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the Pope, as soon as he received the news, appointed public thanksgiving, and Te Deum was fung for joy in the church of St. Louis. He, moreover, published a bull of pardons, and extraordinary indulgences to such as Should pray for the heavenly assistance to the king and kingdom of France for rooting out beretics. The king, archbishops, bishops, clergy, and nobles too, went in public procesfion, singing the praises of God for this bloody and diabolical transačtion?..

And yet whilst the Man of Sin was thus exalting himself, and pursuing his career of ambition and persecution, the Providence of God raised up witnesses of the truth in every age, who in a public manner tes, tified against the general corruptions of the church, its idolatrous doctrines, and super- . stitious practices m. The patience and the faith of the saints were to be conspicuous during the whole time that the witnesses prophesied in fackcloth--for neither the menaces nor the punishments of the Church of Rome abated their courage, or extinguished their zeal. In the tenth and ele,

1 Simpson, p. 348–353.

Lowman, p. 207:

venth centuries, Claude Clement Bishop of Turin, Ratramne a Monk of Corbie, John Scott, and Berenger, who was favoured by Bishop Bruno, opposed the wor{hip of images, and the doctrine of the real presence of Christ in the Sacrament". Peter Fitz Cassiodor, Michael Cæsenas, William Occam, and Marsilius a celebrated lawyer of Padua, exposed the various heresies and errors of the Church of Rome, its pride, avarice, tyranny, and exactions. Du Pin observes, whose testimony is the more remarkable as he is a Popish Historiano, “ that in the twelfth age there were many hereticks in many places, who openly attacked the sacraments of the church, and despised her most holy ceremonies : that the severity, with which they who were taken were punished, did not hinder the feet from increasing : that their doctrines spread through all the kingdom of France: many heretics appeared, whose chief view was to dissuade men from communion with the church in its sacraments, and to overturn its hierarchy, order, and discipline."

» Newton; vol. iii. p. 182. • Lowman, p. 208.


The thirteenth century was more par. ticularly distinguished by the victory gained over the fuperstitions of the Church of Rome, by the Waldenses and Albigenses. « PDriven from their own country on account of their religious opinions, they fled for refuge into foreign lands, some into Germany, and some into Britain. Pope Innocent III. determined to put a stop to their zealous exertions, and he not only appointed his Legates to preach against them, but excited the secular princes and the common people to destroy them. He published a Croisade against them, which occafioned a long war between Montfort, General of the Cross-Bearers,' and the Count of Thouloufe, in which much blood was spilt, and many lives were sacrificed. But notwithstanding the rage of the Man of Sin fo furiously directed against them, they . grew and multiplied fo fast in Germany that at the beginning of the thirteenth century, it is computed that there were

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· Newton, vol. iii. p. 183. For an account of their particular opinions see the testimonies of their enemies, quoted by Lowmang. p. 211. See likewise Gibbong c. liv. p. 535. .

9 Lowman, p. 208.
• Newton, vol. jii. p. 184.

80,000 of them in Bohemia, Austria, and the neighbouring territories, and they pertinaciously defended their doctrines even unto death.” In the fourteenth century John Wickliff, a man of distinguished reputation in the University of Oxford, began in England to oppose the authority of the Pope, as well as many of his corruptions and errors. Among his most eminent followers were John Huss, and Jerom of Prague, persons of great consideration in the University of that place-William Sawtre, parish priest of St. Ofith, in London-Thomas Badby, and Sir John Oldcastle. These all suffered death as heretics.-In them was manifest the patience of the saints: here are they that kept the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus!

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The number of these faithful witnesses*

• Newton, vol. iii. p. 184. ? Rev. xiv. 12.

u Lowman, p. 212. For a more particular account of the actions and sufferings of these witnesses, or mar. tyrs, fee Flaccius Illyricus, the Centuriators of Magdeburg, Usher, Allix, Spanheim, and other authors. * Newton, vol. iii. p. 197.


continued to increase, although every engine of oppression and persecution was raised against them; for it was granted to 'the beast for a certain appointed time, to make war with the saints and to overcome them ; and even to be drunk with the blood of the saints. They arose in every age of the church, and appeared in almost every country; more particularly in Italy, France, Spain, England, Germany, and Bohemia. The many thousands that were destroyed by the armies brought against them, and · by the Inquisition, are sufficient evidences

of their great numbers. They boldly protested against the corruptions of the Church of Rome, and having witnessed a good confession of the true faith, fell victims to her bloody spirit of persecution, “The assemblies of the Paulicians, or Albigeois, were extirpated by fire and sword, and the bleeding remnant escaped by flight, concealment, or Catholic conformity. But the invincible spirit which they kindled still lived and breathed in the western world. In the state, in the church, and even in the cloister, a latent succession was preserved of the disciples of St. Paul; who protested against the tyranny of Rome, embraced the Bible as the rule of faith, and purified their


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