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him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. 16 Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him nn, Rabboni ; which is to say, Master. 17 Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father : but go to my ops.nxii. 22. brethren, and say unto them, 8 I ascend unto my Father, Heb.
g ch. xvi. 28. and your Father, and [o to] " my God, and your God. & Eph.li. 17.
h Eph. i. 17. 18 Mary Magdalene oo came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her. nn add, in the Hebrew tongue.
o omit. 00 render, cometh, bringing tidings to. to an unknown person. thou is em- permit Myself to be seen only for a purphatic. I will take him away] She pose connected with Mine Office, the conforgets her lack of strength for this, in the firmation of your faith. But when I shall overbearing force of her love. (Meyer.) have ascended to My Father, the time will
16.] With one word, and that one word come that thou mayst enjoy intercourse her name, the Lord awakens all the con- with the most perfect, not by earthly touch, sciousness of His presence : calling her in but by such as befits that place,-heavenly that tone doubtless in which her soul had and spiritual.” Grotius. With this my been so often summoned to receive divine view nearly agrees, not confining (as indeed knowledge and precious comfort.
neither does he) the latter enjoyment to She turned herself seems to imply that heaven itself, but understanding it to have she had not been looking full at Him begun here below. Leo the Great interbefore. Rabboni may mean either my prets very similarly : see in my Greek Test. Master,-or only Master; which last ap
but go ....) Stier remarks that pears to be the case here. That she this was a far greater honour than that gives way to no impassioned exclamations, which had been forbidden her ;-just as the but pours out her satisfaction and joy in handling of the Lord allowed to Thomas this one word, is also according to the was a far less thing than the not seeing and deepest psychological truth. There is an yet believing to my brethren By addition found in some of our copies, this term He testifies that He has not put “ and she rushed forward to touch Him :" off his humanity, nor his love for his own, this is an explanatory gloss to the words in his resurrection state: see Heb. ii. 11. “ Touch me not”—but doubtless it repre
my Father, and your Father] This sents what really was the fact. It was distinction, my ... and your .., when the former name, with which He called “ Our" seems so likely to have been said, her: His former appellation, in which she has been observed by all Commentators of replied ; and now she seeks to renew the any depth, as indicating an essential difformer intercourse.' (Luthardt.)
ference in the relations. Cyril of Jeru17.] The connexion between the prohibi. salem says, “My Father, by nature: your tion and its reason is difficult, and has Father, by adoption.” Similarly Augus. been very variously given. The sense seems tine; adding, “ Nor did He say Our to me to be connected with some gesture God :" wherefore here also is a difference of the nature alluded to in the addition in the relation. “My God, in subjection quoted above, but indicating that she be. to whom I am in my human nature, your lieved she had now gotten Him again, God, between whom and you I myself am never to be parted from Him. This ges. the Mediator.” So that the my is the ture He reproves as unsuited to the time, ground and source of the your : God is and the nature of His present appearance. His God, directly and properly : but our • Do not thus-for I am not yet restored God, through Him. And the words my finally to you in the body-I have yet to God indicate that He is still Man: see ascend to the Father.' This implies in the Eph. i. 3, and often in the epistles : 1 Cor. background another and truer touching, iii. 23: and especially Heb. ii. 11. In the when He should have ascended to the words I ascend is included His temporary Father. “ Thou desirest to touch Me, stay which He was now making with them Mary, and to enjoy friendly intercourse -I am ascending-i. e. *I am on my with Me: but that may not be now, for I way.'
11 Cor. iv.5. 19 ip Then the same day at evening, being the first day
of the week, 9 when the doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto
you. 20 And when he had so said, he shewed unto them k ch. ivi. 22. his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad,
when they saw the Lord. 21 Then said Jesus to them 1 ch. xvii. 18. again, Peace be unto you: 'as my Father hath sent me, 1. 2. Heb. even so send I you. 22 And when he had said this, he
P render When it was evening therefore, on that same day.
