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CYCLOPÆDIA

OF

BIBLICAL LITERATURE.

IBZAN.

IDDO. IBZAN (¥?x, illustrious ; Sept. 'Abaloody), two and three miles, beyond which are suburbs the tenth judge of Israel.' He was of Bethle- not much less populous than the town itself. The

em, probably the Bethlehem of Zebulun and not walls, strong and lofty, and flanked with square of Judah. He govemed seven years. The pro- towers, which, at the gates, are placed close tosperity of Ibzan is marked by the great number gether (see cut, No. 317], were built by the Sel. of his children (thirty sons and thirty daughters), jukian Sultans of Iconium, who seem to have and bis wealth

by their marriages-for they were taken considerable pains to exhibit the Greek inall married. Some have held, with little proba- scriptions, and the remains of architecture and bility, that Ibzan was the same with Boaz; B.C. sculpture belonging to the ancient Iconium, 1182 (Judg. xii. 8. ).

which they made use of in building the walls.

The town, suburbs, and gardens, are plentifully I-CHABOD (71a; ', where is the glory; supplied with water from streams which flow Sept. 'AxerkB), son of Phinehas and grandson of from some hills to the westward, and which, in Eli. He is only known from the unhappy circum- the north-east, join the lake, which varies in stances of his birth, which occasioned ihis name to size with the season of the year. In the town be given to him. The pains of labour came upon carpets are manufactured, and blue and yellow his mother when she heard that the ark of God leathers are tanned and dried. Cotton, wool, was taken, that her husband was slain in battle, hides, and a few of the other raw productions and that these tidings had proved fatal to his which enrich the superior industry and skill of father Eli. They were death-pains to ber; and the manufacturers of Europe, are sent to Smyrna when those around sought to cheer her, saying, by caravans. Fear not, for thou hast borne a son,' she only The most remarkable building in Konieh is atswered by giving him the name of Ichabod, say- the tomb of a priest highly revered throughout ing, "The glory is departed from Israel' (1 Sam. Turkey, called Hazreet Mevlana, the founder of if. 19-22), B.c. 1141. The name again occurs the Mevlevi Deryishes. The city, like all those in 1 Sam. xiv. 3 [ELI).

renowned for superior sanctity, abounds with ICONIUM (Lxórior), a town, formerly the dervishes, who meet the passenger at every turncapital of Lycaonia, as it is now, by the name ing of the streets, and demand paras with the of Konieh, of Karamania, in Asia Minor. It is greatest clamour and insolence. The bazaars situated in N. lat, 37° 51', E. long. 32° 40', about and houses have little to recommend them to one hundred and twenty miles inland from the notice (Kinneir's Travels in Asia Minor; Leake's Mediterranean. It was visited by St. Paul in Geography of Asia Minor ; Arundell's Tour A.D. 45, when many Gentiles were converted; in Asia Minor). but some unbelieving Jews excited against him 1. IDDO (1Y, seasonable ; Sept.’A886), a proand Barnabas, a persecution, which they escaped phet of Judah, who wrote the history of Rehowith difficulty (Acts xiii. 51; xiv. 1, &c.). He boam and Abijah; or rather perhaps who, in wandertook a second journey to Iconium in a.d. 51. conjunction with Seraiah, kept the public rolls The church planted at this place by the apostle during their reigns. It seems by 2 Chron. xii. 22 continued to flourish, until, by the persecutions that he named his book w779, Midrash, or • Exof the Saracens, and afterwards of the Seljukians, position.' Josephus (Antiq. viii. 9. 1) states that who made it one of their sultanies, it was nearly this Iddo was the prophet who was sent to Jeroextinguished. But some Christians of the Greek boam at Bethel, and consequently the same who and Armenian churches, with a Greek metro

was slain by a lion for disobedience to his instrucpolitan bishop, are still found in the suburbs of tions (1 Kings xiii.); and many commentators the city, not being permitted to reside within the bave followed this statement. walls. Koniëh is situated at the foot of Mount riah (Zecb. i. 1; Ezr. v. 1; vi. 14).

2. IDDO, grandfather of the prophet ZechaTaurus, upon the border of the lake Trogolis, in a fertile plain, rich in valuable productions,

3. IDDO (178), chief of the Jews of the captiparticularly apricots, wine, cotton, flax, and vity established at Casiphia, a place of which it grain. The circumference of the town is between is difficult to determine the position. It was to

VOL. 11.

