventional language; but they generally concur with it, and add greatly to its force. These natural signs of mental feeling. are capable of being refined and extended, to a considerable degree, as in the ancient pantomimes, and appear to be more or less practised by all nations. The open arms of friendship, the fist clenched in anger, and a multitude of others, are of this class.

18. An attentive investigation will show, that there is no way in which the individual mind can, within itself, to any extent, combine its ideas, but by the intervention of words. Every process of the reasoning powers, beyond the immediate perception of sensible objects, depends on the structure of speech, and in a great degree, according to the excellence of this chief instrument of all mental operations, will be the means of personal improvement, of the social transmission ,

of thought, and the elevation of national character. From this, it may be laid down as a broad principle, that no individual can make great advances in intellectual improvement, beyond the bounds of a ready formed language, as the necessary means of his progress. The ideas, therefore, as well as the vocabulary of the savage, are necessarily limited; but his words being comparatively few, are often repeated, and become familiar by use. They are also generally expressive, for they have immediate relation to objects of sense ; and it is farther observable, that where vocal language is restricted. men have recourse to violent and significant gesticulations to remedy its defects.

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19. The cultivation of the mental powers depends chiefly on social institutions ; but all establishments of a public nature are very closely connected with the individual intelligence in which they originate, and on which their maintenance must necessarily depend. It is the reciprocity of action and reaction, at every step, and these two principles cannot long be greatly out of proportion to each other. Such is the nature of man, that no government can far extend its influence and power, without laws, religious doctrines, or rules of moral conduct, contained in some written form. The union and consequent elevation of large communities, depend on the concentration of the public sentiment. All people, ignorant of writing, are, by necessary consequence, divided into small tribes, and can make but a slow progress in civilization. The consistency and elevation of public sentiment, for any length of time, depend on education in some form or other; but instruction is not likely to acquire much system or extent, while left to depend wholly on oral communication. It is with propriety, therefore, that the knowledge of letters is generally recognized by philosopbic writers, as the first important advance in the career of social refinement, and all nations destitute of written records characterized as barbarian.

20. Written as well as spoken language, is exceedingly important to man, in his social condition; and the unlettered tenants of the forest must, at times, strongly feel the want of some means to extend their ideas beyond the immediate objects around them.

21. Many evidences exist of the proneness men to devise visible signs in aid of oral language; and of all the systems of this kind, none can compare with the Egyptian hieroglyphics, either for systematic skill, or for the extent of their application.

22. The Egyptians possessed extraordinary ad. vantages for their peculiar system of writing. The astonishing fertility of their country furnished an easy means of livelihood, to a vast population. The numerous body of priests were, by their large landed revenues, freed in a great degree, from pecuniary care, while they held sufficient political influence to inspire them with ambition. Though their hieroglyphics must have been extremely complicated and unwieldy, compared with modern letters, yet it appears to have been, for the initiated class, the great business of life, and means of distinction, to become exceedingly familiar with their principles and use. Under these special, favore ing circumstances, it is less wonderful that Egypt, with a cumbrous form of written language, rose to great comparative excellence in arts, sciences, poJicy, and laws.

23. There is one kind of advancement, how. ever, to which the system of hieroglyphics, must, from its nature, have opposed an absolute barrier. The Egyptians, with this species of writing, could not have excelled in works of a high order of genius and taste. Accordingly, we find they are not credited by their cotemporaries, or immediate successors, for any thing of this nature.

And again, if a few individuals of extraordinary intellectual powers could have produced a masterly performance, in poetry or oratory, it could not have been transmitted to posterity, through a medium of writing unintelligible to all subsequent ages. All,

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