19-23.7 In the freedom of His spiri. Luke, ver. 39; 1 John i. 1, and below, tual and triumphant life, He appears ver. 25. 21.] Peace be unto you' to and commissions His own. Compare is solemnly repeated, as the introduction Luke xxiv. 36-49; Mark xvi. 14--18. of the sending which follows. The minis
19.] The circumstance of the doors ters and disciples of the Lord are mes. being shut is mentioned here and in ver. sengers of peace. This view is more na26, to indicate what sort of appearances tural than that of Euthymius, “ they were these were. Suddenly, unaccounted for by probably in excitement from their great any approach,-the Lord rendered himself joy, and He calms them, that they might visible to his disciples. Nor did this affect listen to what He was about to say.” the truth of that resurrection Body, any as my Father hath sent me] He confirms more than his occasionally withdrawing him and grounds their Apostleship on the preself from mortal sight affected the truth sent glorification of Himself, whose Apostleof His fleshly Body. Both were done by ship (Heb. iii. 1) on earth was now ended, that supernatural Power dwelling in Him, but was to be continued by this sending by which His other miracles were wrought. forth of them. This coinmission was not now It seems to have been the normal condition first given them, but now first fully assured of His fleshly Body, to be visible to mortal to them: and their sending forth by Him eyes :-of His risen Body, not to be. But their glorified Head, was to be, in character both these He could suspend when He and process, like that of Himself by the pleased, without affecting the substance Father. 22.] To understand this or truth of either. for fear of the verse as the outpouring of the Spirit, the Jews) This was natural enough ;- the fulfilment of the promise of the Comforter, bitter hatred of the Jews (both people and is against all consistency, and most against rulers) to their Master,- and His own pro- St. John himself :- see ch. xvi. 7, and ch. phetic announcements,- would raise in vii. 39. To understand it rightly, we have them a dread of incipient persecution now merely to recur to that great key to the that He was removed. came Jesus] meaning of so many dark passages of not, by ordinary approach ; nor through Scripture, the manifold and gradual unthe closed doors ;-nor in any visible man folding of promise and prophecy in their ner ;—but the word describes that unseen fulfilment. The presence of the Lord arrival among them which preceded His among them now was a slight and tembecoming visible to them. stood in porary fulfilment of His promise of re(literally, into) the midst] Compare Luke, turning to them; and so the imparting ver. 36. The into (see on ch. xxi. 4) de- of the Spirit now, was a symbol and forenotes the coming and standing, in one— taste of that which they should receive at the standing without motion thither, which Pentecost :- just as, to mount a step in ordinary cases would be standing as the higher, that itself, in its present abiding result of motion thither. Peace be with us, is but the firstfruits and pledge unto you] See on Luke ver. 36, and ch. (Rom. viii. 23. 2 Cor. i. 22) of the fulness xiv. 27. 20.] answers to Luke, ver. which we shall bereafter inherit. The 39. Then were the disciples glad] relation of this saying to the effusion of The first and partial fulfilment of ch. xvi. the Spirit is the same which chap. iii. 20-22: see notes there. The dis- bears to Baptism, chap. vi. to the Lord's ciples seem to have handled Him: see Supper, chap. xvii. 1 to the Ascension,
breathed on them; and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost : 23 m whose soever sins ye remit, they are m Matt. Iris remitted unto them; [s and] whose soever [* sins] ye retain, they are retained. 24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, "called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus n ch. xi. 16. came. 25 The other disciples therefore said unto him, We
& omit. &c.' (Luthardt.) Further: this giving Since this is so, they who are pre-eminently of the Spirit was not the Spirit's personal filled with His presence are pre-eminently imparting of Himself to them, but only a gifted with the discernment of sin and repartial instilling of His influence. He pentance in others, and hence by the Lord's proceeds forth in His work (as in His appointment authorized to pronounce par. essence) from the Father and the Son: don of sin and the contrary. The Apostles this breathing of His influence was an had this in an especial manner, and by the imparting of Him from the Son in His full indwelling of the Spirit were enabled risen Body, but that Body had not yet to discern the hearts of men, and to give been received up, without which union of sentence on that discernment: see Acts y. the God-manhood of the Son to the glory 1-11; viii. 21; xiii. 9. And this gift of the Father the Holy Spirit would not belongs to the Church in all ages, and es. come.