B

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him that Ezra sent a requisition for Levites and | ing his integrity and goodness merely by His Nethinim, none of whom had yet joined his words alone—a sentiment surely as far as possible caravan. Thirty-eight Levites and 250 Nethi- from the intention of our Divine Master. We nim responded to his call (Ezra viii. 17-20), must, therefore, necessarily understand a certain B.C. 457. It would seem from this that Iddo kind of words or discourse, which, under the was a chief person of the Nethinim, descended appearance of sincerity or candour, is often the from those Gibeonites who were charged with the worst possible, and Katadikáte. Tdy vpwrov, “conservile labours of the tabernacle and temple. demns a man," because it is uttered with an evil This is one of several circumstances which indi. purpose. If, then, we interpret åpyóv according cate that the Jews in their several colonies under to established Greek usage, there arises a natural the Exile were still ruled by the heads of their and very appropriate sense, namely, åpyóv is the nation, and allowed the free exercise of their same as čepyov, otiosus, vain, idle; then, void worship.

of effect, without result, followed by no corre4. IDDO (17", lovely; Sept. ’ladat), a chief of sponding event. Therefore sîua åpyóv is empty

or vain words or discourse, i. e. void of truth, the half tribe of Manasseh beyond the Jordan

and to which the event does not correspond. In (1 Chron. xxvii. 21).

short, it is the empty, inconsiderate, insincere IDLE. The ordinary uses of this word re language of one who says one thing and means quire no illustration. But the very serious pas- another; and in this sense åpyós is very fresage in Matt. xii. 36 may suitably be noticed in quently employed by the Greeks. This Tittmann this place. In the Authorized Version it is trans- confirms by a number of citations; and then lated, I say unto you, that every idle word that deduces from the whole that the sense of the pasmen shall speak, they shall give an account sage under review is : • Believe me, he who uses thereof in the day of judgment.' The original false and insincere language shall suffer grievous is, "Oti Tây pñua ápróv, 8 edu jarnowowy o punishment : your words, if uttered with sincerity &vOpwnoi, árosboovoi tepi avtoù abyov ev viuépą and ingenuousness, shall be approved ; but if κρίσεως. The whole question depends upon they are dissembled, although they bear the the meaning or rather force of the term pñua strongest appearance of sincerity, they shall be dpyóv, rendered idle word,' concerning which condemned (See Tittmann, On the Principal there has been no little difference of opinion. Causes of Forced Interpretations of the New Many understand it to mean 'wicked and in- Testament, in Am. Bib. Repository for 1831, jurious words,' as if åpyóv were the same as

pp. 481-484). Trovnpóv, which is indeed found as a gloss in Cod. IDOLATRY. In giving a summary view of 126. The sense is there taken to be as follows: the forms of idolatry which are mentioned in the • Believe me, that for every wicked and injurious Bible, it is expedient to exclude all notice of word men shall hereafter render an account. those illegal images which were indeed designed And our Lord is supposed to have intended in this to bear some symbolical reference to the worship passage to reprehend the Pharisees, who had spoken of the true God, but which partook of the nature impiously against Him, and to threaten them of idolatry; such, for example, as the golden calf with the severest punishments; inasmuch as every of Aaron (cf. Neh. ix. 18); those of Jeroboam; one of their injurious and impious words should the singular ephods of Gideon and Micah (Judg. one day be judged. This interpretation of the viii. 27; xvii. 5); and the Teraphim. word dpyóv is, however, reached by a somewhat cir. Idolatry was the most heinous offence against cuitous process of philological reasoning, which is the Mosaic law, which is most particular in deexamined with much nicety by J. A. H. Tittmann, fining the acts which constitute the crime, and and shown to be untenable. He adds : “ This in- severe in apportioning the punishment. Thus, it terpretation, moreover, would not be in accordance is forbidden to make any image of a strange God; with what precedes in verses 33-35, nor with what to prostrate oneself before such an image, or before follows in verse 37. For it is not any wicked those natural objects which were also worshipped discourse which is there represented; but the without images, as the sun and moon (Deut. iv. feigned piety of the Pharisees, and their affected 19); to suffer the altars, images, or groves of idols zeal for the public welfare. In order to avoid a to stand (Exod. xxxiv. 13); or to keep the gold charge of levity and indifference, they had de- and silver of which their images were made, and manded “ a sign,” onueiov; as if desirous that to suffer it to enter the house (Deut. vii. 25, 26); both they and others might know whether Jesus to sacrifice to idols, most especially to offer human was truly the Messiah. Against this dissimula- sacrifices; to eat of the victims offered to idols tion in those who uttered nothing sincerely and by others; to prophesy in the name of a strange from the heart, Jesus had inveighed in severe and god; and to adopt any of the rites used in idolappropriate terms in verses 33-35, using the com atrous worship, and to transfer them to the wor. parison of a tree, which no one judges to be good ship of the Lord (Deut. xii. 30, 31). As for and useful unless it bears good fruit, and from punishment, the law orders that if an individual which, if it be bad, no one expects good fruit. committed idolatry he should be stoned to death But if now the sense of verse 36 is such as these (Deut. xvii. 2-5); that if a town was guilty of interpreters would make it, there is added in this sin, its inhabitants and cattle should be slain, it a sentiment altogether foreign to what pre- and its spoils burnt together with the town itself cedes, and åpzór becomes not only destitute of (Deut. xiii. 12-18). To what degree also the effect and force, but involves a sentiment incon- whole spirit of the Old Testament is abhorrent gruous with that in verse 37. For where our from idolatry, is evident (besides legal prohibitions, Lord says that hereafter every one shall be judged prophetic denunciations, and energetic

