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lish the worship of images. Henry IV. Emperor of Germany, was deposed and excommunicated in the eleventh century, by Pope Hildebrand II.“ Under that young and ambitious priest, Innocent III. the successors of St. Peter attained the full meridian of their greatness; and in a reign of eighteen years he exercised a despotic command over the Emperors and Kings, whom he raised and deposed; over the nations, whom an interdict of months or years deprived, for the offence of their rulers, of the exercise of Christian worship. In the Council of the Lateran, he acted as the ecclesiastical, almost as the temporal fovereign of the East and West. It was at the feet of his Legate that John, King of England, surrendered his crown; and Innocent may boast of the two most signal triumphs over sense and humanity, the establishment of transubstantiation ?, and the origin of the Inquisition. At his voice, two crusades, the fourth and the fifth, were undertaken a.” In the fame century b, in

. 2 About the year 931, Paschasius Radbertus first maintained the real presence in the Sacrament.

a Gibbon, vol. vi. p. 109.
o Whitaker, p. 241.

which the same historian fays, that “ Charles the fourth received the gift or promise of the empire from the Roman pontiff, who, in the exile or captivity of Avignon, affected the dominion of the earth,” the Monkish missionaries kept the Papal banner Aying in China ; and Pope Benedict XII. received a solemn embassy from the Khan of the Tartars. In the next age, Alexander IV. gave a rare specimen of Papal presumption, in dividing America between the Portuguese and Spaniards. “ In the seventeenth century, Alphonso Mendez, the Catholic Patriarch of Ethiopia, accepted, in the name of Urban VIII. the homage of the Emperor of Abyssinia and his court-I confess, said the Emperor on his knees, that the Pope is the Vicar of Chrift, the Successor of St. Peter, and the Sovereign of the world: to him I swear true obedience, and at his feet I offer my person and kingdom,”

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· And to show the high prerogatives to which the Church of Rome holds itself intitled, we have only to appeal to their own writers for authentic proofs. Cardinal Bel

< Babylon in the Revelation of St. John, by Townlon, p. 9.

C3 , larmine, larmine, when treating of the Roman Pontiffs, tells us that they must peculiarly well understand the authority of their own See. Let us therefore hear them speak from their apostolical chair.

“ He who reigneth on high, to whom all power is given in heaven and in earth, hath committed the one holy Catholic and Apostolical Church, out of which there is no falvation, to be governed with plenitude of power by one only on earth; namely, by Peter the prince of the Apostles, and by the successor of Peter, the Roman Pontiff. This one he hath constituted a prince over all nations, and all kingdoms; to pluck up, waste, destroy, plant, and build.

These are the words of Pope Pius V. in his Bulld against Queen Elizabeth; towards the conclusion of which, “ Supported,” he says, “ by the authority of him who hath seen fit to place him, howeyer unequal to so great a charge, in this fupreme throne of justice, he declares, in

• This Bull may be seen at length in Camden's Annals of Queen Elizabeth, under the year 1570, and in · Burnet's Hift. of the Reformation, vol. ii. Collection of Records, p. 377.


the plenitude of his Apostolical authority, the said Elizabeth laid under a sentence of Anathema, deprived of all right and title to her kingdom, her subjects absolved from all oaths of allegiance to her, and those who obey her, involved in the like sentence of Anathema.”

The See of Rome, as it was rising to this plenitude of power, endeavoured to support itself by every appeal to the peculiar favour of heaven. Many of the Popes confirmed their authority by the pretended evidence of ghosts, and of persons affirmed to be risen from the dead.Such is the exact conduct of him who was predicted to come after the working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with' all deceivableness of unrighteousness, who deceiveth them that dwell in the earth, by means of those miracles which he had power to do : The Papal Sce has laid claim to the power of working miracles, as to one of the marks of the true church, and persuaded the credulous and the superstitious of the dark ages, to allow its pretensions. The history of Italy, France,

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Spain, and Portugal, more especially countries the most devoted to the interests of the sovereign Ponțiffs--can abundantly prove the frequency and the extent of pious frauds. The Legends of the Roman saints are filled with accounts of miracles reported to have been wrought for the establishment of corrupt doctrines, and idolatrous wor


“ It is observable, that the Man of Sin is said to perform his miracles, in the fight of Men in order to deceive them, and in the fight of the beast in order to serve him: but not in the fight of God to serve his cause, or promote his religion. Now miracles, visions, and revelations, are the mighty boast of the church of Rome; the contrivances of an artful cunning clergy, to impofe upon an ignorant credulous laity. Even fire is pretended to come down from heaven, as in the case of St. Anthony's fire, and other instances cited by Brightman", and other writers on the Revelation; and in solemn excommunications, which are called the thunders of the church, and are performed with the ceremony of casting

Vịde Brightman, et Poli Synops. in locum.


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