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Or if serving a An apprentice who serves a certificated master under certificate man by assignment. an assignment does not thereby acquire a settlement, any

more than if he had been bound originally to him. (1) Or if original And if originally bound to a certificated man, he does ficated assigns not acquire one by serving part of his apprenticeship, him to an inhabitant of

under a regular assignment, to an uncertificated inhabitant that parish,

of the parish. (2) For the 12 Anne, stat. 1. c. 18. having expressly provided that persons bound apprentices to certificated men should not, by virtue of such apprenticeship, indenture, or binding, gain a settlement in such parish, it is necessary that the binding should be such as would be capable of conferring a settlement by service under the original master in that place, otherwise no settlement can be gained there by virtue thereof. For the legislature intended, that no act whatever of this sort by a certificated man should help to bind the parish. (3) Neither can one, originally bound into a certificated parish, gain a settlement by subsequent residence there, while his master resides in a third parish, provided the certificate is not abandoned. (4)

Wherever

But wherever the master is not protected in his resimaster can gain settlement dence by the certificate, his apprentice or servant may his apprentice acquire settlements by service in their respective capacities. may.

An apprentice is, therefore, settled by residence in a parish to which the certificate does not extend (5), or by serving an uncertificated person residing in such parish under an assignment. (6) So he may acquire one in the certificated parish where the master has received a certificate, but not delivered it, if he reside forty days previous to the delivery (7); for the master might have gained one during that period. (8) But if his master receives and delivers a

(1) Romsey v. St. Michael, ante, 177.(7).
(2) Rex v. Hinckley, 4 Term Rep. 371.
(3) Per Lord Kenyon C. J., Ibid.
(4) Rex v. Spotland, Burr, S. C. 527.
(5) Rex v. Bishopside, Burr. S.C. 581. Rex v. Spotland, supra.
(6) Rex v. Petham, Burr. S. C. 154.
(7) Rex v. Wensley, 5 Term Rep. 154. ante, 173. (4).
(3) Rex v. Clissthydon, Burr. S. C. 151.

certificate before the service of forty days is complete, the apprentice cannot acquire a settlement afterwards, for he is under an absolute disability of gaining one, unless he is bound, and serve forty days to a man who did not come into or reside, during that time, in the parish by means or licence of a certificate. (1)

But so soon as the certificate is discharged, either as to the master (2), or specially as to the apprentice, he may acquire a settlement in the same manner as any other person might. (3)

Part II. Sect. V.

Of the Continuance and Determination of a Certificate.

A CERTIFICATE may be discharged altogether as to the Certificate entire family, or continued as to part, and determined as

discharged in

part. to the remainder. (4)

This may be effected in various ways.

How dis

charged. 1st, By a removal of the pauper by the certificated pa- 1st. By an orrish, to that which granted the certificate (5), or by a third der of removal. parish, either removing him thither (6), or to that to which

(1) St. Cuthbert's v. Westbury, Burr. S. C. 470.

(2) Rex v. Birdham, Cald. 500. Rex v. St. Peter's in Derby, 1 Term Rep. 218., when the certificate was discharged by the master's obtaining one to another parish,

(3) Rex v. Weddington, Burr. S. C.766. Here the indentures were discharged, and the apprentice went and served another master under other indentures in a third parish for four years, after which he served two years under indentures in the certificated parish, and was also hired for and served a year there. See ante, 177. (4), (5).

(4) Rex v. Heath, 5 Term Rep. 583. Rex v. Keel, and several cases there cited, post, 184.

(5) Rex v. Sudbury, Burr. S. C. 373. (6) Rex v. Birdham, Cald. 500.

the certificate was given (1), if there is no appeal against the order.

2. A new certificate.

2d, By granting a new certificate to another parish. (2)

3. Abandonment.

3d, By the pauper's voluntary deserting the certificate by removing from the parish to which it was granted, and taking up his residence either in the certifying parish, or elsewhere, without an intention to return thither.

Abandonment defined.

This principle is stated so clearly by Lord Kenyon C.J. as to reduce the point to a mere question of fact, to be decided by the justices upon proof of the party's intention.

In 1754, the pauper's father went to reside in St. Michael's, under a certificate, and continued there until 1757, when he returned to the certifying parish with his family, where the pauper was born. In two years he returned with his family to St. Michael's, and after residing there eight years, went back with them to the certifying parish. Three years afterwards he returned again to St. Michael's, where the pauper was bound apprentice to him, and having dwelt there with his family six years, he resided for another year in different parishes, and then went back with his family to St. Michael's, where the pauper resided under his indentures

for a year.