appeals like according to his words, He cannot be understood that in Isa. xliv. 9-20) from the literal sense of the to mean that every one will be capable of prov- terms which are used as synonymes for idols and

their worship. Thus idols are called 9536817, | had found an asylum in Egypt, with having the inane (Lev. xix. 4); D.San, ranities—the tà turned to serve the gods of that country. On the másaia of Acts xiv. 15—(Jer. ii. 5); 11%, nothing tivity, they appear, for the first time in their bis

restoration of the Jews after the Babylonian cap(Isa. lxvi. 3); D'81pj, abominations (1 Kings tory, to have been permanently impressed with a xi. 5); 095959, stercora (Ezek. vi. 4); and their sense of the degree to which their former idolatries worship is called whoredom, which is expressed had been an insult to God, and a degradation of by the derivatives of 1731.

their own understanding—an advance in the cul. The early existence of idolatry is evinced by ture of the nation which may in part be ascribed Josti. xxiv. 2, where it is stated that Abram and to the influence of the Persian abhorrence of his immediate ancestors dwelling in Mesopotamia images, as well as to the effects of the exile as a * served other gods.' The terms in Gen. xxxi. chastisement. In this state they continued umtil 53, and particularly the plural form of the verb, Antiochus Epiphanes made the last and fruitless seem to show that some members of Terah's attempt to establish the Greek idolatry in Pales. family had each different gods. From Josh. xxiv. tine (i Macc. i.). 14, and Ezek. xx. 8, we learn that the Israelites, The particular forms of idolatry into which during their sojourn in Egypt, were seduced to the Israelites fell are described under the names worship the idols of that country; although we of the different gods which they worshipped [Ashposzess no particular account of their transgression. TORETH, BAAL, &c.]: the general features of their In Åmus v. 25, and Acts vii. 42, it is stated that idolatry require a brief notice here. According they committed idolatry in their journey through to Movers (Die Phönizier, i. 148), the religion of the wilderness; and in Num. xxv. 1, sq., that all the idolatrous Syro-Arabian nations was a they worshipped the Moabite idol Baal-peor at deification of the powers and laws of nature, an Shittim. After the Israelites had obtained pos- adoration of those objects in which these powers session of the promised land, we find that they are considered to abide, and by which they act. were continually tempted to adopt the idolatries The deity is thus the invisible power in nature of the Canaanite nations with which they came itself, that power which manifests itself as the in contact. The book of Judges enumerates generator, sustainer, and destroyer of its works. several successive relapses into this sin. The This view admits of two modifications: either the gods which they served during this period were separate powers of nature are regarded as so many Bial and Ashtoreth, and their modifications ; and different gods, and the objects by which these Syria, Sidon, Moab, Ammon, and Philistia, are powers are manifested—as the sun, moon, &c.named in Judg. x. 6, as the sources from which are regarded as their images and supporters ; or they derived their idolatries. Then Samuel ap- the power of nature is considered to be one and pears to have exercised a beneficial influence in indivisible, and only to differ as to the forms veaning the people from this folly (1 Sam. vii.); under which it manifests itself. Both views coand the worship of the Lord acquired a gradually exist in almost all religions. The most simple increasing hold on the nation until the time of and ancient notion, however, is that which conSolomon, who was induced in his old age to perceives the deity to be in human form, as male mit the establishment of idolatry at Jerusalem. and female, and which considers the male sex to Og the division of the nation, the kingdom of be the type of its active, generative, and deIsrael (besides adhering to the sin of Jeroboam to structive power; while that passive power of nathe last) was specially devoted to the worship of ture whose function is to conceive and bring Baal, which Ahab bad renewed and carried to an forth, is embodied