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and then they worship him ; as in the mea dals of Martin V. where two are represented crowning the Pope, and two kneeling before him with this inscription, Quem creant, adorant--whom they create, they adore °.” Can any one be a spectator of this impious ceremony, and not be struck by the appearance of the Man of Sin who exalteth himself, and as God fitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God P?

Among the Catholics, Cardinal Orsi says, there is no one who dares deny, or can deny, that Jesus Christ has instituted a monarchy, or form of monarchical government in his church, and that the supreme head of this monarchy is the Roman Pontiff 9." This is declared with great foa lemnity from the portico of St. Peter's Church, in the presence of a numerous af- ' sembly at the coronation of a Pope; when a Cardinal Deacon having taken the mitre from his head, another places on it the triple crown, and says, “ Receive this Tiara adorned with three crowns; and know that thou art Father of Princes and Kings,

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Governor of the Globe of the Earth, Vicegerent of our Saviour Jesus Christ.”

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With such pretensions to more than mortal honours, agrees the language of Gregory II. addressed in his Epistle to the Emperor Leo, in the eighth century, which will show how foon the sovereign Pontiff began to exalt himself, even when affecting a style of humility—" Are you ignorant that the Popes are the bond of union, the mediators of peace, between the East and the West? The eyes of the nations are fixed on our humility; and they revere as a God upon earth, the Apostle St. Peter, whose image you threaten to destroy. The remote and interior kingdoms of the West present their homage to Christ and his Vicegerent"." Similar were the presumptuous, or rather blafphemous appellations either claimed or approved by his successors. In: nocent III. asserted that the Popes held on earth the place not of mere men, but of the true God. Martin V. in the instructions which he gave to the ambassadors whom he sent to Constantinople, styled himself the Most Holy, and the Most Blessed,

Gibbon, vol. v. p. 107a


who has the celestial empire, who is Lord upon Earth, Succeffor of St. Peter, the Christ of the Lord, the Master of the Universe, the Father of Kings, and the light of the world. An Archbishop thus addressed Leo X.-“ All power is given unto you, and he who said all, excepted nothing.” This Pope suffered himself to be styled Divine Majesty. Paul V. allowed himself to be called Vice-God, and received the prophetic language of Jeremiah and Daniel as applicable to himselfs. Thus the authority with which for many centuries the Popes claimed the disposal of the dominion of the earth, the obedience which they required to their decrees, and the exalted and impious titles which they assumed 'or authorized, demonstrate the full establishment of the predicted universal empire. Modern like antient Rome kept the world in subjection to its laws: it devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet.

But where, it may be asked, are any traces to be found in the Prophecies, of those peculiar institutions and practices which have distinguished the Church of

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s Jerem. xxvii. 8. Dan. vii. 14.

· Rome

Rome fo very remarkably from all others ---the Celibacy of her clergythe institution of ber Fasts--and the Spirit of Perfecution, that has fo often drawn the sword against the more pure professors of the Gospel ?

Now the Spirit Speaketh expressly, that in the latter times fome Mall depart from the faith, FORBIDDING TO MARRY, AND COM MANDING TO ABSTAIN FROM MEATS, which God bath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truthi

Had the great Apostle of the Gentiles beheld, in the ages that succeeded his own, the fects of Encratites and Apoftolici“, who observed the most rigid abstinence, and condemned marriage as an unholy stateHad he seen the numerous monks, who, forming the different classes of Cænobites, and Anachorets *, devoted themselves to a recluse life, and gradually overflowed like a torrent, first the Greek, and afterwards the Latin Church-And if he had lived to see

* 1 Tim. iv. i, 3. u Molheim, voli i. p. 619. * Gibbon, vol. iii. p. 523. VOL. II.



all Europe covered with religious houses y, and those houses peopled with nuns and friars of all denominations, who, in common with the Popish laity, preserved during Lent, and at other times, the injunctions of the sovereign Pontiff, to abstain from flesh-The great Apostle might have drawn a more full picture; but he could not have given a more striking sketch by a few masterly strokes, than he has done.

.,“ We learn from Mosheim, that the great work ascribed to the monastic orders, the support of the Papal authority, was more especially performed by two mendicant classes of Monks. The power of the Dominicans and Franciscans surpassed greatly that of the other two orders, and rendered them fingularly conspicuous in the eyes of the world. During three centuries these two fraternities governed, with an almost universal and abfolute fway, both

y Motheim, vol. ii. p. 9.

2 The Prophecy concerning the establishment of the monastic orders, strikes with the greater force, when we recollect that those orders were the great supports of the Papal authority.


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