Lord Kenyon C. J. “ It was at length settled in Rex v. Newington (3), that a voluntary removal from the certified parish (not indeed for a temporary purpose only, but where, as Lord Mansfield said, the residence there is permanently at an end,') will put an end to the certificate. A mere temporary removal I understand to be, where the person goes from the certificated parish, to make a visit

(1) Rex v. Ealing, Cald. 472.

(2) Per Lord Mansfield, Rex v, Birdham, Cald. 500. Rex v. St. Peter's in Derby, 1 Term Rep. 218. S.P.

(3) Post, 184.(3)

.

elsewhere, or on occasional business, leaving his family behind him in that parish, as being the place of his domicile. (1) But in this case, the pauper's father went, taking all his family with him, to the certificating parish, where he took a house, and resided for two years; he afterwards went back to the certificated parish, and again returned to the parish by which the certificate was granted, where he continued

(1) T.M. went, in 1736, to reside in All Saints under a certificate from Darlington. While he resided there, his son Thomas was born, who, after having been hired and served for a year in a third parish, returned to All Saints, where he married, and lived until his death. His son the pauper, was born there, who, when of the age of 14, hired himself to live with B. in All Saints for three years. The grandfather T. M. returned to Darlington with his wife some time before the pauper's service with B., leaving his son Thomas with his family, among whom was the pauper, behind him, and both T. M. and his wife died at Darlington. Lord Kenyon C. J. “In this case, two questions are made, ist, whether, by the grandfather's return to Darlington, there was an end of the certificate? I am strongly inclined to think it was not an abandonment. If all the family had indeed been removed back, that would have been an abandonment; but as his son was left behind, it was a sort of pledge, that the certificate was not intended to be abandoned. It is not necessary, however, to determine upon that point, because, on the other question, I am prepared to give a decisive opinion.” But Mr. J. Buller thought, " that the certificate was at an end by the grandfather's return; it was originally granted to him. The man to whom the certificate was granted, is the person whom the legislature had in view; and being granted to him according to the statute, it rightly includes his family; but his family are“ those only who live with him.” And as it happens in the course of time, that some of the children separate from the father, if the father himself return to the parish granting the certificate, I think that the certificate is at an end as to all of them.” Rex v. Darlington, 4 Term Rep. 797. In this case the son had ceased to be part of his father's family, having married and become the head of a distinct one. He had also gained a settlement in a third parish by hiring and service.

A certificate to K. was granted to a father who died there, after which his son, who was named in the certificate, continued to reside in K. But his daughter, when seven years old, returned to the certifying pa. rish, where she dwelt for eleven years, the last three or four of which were passed in service, she twice went back to her brother at K. The certificate was held not to be abandoned as to her. Lord Mansfield being at first of opinion that it was. Rex v. Keel, post, 185. In Rex v. Heath, 5 Term Rep. 583., Lord Kenyon intimates that “ Lord Mansfield's first thoughts were best.” See post, 184. (3).

three

years more, making the last parish the place of his permanent residence. On the ground therefore that he left the parish of St. Michael's (the certificated parish) not for a temporary purpose only, but with a view of making the certificating parish the place of his permanent residence, and not being able to distinguish this case from that of Rex v. Newington, which I wish to adopt in its fullest extent, I am of opinion, that the certificate granted to the pauper's father was discharged.” (1)

It had been previously decided, that a certificate was discharged, where the object of it had returned with his family to the certifying parish, and remained there eighteen years, he then went back to the certificated parish, to take possession of the effects of a deceased relation, and died there in six months (2); as it was also where one removed with his whole family into a third parish, and having remained two years, went from thence with his whole family into a fourth, in which he dwelt four years, and died. For in these cases the paupers having left the certificated parish without any intention of returning, their certificates were discharged. (3)

4. Gaining a new settlement.

4th, A certificate is discharged by the party's gaining a settlement in another parish (4), although it is consolidated for the maintenance of the poor with the certificated parish. (5)

It seems, however, that this rule does not extend to acts

(1) Per Lord Kenyon C. J., Rex v. St. Michael's in Coventry, 5 Term Rep. 526.

(2) Rex v. Frampton upon Severn, Doug. 417.

(3) Rex v. Newington, i Terin Rep. 354. Also Rex v. Taunton St. Mary Magdalen, Burr. S. C. 402., where the pauper returned with his whole family to the certifying parish, and died there without going back to the parish which received him under the certificate. Rex v. Keel, Cald. 144., seems in some degree to contradict the authority of what is here laid down. But see the opinion of Lord Kenyon C. J. upon that case, Rex v. Heath, 5 Term Rep. 583.

(4) Rex v. Great Torrington, Burr. S C. 428. Rex v. Keynsham Ib. 429. Harrison v. Lewis, 3 Salk. 253.

(5) Rex v. Wymondham, 6 Term Rep. 552.

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