under the female form. The unprecedented height; and although the energetic human form and the diversity of sex lead natumeasures adopted by Jebu, and afterwards by the rally to the different ages of life—to the old man priest Jehoiada, to suppress this idolatry, may and the youth, the matron and the virgin-achave been the cause why there is no later express cording to the modifications of the conception ; mention of Baal, yet it is evident from 2 Kings and the myths which represent the influences, the xiii. 6, and xvii. 10, that the worship of Asherah changes, the laws, and the relations of these nacontinued until the deportation of the ten tribes. tural powers under the sacred histories of such Tinis event also introduced the peculiar idolatries gods, constitute a harmonious development of of the Assyrian colonists into Samaria. In the such a religious system. kingdom of Judah, on the other hand, idolatry Those who saw the deity manifested by, or continued during the two succeeding reigns; was conceived him as resident in, any natural objects, suppressed for a time by Asa (1 Kings xv. 12); could not fail to regard the sun and moon as the was revived in consequence of Joram marrying potent rulers of day and night, and the sources of into the family of Ahab; was continued by Ahaz; those influences on which all animated nature received a check from Hezekiah; broke out again depends. Hence star-worship forms a prominent more violently under Manasseh ; until Josiah feature in all the false religions mentioned in the made the most vigorous attempt to suppress it. Bible. Of this character chiefly were the Egyptian, But even Josiah's efforts to restore the worship of the Canaanite, the Chaldæan, and the Persian rethe Lord were ineffectual; for the later prophets, ligions. The Persian form of astrolatry, however, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, still continue deserves to be distinguished from the others ; for to utter reproofs against idolatry. Nor did the it allowed no images nor temples of the god, but capture of Jerusalem under Jehoiachim awaken worshipped him in his purest symbol, fire. It is this peculiarly sensual people ; for Ezekiel (viii.) understood that this form is alluded to in most shows that those who were left in Jerusalem under of those passages which mention the worship of the government of Zedekiah bad given themselves the sun, moon, and heavenly host, by incense, on up to many kinds of idolatry; and Jeremiah heights (2 Kings xxiii. 5, 12 ; Jer. xix. 13). The (iliv. 8) charges those inhabitants of Judah who other form of astrolatry, in which the idea of the

Burl, moun, and planets, is blended with the wor was afterwards more formally and permanently ship of the god in the form of an idol, and with imposed on him on account of his unworthy disthe addition of a mythology (as may be seen in posal of his birth-right for a mess of red lentiles the relations of Baal and his cognates to the sun), (Gen. xxv. 30). The region which came to bear easily degenerates into lasciviousness and cruel his name, is the mountainous tract on the east rites.

side of the great valleys El Ghor and El Araba, The images of the gods, the standard terms for extending between the Dead Sea and the Elanitic which are 177 , ayy, and oby, were, as to Gulf of the Red Sea. Some have conjectured material, of stone, wood, silver, and gold. The that the latter sea was called • Red, because it

washed the shore of ` Edom;' but it never bears in first two sorts are called soo,

as being hewn or carved; those of metal had a trunk or stock of designated Yam-Suph, i. e. the Sea of Madre

Hebrew the name of Yam-Edom: it is uniformly wood, and were covered with plates of silver or general rites of idolatrous worship consist in tained possession of it as the country which God gold (Jer. x. 4); or were cast (17909). The pores. Into this district Esan removed during his

father's life-time, and his posterity gradually obburning incense; in offering bloodless sacrifices, had assigned for their inheritance in the prophetic as the dough-cakes (2991) and libations inter blessing pronounced by bis

father Isaac (Gen. vii. 18, and the raisin-cakes (Diazy wwwx) xxvii. 39, 40; xxxii. 3; Deut. ii. 5-12, 22). in Hos. iii. 1; in sacrificing victims (1 Kings

