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viously poured into a basin; but the servant pours water from a pitcher upon the hands of his master. The custom of washing hands before dinner prevails also to this day. The servant goes round to all the guests, with a pitcher, and a vessel to receive the water falling from the hands, and performs the office here attributed to Elisha. The same service is repeated when the repast is ended.”—HARTLEY's Researches, pp. 211, 212.

" It is well known that we have an officer among ourselves, who, at the coronation, and formerly at all public festivals, held a basin of water for the king to wash his hands in after dinner ; but it is not equally well known, that Cardinal Wolsey one time, when the Duke of Buckingham held the basin for Henry VIII., after the king had washed, put his own hand into the basin; the duke resenting this intrusion, let some of the water fall on the habit of the cardinal, who never forgave the action, but brought the duke to the block in consequence of his resentment.” — CALMET.

CEREMONIAL WASHINGS. Bruce tells us of a sect of Christians in Abyssinia, who “wash themselves from head to foot after coming from market, or any public place where they may have touched any one of a sect different from their own, esteeming all such unclean.”

These people remind us of the description of the Pharisees given by St. Mark, and like them, they neglect “ the weightier matters of the law,” esteeming, for instance, attendance on divine worship or prayer of any sort unnecessary.

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WASHING THE FEET.

Gen. xviii. 4. “ Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, and wash your feet...."

xix. 2. And (Lot) said,...turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet....”

GEN. xxiv. 32. " And the man came into the house :...... and (Laban) gave water to wash his feet, and the men's feet that were with him.” (xliii. 24.)

2 Sam. xi. 8. “ And David said to Uriah, Go down to thy house, and wash thy feet.”

CANT. v. 3. “ I have washed my feet; how shall I defile them ?

LUKE vii. 44. “ And (Jesus) turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman ? I entered into thine house, thou gavest me no water for my feet : but she hath washed my feet with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head.”

John xiii. 4-8. “ (Jesus) riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel and girded himself. After that he poureth water into a basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded. Then cometh he to Simon Peter; and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? Jesus answered and said unto him, what I do thou knowest not now ; but thou shalt know hereafter. Peter saith unto him, thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me.

1 Tim. v. 10. “... If she have washed the saints feet.”

In the East, where only sandals are worn on the feet, and where the heat and dust render walking painful, to wash the feet on entering any dwelling, is the greatest luxury; and, consequently, water is one of the first things presented to a guest. The following passage is from the journal of Mr. Jowett :

“ October 1st. -Went with Mr. Lewis to Deir el Kamr, which may be called the capital of Mount Lebanon. The journey took us nine very hot and tedious hours.... We arrived at sunset. ... We had a letter to a very respectable man in the town, and had an enthusiastic welcome from his family. Before supper, the master of the house directed the servant to bring in a large brass pan, full of warm water, in which, for the first, and indeed the only, time that I ever experienced such attention, he illustrated the ancient custom of washing the feet of strangers, and no compliment could have been more seasonable.”—JOWETT's Researches in Syria, pp. 78, 79.

“ (Ramleh).—Our youthful host now proposed, in the genuine style of ancient oriental hospitality, that a servant should wash our feet. This took me by surprise ; for I was not aware that the custom still existed here.... We gladly accepted the proposal, both for the sake of the refreshment and of the scriptural illustration. A female Nubian slave accordingly brought water, which she poured upon our feet over a large shallow basin of tinned copper; kneeling before us, and rubbing our feet with her hands, and wiping them with a napkin,”-ROBINson's Researches, vol. iii. p. 26.

“... A slave in my bed-room washed my feet. I was struck with the degree of abasement expressed in the act, and as he held the foot in the towel, with his head bowed down towards it, I remembered the condescension of the blessed Lord. May I have grace to follow such humility!”Life of Henry Martyn, p. 137.

CHAPTER XII.

ARTS AND COMMON OCCUPATIONS OF LIFE.

DYEING AND TANNING-MANUFACTORY OF WATER-SKINS AT HEBRON-SPINNING, WEAVING, NEEDLEWORK, AND EMBROIDERY -NEEDLE USED BY CAMEL-DRIVERS — EASTERN POTTERS — FISHERMEN AND NETS.

DYEING AND TANNING.

Exodus, xxv. 5. “ Rams' skins dyed red....”

EZEKIEL, xxiii. 15. “...Dyed attire upon their heads...."

Acts, x. 6. “ He lodgeth with one Simon a tanner...."

“ The chief specimens of Bedouin industry are, the tanning of leather, the preparing of water-skins, the weaving of tents, sacks, and cloaks.... The women sew the water skins which the men have tanned.

“ Their method of dyeing and tanning is this. To render the camel's-skin yellow, they cover it with salt, which is left upon it for two or three days ; they then steep it in a liquid paste, made of barley-meal mixed with water, where it remains for seven days; then they wash the skin in fresh water, and clear it easily of the hair. Next, they take the peels of dry pomegranates,... pound them, and mix them with water; they let the

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