The Genealogy of Disjunction
Oxford University Press, 10.11.1994 - 360 sivua
This is a comprehensive study of the English word or, and the logical operators variously proposed to present its meaning. Although there are indisputably disjunctive uses of or in English, it is a mistake to suppose that logical disjunction represents its core meaning. Or is descended from the Anglo-Saxon word meaning second, a form which survives in such expressions as "every other day." Its disjunctive uses arise through metalinguistic applications of an intermediate adverbial meaning which is conjunctive rather than disjunctive in character. These conjunctive uses have puzzled philosophers and logicians, and have been discussed extensively under such headings as "free choice permission." This study examines the textbook myths that have clouded our understanding of how or and other "logical" vocabulary comes to have something approaching its logical meaning in natural languages. It considers the various historical conceptions of disjunction and its place in logic from the Stoics to the present day.
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PART 2 ORPHAN ANY
PART 3 FUNNY VELENTINE
The Evidence of Empirical Research
Index of Names
Index of Subjects
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accept adverbial alternand alternative anaphoric and-lists argument assertion C(ml claim clause coffee conditional sentence conjunctive reading conjunctively distributive connective Consider construal construction context contributes conversationally interchangeable deontic logic discourse discourse-adverbial disjunction is true disjunctively distributive distinction distributive or-lists distributive properties English environments equivalent example exclusive disjunction exclusive sense explanation expression fact false first-order logic fitou formal function grammatical heavier idiom if-clause implicature implies inclusive inference instances Jennifer Jules junctive Latin least linguistic logicians Mary matter meaning modal natural language negation notion noun phrase occurrence particular permission philosophical possible predicate preference propositional calculus propositional conjunction propositional disjunction propositional logic puzzle quantifier question represent representation require scope seems semantic shiitakes sometimes sort statement Stoic substitution suggest surprised than-scope then-clause things tion tive truth conditions truth-functional undemonstrable understanding understood undistributive universal quantifier valid verb vocabulary whole sentences word yawl
Sivu 281 - Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also His coat : now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be : that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted My raiment among them, and for My vesture they did cast lots.
Sivu 281 - AND when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples, saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me. And if any man say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them ; and straightway he will send them.
Sivu 311 - I HAVE met them at close of day Coming with vivid faces From counter or desk among grey Eighteenth-century houses. I have passed with a nod of the head Or polite meaningless words, Or have lingered awhile and said Polite meaningless words, And thought before I had done Of a mocking tale or a gibe To please a companion Around the fire at the club, Being certain that they and I But lived where motley is worn: All changed, changed utterly: A terrible beauty is born.
Sivu 314 - There is shadow under this red rock, (Come in under the shadow of this red rock), And I will show you something different from either Your shadow at morning striding behind you Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you; I will show you fear in a handful of dust. Frisch weht der Wind Der Heimat zu, Mein Irisch Kind, Wo weilest du? "You gave me hyacinths first a year ago; They called me the hyacinth girl.
Sivu 281 - After this, JESUS knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
Sivu 281 - All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the fole of an ass.
Sivu 41 - There are countless kinds: countless different kinds of use of what we call "symbols," "words," "sentences." And this multiplicity is not something fixed, given once for all; but new types of language, new language-games, as we may say, come into existence, and others become obsolete and get forgotten. (We can get a rough picture of this from the changes in mathematics.) Here the term "language-game...
Sivu 228 - Most gracious Queen, we thee implore To go away and sin no more; But, if that effort be too great, To go away at any rate.