Previously to their occupation of the country, it xviii. 26), and especially in human sacrifices

was called rying 777, Mount Seir, a designation [Moloch). These offerings were made on high indeed which it never entirely lost. The word places, hills, and roofs of houses, or in shady seir means hairy (being thus synonymous with groves and valleys. Some forms of idolatrous Esau), and, when applied to a country, may sigo worship had libidinous orgies [AsutORETH). nify rugged, mountainous, and so says Josephus Divinations, oracles (2 Kings i. 2), and rabdo

(Antiq. i. 20. 3): • Esau named the country mancy (Hos. iv. 12) form a part of many of these

“ Ronghness" from his own hairy roughness. false religions. The priesthood was generally a

But in Gen. xxxvi. 20, we read of an individual numerous body; and where persons of both sexes were attached to the service of any god (like the the land, and from whom it may have received

of the name of Seir, who had before this inhabited D'Nimp and plump of Ashtoreth), that service its first appellation. Part of the region is still was infamously immoral. It is remarkable that called Esh-Sherah, in which some find a trace of the Pentateuch makes no mention of any temple Seir, but the two words have no etymological of idols; afterwards we read often of such.

relation : the former wants the y, a letter which J. N.

is never dropped, and it signifies' a tract, a posIDUMÆA. 'Idovuala is the Greek form of the session,' and sometimes ' a mountain.' Hebrew name Edom, or, according to Josephus The first mention made of Mount Seir in Scrip(Antiq. ii. 1. 1), it is only a more agreeable mode ture is in Gen. xiv. 6, where Chedorlaomer and of pronouncing what would otherwise be ’Adwua his confederates are said to have smitten the (comp. Jerome on Ezek. xxv. 12). In the Sep- Horim in their Mount Seir.' Among the earliest tuagint we sometimes meet with ’ESáu, but more human habitations were caves, either formed by generally with ’ldovuala (the people being called nature or easily excavated, and for the construc'idovuaiol), which is the uniform orthography in tion of these the mountains of Edom afforded the Apocrypha as well as in Mark iii. 8, the only peculiar facilities. Hence the designation given passage in the New Testament where it occurs. to the Aboriginal inhabitants, Horim, i. e. caveOur Authorized Version has in three or four dwellers (from 77, a'cave'), an epithet of similar places substituted for Edom · Idumea,' which is import with the Greek Troglodytes. Even in the the name employed by the writers of Greece days of Jerome' the whole of the southern part of and Rome, though it is to be noted that they, Idumæa, from Eleutheropolis to Petra and Aila, as well as Josephus, include under that name was full of cavems used as dwellings, on account the south of Palestine, and sometimes Pales- of the sun's excessive heat' (Jerome on Obadiah, tine itself, because a large portion of that coun ver. 1); and there is reason to believe that the try came into possession of the Edomites of later possessors of the country in every age occupied times.

similar habitations, many traces of which are yet The Hebrew 7X Edom, as the name of the seen in and near Petra, the renowned metropolis. people is masculine (Num. xx. 22); as the name We are informed in Deut. ii. 12, that the of the country, feminine (Jer. xlix. 17). We children of Esau succeeded [marg. inherited] the often meet with the phrase Eretz - Edom, the Horim when they had destroyed them from beLand of Edom,' and once with the poetic form fore them, and dwelt in their stead, as Israel Sedeh-Edom, 'the Field of Edom' (Judg. v. 4). did unto the land of his possession, which JeThe inhabitants are sometimes styled Beni-Edom, hovah gave unto them.' From this it may be 'the Children of Edom,' and poetically Bath- inferred, that the extirpation of the Horim by Edom, the Daughter of Edom' (Lam. iv. 21, the Esauites was, like that of the Canaanites by 22). A single person was called 1978 Adomi, Israel, very gradual and slow. Some think this "an Edomite' (Deut. xxiii. 8), of which the femi- | supposition is confirmed by the genealogical nine plural n°978 Adomith occurs in 1 Kings tables preserved in the 36th chapter of Genesis xi. 1. The name was derived from Isaac's son (comp. 1 Chron. 1.), where we have, along with a Edom, otherwise called Esau, the elder twin- list of the chiefs of Edom, a similar catalogue of brother of Jacob (Esau). It signifies red, and Horite chieftains, who are presumed to have been seems first to have been suggested by his appear their contemporaries. But for the chronology of ance at his birth, when he came out all red 'these ancient documents we possess no data what(i. e. covered with red hair, Gen. xxv. 25), and soever, and very precarious, therefore, must be

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