Cultivated Landscapes of Native Amazonia and the Andes
Oxford University Press, 9.1.2003 - 396 sivua
The Andes and Amazonia are two of the harshest regions on earth. The opportunities for productive agriculture, even with modern methods, seem limited given conditions of climate, terrain, and soils. Nevertheless, indigenous people, both prehistoric and more recent, developed systems ofcultivation that have been intensive, highly productive, and sustainable, reclaiming marginal lands and supporting large numbers of people and complex socities. This valuable reference work examines native South American agriculture. Its focus is on field types and field technologies, including agricultural landforms such as terraces, canals, and drained fields which have persisted for hundreds of years. The evidence utilized comes from abandoned fields,historical documents, and current practices. What emerges is a picture of indigenous farming practices in rain forests, savannas, swamps, rugged mountains, and deserts. This knowledge provides unique techniques and some basic principles for farming difficult environments.
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Classification of Field Types
Crops Tools and Soft Technology
A Diversity of Habitats and Field Systems
Fields of the Mojo Campa Bora Shipibo and Karinya
PreEuropean Riverine Cultivation
PreEuropean Forest Cultivation
Lost Systems of Cultivation
The Mojos Raised Fields
l3 The Titicaca Raised Fields
l4 Ditched Fields Drainage Canals and River Canalization
l5 Implications of Indigenous Agricultural Technology
A Cultivated Plants of South America
Terrace and 1rrigation Origins and Abandonment
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1nca 1ndians abandoned terraces agriculture agroforestry air photos Amazon Amazonia Andean archaeological bench terraces bluff Bolivia Campa canals Carneiro cent Chapter Chijra coast coastal Peru Colca Valley Colombia construction Coporaque crops cultural Denevan density ditched fields Donkin drainage drained ecology Ecuador embankments environment environmental Erickson excavated fallow farmers farming fertility flooding floodplain forest fruit functions Geographical highland house gardens indigenous irrigation Japo Basin Karinya Kayapo Kolata Lake Titicaca land landscape levees located maize manioc Meggers Mojos mounds numbers Orinoco Orinoco Llanos Pampa patterns period Peru Peruvian pests plants population population densities Posey potato pre-European prehistoric production raised fields raised-field region reported ridges river riverine savanna season settlement shifting cultivation Shipibo slopes sloping-field terraces soil South America stone axes sunken fields surface swidden terra firme terra preta tion Tiwanaku Treacy trees tropical Venezuela villages walls weeding Yanomami
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