What was now conferred is pecially to those who by legitimate appointplain from our ver. 23-whereby autho- ment are set to minister in the Churches rity to discern spirits and pronounce on of Christ : not by successive delegation them is re-assured (see Matt. xviii. 18) from the Apostles,- of which fiction I and from Luke, ver. 45, by which a dis- find in the New Testament no trace,-but cerning of the mind of the Spirit is given by their inission from Christ, the Bestower to them. We find instances of both these of the Spirit for their office, when orderly gifts being exercised by Peter in Acts i., and legitimately conferred upon them by in his assertion of the sense of Scripture, the various Churches. Not however to and his judgment of Judas. Both these them exclusively,—though for decency and however were only temporary and imper- order it is expedient that the outward and fect. That no formal gifts of Apostle- formal declaration should be so :--but in ship were now formally conferred, is proportion as any disciple shall have been plain by the absence of Thomas, who in filled with the Holy Spirit of wisdom, is the that case would be no apostle in the inner discernment, the “judgment,” his. same sense in which the rest were.
The word retain here corresponds to he breathed on them] The very same “bind” in Matt, xvi. 19 (see the distincword in the LXX version is that in Gen. tion there); 'xviii. 18, and the word remit ii. 7, expressing the act of God in the here to “loose" there. 24---29.] He original infusion of the spirit of life into proves Himself to His own to be Lord and man. This act is now by God Incarnate God, to be believed on by them, though not repeated, sacramentally (so we have the seen. Thomas's doubt, and its removal. words “Take, Receive" (they are the same in Peculiar to John. 24.] was not with the original], in Matt. xxvi. 26 and the paral. them-for what reason does not appear, lels) representing the infusion of the new Euthymius says, “It is probable that he, life, of which He is become by his glorified since the scattering of the Apostles, .... Humanity the source to his members : see had not yet joined them.” But I incline, Job xxxiii. 4; Ps. xxxiii. 6; 1 Cor. xv. with Stier, to think that it could not have 45. 23.] The present meaning of been accidentally (Lücke), nor because he these words has been spoken of above. was, as Grotius supposes, “occupied by They reach forward however beyond that, some engagement.” On such a day, and in and extend the grant wbich they re- such a man, such an absence must have assure to all ages of the Church. The been designed. Perhaps he bad abandoned words, closely considered, amount to this: hope ;—the strong evidence of his senses that with the gift and real participa- having finally convinced him that the tion of the Holy Spirit, comes the con- pierced side and wounded hands betokened viction, and therefore the knowledge, of such a death that revivification was im. sin, of righteousness, and judgment ; – and possible. 25.] He probably does not this knowledge becomes more perfect, the name the Feet, merely because the Hands more men are filled with the Holy Ghost. and Side would more naturally offer them.
have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and t thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe. 26 And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them : a then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you. 27 Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and t thrust it into my side : and be not faithless, but believing. 28 [* And] Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. 29 Jesus saith unto
trender, as before, put: it is the same word.
selves to his examination than the Feet, faith below, being, not, “Thou hast touched to which he must stoop. He requires me," but, Thou hast seen me. 28.] no more than had been granted to the The Socinian view, that these words, My rest: but he had their testimony in ad. Lord and my God, are merely an exclamadition, and therefore ample ground for tion, is refuted, (1) By the fact that no faith to rest on. Olshausen calls him such exclamations were in use among the the Rationalist among the Apostles. Jews. (2) By the introduction to them,
26.] There is not the least reason “ Thomas said to him.” (3) By the imfor supposing, with Olshausen, that this possibility of referring the words my Lord appearance was in Galilee. The whole nar. to another than Jesus : see ver. 13. (4) rative points out the same place as before. By the utter psychological absurdity of
The eight days' interval is the first such a supposition : that one just contestimony of the recurring day of the vinced of the presence of Him whom he resurrection being commemorated by the deeply loved, should, instead of addressing disciples :-but, it must be owned, a weak Him, break out into an irrelevant cry. one ;-for in all probability they had been (5) By the further absurdity of supposing thus assembled every day during the in- that if such were the case, the Apostle terval. It forms however an interesting John, who of all the sacred writers most opening of the history of THE LORD's Day, constantly keeps in mind the object for that the Lord Himself should have thus which he is writing, should have recorded selected and honoured it. 27.] Our any thing so beside that object. (6) By Lord says nothing of the “marks of the the intimate conjunction of the seeing and nails:”—He does not recall the malice of believing in our Lord's answer, which his enemies. The words imply that necessarily makes this his saying the ex. the marks were no scars, but the veritable pression of his belief :-see below. wounds themselves ; that in His side Dismissing it therefore, we observe that being large enough for a hand to be thrust this is the highest confession of faith into it. This of itself would shew that which has yet been made ;-and that it the resurrection Body was bloodless. It is shews that (though not yet fully) the “ reach hither and behold” in the case of meaning of the previous confessions of His the hands, which were exposed—but merely being the Son of God' was understood. “reach hither and put” in the case of the Thus St. John, in the very close of his side, which was clothed. So Meyer : but Gospel (see on vv. 30, 31) iterates the it may be questioned, whether this was so. testimony with which he began it-to the
be not faithless not merely, “Do Godhead of the Word who becaine flesh: not any longer disbelieve in my Resurrec. and by this closing confession, shews how tion ;' but Be not (do not become)-As the testimony of Jesus to Himself had applied generally to the spiritual life, and gradually deepened and exalted the Aposthe reception of God's truth--faithless, tles' conviction, from the time when they but believing. That Thomas did not knew Him only as “the Son of Joseph" apply his finger or his hand, is evident (ch. i. 46), till now, when He is acknow. from the reason given by our Lord for his ledged as their LORD and their God.
