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are the admiration of all strangers, and the forests abound with woods, both cabinet and building, of great beauty and durability, which are unknown in Europe even by name. Medicinal plants

also grow in great profusion.

Among the hard and durable woods, may be named the ñandubay, which, buried in the earth, becomes petrified; the urunday, the lapacho, the viraro, the coronilla, the espinello, the quebracho, the arazá, the algarroba, the guayaco or lignum vitæ; and among the softer and less durable, may be mentioned the willow, the amarillo, the acacia, the ceibo. Many others of equal value might. be named, for the species and varieties are almost innumerable. In Paysandú, Minas, and Maldonado, palm trees abound, and in Rocha and on the upper Uruguay, immense groves of these trees are found. Almost everyone is familiar with the many uses to which this most valuable of trees is put, its fruit, bark, juice, pith, and leaves lending themselves to the sustenance or industry of man. The poplar, the pine, the cypress, the oak, the eucalyptus,. the cedar, the magnolia, and the mulberry have been successfully acclimated.

Among the medicinal plants found in the country, are schinus,. gigueron, the quinquina, the dragon's blood, the guaicum, the ysican, and others more or less known to the pharmacopeia. The bark of the schinus, the algarrobo, and the guaviyú are used in tanning, and from the leaves a black dye is prepared. The curupé and coronilla are valuable dyewoods; the batamá yields a rosecolored dye used in dyeing wools. Indigo grows wild in certain districts, and the hyssop and nopal are found in some regions.

The yerba mate, so important a plant in Paraguay, abounds also in its sister Republic, being indigenous in Minas, Tucuarembó, Maldonado, and Cerro Largo.

In the "Herbarium" of Dr. Francisco Salazar, and the "Flora del Uruguay" of Dr. Sobrón, 430 species of medicinal plants are


Bull. 61 4

Among the cereals, wheat is the most extensively grown, yielding sometimes 30 bushels for 1 sown, and next comes Indian corn, producing 300 for one, and barley, which gives 18 to 36 for 1.

All the species and varieties of garden products thrive, as beans, peas, potatoes, lentils, sweet potatoes, carrots, radishes, melons, etc., and several varieties of berries produce abundantly. Alfalfa, the clover of the south, grows luxuriantly and is exported to some extent to Brazil.

Linseed, hemp, tobacco, and saffron are produced to some extent. Mention has already been made of the number of the principal domestic animals of Uruguay, and it needs only to be said that the facilities for the raising of these can not be surpassed elsewhere, since nowhere else exist superior conditions of climate, pasturage, and water. The horse, cow, sheep, and pig were introduced by the early Spanish conquerors. The merino sheep was imported in 1833, and later the Saxon, Negretti, and Rambouillet. The Angora goat was brought to the country in 1834.

Among the wild animals, are deer of several kinds, the otter, the wild boar, the carpincho, the ounce, the wildcat, the fox, the ant-eater, and the capivara.

The feathered tribe is almost innumerable, over 500 species being known. Among them, the stork, the crane, the wild turkey, and swan are the most notable of the larger birds, and the magpie, woodpecker, spoonbill, grouse, duck, partridge, pigeon, parrot, parroquet, kingfisher, and many varieties of humming birds are representatives of the smaller kinds. Among the song birds, the linnet, the lark, the goldfinch, the thrush, and the turtle dove may be named; and among the birds of prey, the most conspicuous are the eagle, the hawk, the falcon, the crow, the vulture, and several varieties of owls. All the domestic fowls have their representatives here.

Thirty species of reptiles are known to exist in the country, among them lizards, vipers and other snakes, and tortoises.

Fourteen species of mollusks are found and seven of crustaceous animals. The oyster, introduced from Brazil, thrives along the coast; periwinkles, cockles, and crabs abound. Thousands of tons of fish are annually sent from Montevideo to Buenos Aires. About 130 species of salt and fresh-water fish are enumerated. Among the former, the brotola, the conger, and the kingfish are most esteemed. From the rivers, are taken bagre, shad, goldfish, cavalla, eels, and fish of immense size called monguruyó and pati, which are peculiar to the country.

The hills of Uruguay are undoubtedly rich in most of the valuable minerals. Apart from the fabulous stories of abundant deposits of gold, silver, and diamonds, whose falsity has been proved, enough is surely known to substantiate the claim that the Republic is one of the most favored of countries in mineral as well as in agricultural resources. Among the metals, gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, and mercury are found. The inspector-general of mines reports a yield in 1890 from two mines of $72,449, and this with limited means for the extraction of the metal.

A lead mine has been discovered in the Department of Minas. The mineralogist Petivenit found gold, topaz, and diamonds in the bed of the San Francisco, in the same Department. Amethysts and agates are found in the northern districts, and exported to Europe to be used in the manufacture of jewelry.

Mr. Lettsom, late British Minister at Montevideo, discovered agates and marbles of several varieties, slate, alum, asphalt, gypsum, and cobalt. The same gentleman states that the silver ores of the country yield 87 per cent of metal; copper ore, 56 per cent; and magnetic iron, 72 per cent. The average yield of gold per ton of auriferous quartz from three distinct districts, in 1886, was 22.6 grams.

Limestone is abundant in Minas, Maldonado, and Florida, and marble in several Departments, as has been mentioned in the descriptions of them.

No coal mines are worked in the Republic, but deposits of this mineral are said to exist in Cerro Largo and Maldonado.

The climate of Uruguay is mild and healthful, the usual range of the thermometer being from 32° to 88° F. On the table lands, frosts occur in July and August, and in the lowlands, the temperature sometimes rises to or above 100° in February. The rainfall is abundant in all seasons, but is greatest in May and October. The little snow that falls on rare occasions rapidly disappears. The prevailing winds are from the north, northeast, east, and


Endemic diseases are almost unknown and epidemics are very The hardy race that peoples the interior has seldom need


of the physician or his medicines.

Chapter VI.


The population of the Banda Oriental in the year 1769, is supposed to have been about 31,000 souls. At the time of the declaration of independence, the number was put at 74,000. A census taken in 1852, gave 131,969 inhabitants, and in 1860, a second census showed 229,480 people. In 1879, the population was 438,245.

From 1882 to 1892, the following estimates have been published by the Uruguayan Bureau of Statistics:

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The proportion in 1891 between the foreign and the native elements was 70 per cent for the latter and 30 per cent for the former. The density of the population is about 4 inhabitants per square kilometer.

The increase of the population, apart from immigration, is remarkable, as is shown by the following official statistics:

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According to these figures, the average increase of the population, apart from immigration, during ten years, from 1883 to

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