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nova meditatus sum experimenta, quibus gradus absoluti, si firmo fundamento superstructa esset theoria, exacte satis definirentur; sin minus, diversi exhibérentur.

Liquefactione corporis solidi, ad diversos gradus refrigerati, atque congelatione corporis liquidi, diversis gradibus calefacti, non modo gradus caloris, ad liquiditatem corporis necessarii, sed et capacitates atque gradus caloris absoluti inveniri posse videbantur.

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Sint (Fig. 3.) MO(=OP): ON ut capacitas corporis liquefacti ad capacitatem corporis ejusdem solidi. Commisceantur aequales quantitates illius, temperaturae A, et hujus temperaturae I, quod facta mixtura liquidam obtineat formam, existente tum temperatura communi D. Commisceatur iterum idem corpus solidum temperaturae L, cum pari liquidi quantitate, temperaturae A. Sitque G temperatura communis mixturae, cum illud liquefactum sit. Repraesentabitur in priore casu calor a corpore solido absorptus per rectangulum BD, in posteriore vero per BG. Ideoque rectangulum EG differentiam sistit inter quantitates caloris, quas requirunt solida temperaturarum I et L, ut liquescant et temperaturas D et G attingant: et propterea 2EG illa est differentia caloris, quae inter solida obtinet, ut in liquidum aeque calidum utraque abeant. Haec vero cum sit aequalis quantitati caloris, qua solidum temperaturae L ad temperaturam I perveniat; erit rectangulum IQ 2EG; et proinde determinata erit proportio capacitatis solidi ad capacitatem liquidi ON:OP=2DG: IL. Tandem, quia secundum theoriam caloris specifici rectangulum BD aequale est figurae IDCPNKI; datis AB, AD, DI, PN, invenientur gradus absoluti

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Fig. 3.

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Primum quidem nix diversarum temperaturarum, admixta aqua calida, liquefacienda mihi inserviebat. Ut vero haec experimenta, delicatae ceteroquin indolis, qualem mereantur, tueantur fidem, cautionum, quas in iisdem instituendis adhibui, paucis mentionem faciam. 1) Experimenta peragebantur in loco, ejusdem quam proxime temperaturae, ac erat nix. Nivis tamen temperatura accuratius examinabatur ope thermometri in ipsam immersi.

2) Aqua experimento destinata ponderabatur, et vasi ferreo tenui immissa ope flammae spiritus vini calefiebat ad gradum desideratum, quem in thermometro immerso observavi. Facta deinde mixtione, ex pondere mixturae iterum explorato intellexi quantum aquae per evaporationem abierit, et quantum nivi admixtum fuerit.

3) Cum loci temperatura semper esset temperatura mixturae inferior, haec non po tuit non continuo decrescere, parte caloris per aërem abeunte: quamobrem, ut verus habere

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tur valor temperaturae mixtorum, gradus thermometri immersi observabantur ad finem 1:mi, 2:di, 3:tii ceterorumque minutorum, usquedum pateret, quanta esset singulo minuto jactura caloris.

4) Duorum, quibus alternatim usus sum, vasorum alterum proxime 40 lothonibus aquae et nivis, alterum 20 lothonibus, singulo experimento implebantur. Illud in sequentibus C vocabo, cujus effectum, in temperaturam humoris immissi mutandam (quem capacitatem vasis appellare liceat) effectui 0,66 lothonum aquae, ejusdem ac vas temperaturae, aequalem inveneram. Hoc, quod c mihi audiet, capacitatem exhibuit effectui 0,39 lothonum aquae aequalem.

5) Ut explorarem, utrum, respectu caloris, a nive differat glacies, plura in antecessum institui experimenta; et inveni quidem glaciem, quae non facile in tenuissimum pulverem redigeretur, hanc ob caussam, difficilius quam nivem, in aquam resolvi; facta vero liquefactione utrasque omnino easdem absorpsisse caloris quantitates, si modo ejusdem essent ponderis et temperaturae. Idcirco in sequentibus mihi non opus erat curare, utrum nix subtilissimae esset texturae, an vero granulata, qualis esse solet, quae per plures dies variis exposita fuit aëris temperaturis.

§. IX.

Experimenta Nivis per Aquam calidam liquefactae.

Experimenta nivis diversarum temperaturarum in sequentibus tabulis exhibentur. Columna P significat temperaturam nivis, sive numerum graduum infra 0 Thermometri Celsiani; columna N nivis pondus, s. lothonum ejusdem numernm; columna A numerum lothonum aquae calidae, cum nive commixtae. In columnis vasorum V litterae C, c, positae sunt post nivis vel aquae columnam, prout mixtio fiebat in vase temperaturae vel nivis vel aquae. Columna a aquae calidae temperaturam sistit, et columna y temperaturam mixturae. Haec quidem in tabula prima talis exhibetur, qualem eam post singula minuta observavi, ibique, numero sub linea posito, temperatura vera designatur. In sequentibus tabulis, brevitatis gratia, nonnisi temperaturae, quas veras esse judicavi, exponuntur. In ultima columna per 2-x-z-p (significante z numerum graduum absolutorum infra punctum congelationis, x capacitate nivis, posita capacitate aquae = 1) repraesentatur quantitas caloris, quae nivi temperaturae addenda est, ut haec in aquam O graduum abeat, et quae quidem compu

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Infimum columnae primae locum occupat medius numerus graduum nivis secundum experimenta singularum tabularum respondet mediae caloris quantitati sub linea columnae ultimae positae.

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TABULA II:DA

Experimenta sistens, cum nive, temperaturarum inter - 1 et 2 gradum, facta.

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Experimenta sistens, cum nive, temperaturarum inter 2 et 3 gradum, facta.

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