2 Cor. v. 7. 1 Pet. 1.8.
him, [x Thomas,] because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed : ° blessed are they that have not seen, and yet og for. I:: have believed.
30 r y And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence p ch. xxi. 25. of his disciples, which are not written in this book : 31 9 but these are written, that ye z might believe that a Luke i. 4. Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing c. 17.. ye 2 might have life a through his name.
XXI. 1 After these things Jesus b shewed himself again to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias ; and con this wise shewed he himself. 2 There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and a Nathanael of Cana in a ch. i. 45. Galilee, and b the d sons of Zebedee, and two other of his b Matt. iv. 21.
r ch. iii. 15, 16 :
v.!4. 1 Pet. i. 8, 9.
a render, in.
29.] The reason, because thou hast seen prologue, ch. i. 4, 12. in his name] me, blames the slowness and required These words (see Acts iv. 10; 1 Cor. vi. 11) ground of the faith : the assertion, thou describe the whole standing of the faithhast believed, recognizes and commends the ful man in Christ,—by which and in which soundness of that faith just confessed. he has life eternal. Wonderful indeed, and rich in blessing for us CHAP. XXI. 1-23.] THE APPENDIX. who have not seen Him, is this, the closing . THE GLIMPSE INTO THE FUTURE. And word (see below) of the Gospel. For these herein, 1-8. The significant draught of words cannot apply to the remaining Ten: fishes. I reserve the remarks on this they, like Thomas, had seen and believed. chapter to the end, thereby better to • All the appearances of the forty days,' put the reader in possession of the evisays Stier, 'were mere preparations for the dence which I shall there gather up into believing without seeing. On the record one, but which will present itself as we of them, we now believe : see 1 Pet. i. 8. go on. I will only state here, that whether
30, 31.] FORMAL CLOSE OF THE Gos- written by St. John himself (of which I PEL (see notes on ch. xxi.). 30.] feel no doubt) or not, it is evidently an Yea, and,-or, moreover: meaning, “This appendix to the Gospel, which latter has book must not be supposed to be a com- already concluded with a formal review of plete account.' signs] not, as many its contents and object at ch. xx. 30, 31. interpret the word, proofs of His resur
1.) After these things, compare ch. rection,'- but, as ch. xii. 37 and elsewhere v.1; vi. 1, at a subsequent time. in this Gospel, miracles, in the most general manifested himself] This expression is no. sense-these after the Resurrection in where else used by St. John of the Lord's cluded :-for St. John is here reviewing appearances, but only in Mark xvi. 12, 14. his whole narrative, this book. 31.) The use of the verb here indicates that the The mere miracle-faith, so often reproved usual state of the Lord at this time was by our Lord, is not that intended hero. one not of manifestation, but of invisibility This is faith in Himself, as the Christ the to them. 2.] Nathanael is named by Son of God: and the Evangelist means, St. John only: see ch. i. 46 ff.: Thomas also that enough is related in this book to be a by St. John only, except in the catalogues ground for such a faith, by shewing us of the Apostles. the sons of Zebedee His glory manifested forth (see ch. ii. 11). are nowhere else named by John ;-they
that believing ye may have life may however be here mentioned as in remi. Thus he closes almost in the words of his niscence of the draught of fishes which