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Commissioner of Education.

Commissioner of the Interior.

United States District Judge.
United States District Attorney.
United States District Marshal.
Chief Justice.

Associate Justices-A. G. Wolf, José M. Figueras, J.
Toro y Cuevas.

.San Juan Tulio Larrinaga| George D. Colton George Cabot Ward .Henry M. Hoyt Samuel D. Gomer ...A. P. Sawyer Edwin G. Dexter

. Laurance H. Grahame Bernard S. Rodey ...J. R. F. Savage Harry S. Hubbard .José Conrado Hernandez H. McLeary, Emilio del

The Executive Council-Governor, Secretary of State, Attorney General, Treasurer, Auditor, Commissioner of Education, Commissioner of the Interior, Juan F.. V. Ochoteca, Martin Travieso, jr., Rafael del Vallee, Luis S. Morales and José C. Barbosa.

The island of Porto Rico, thitherto a Spanish colony. was formally ceded to the United States under the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. A civil government was established on May 1, 1900. On July 25, 1901, it became a territory of the United States on a basis in some respects similar to that of the territories on the North American continent, but with these important differences, that citizens of Porto Rico are not ipso facto citizens of the United States, and that the present status of the territory is not considered to be preliminary to statehood. Free trade exists between the island and the United States. A decision of the United States Supreme Court on December 2, 1901, sustained the Foraker act and the validity of the tariff system established by the United States government with respect to Porto Rico, and confirmed the principle that Porto Ricans are not citizens of the United States. On August 2, 1902, the Commissioner General of Immigration issued an order to the effect that Porto Ricans coming to the United States were to be regarded as aliens. This decision was subsequently reversed by the United States Supreme Court.

By the terms of the Foraker act practical autonomy was granted to the insular government for which it provides, and a large majority of all the officials throughout the island are left to the unrestricted choice of its own citizens. The Governor and the heads of the various executive departments are chosen by the President with the approval of the Senate, and the Executive Council, which constitutes one of the branches of the Legislative Assembly, consists of the six executive department heads so chosen. the Secretary. Attorney General, Treasurer. Auditor, Commissioner of Education and Commissioner of the Interior, with five natives of Porto Rico, who are also appointed by the President. The House of Delegates, or popular branch of the Legislative Assembly, consisting of thirty-five members, is elected by the voters from the seven election districts into which the island is divided; and in the Judicial Department the Supreme Court, consisting of five members, is appointed by the President, but a majority of the members chosen for that tribunal of last resort are native citizens of the island; and of the judges of the various district courts who are appointed by the Governor, the large majority are also selected from among the native population. The internal revenue laws of the United States do not apply to Porto Rico.

Owing to a deadlock in 1909 between the lower and upper branches of the Insular Legislature and the failure of the House of Delegates to pass appropriation bill Congress passed a law at the extraordinary session of that year providing for the continuance of the annual appropriations of the preceding year in such a contingency. The growth of commerce between the United States and Porto Rico since annexation is shown in the table appended, covering the fiscal years from 1898 to 1909: Exports









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to U. S.




Imports from U. S. $11,210.060| 13 974.070 19.224.881


25.891.261 22.677.370 26,394,312 | 23,618,545

Porto Rico's trade with foreign countries in the fiscal years 1904-'05 to 1908-'09 reached these totals:

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The census of 1900 reported the population by Departments as follows:

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Imports. I Year.

$3,076 4201 $2.562.1891907-'08

4.115,069 2.602.7841908-'09

4,926,167) 3,580,887

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The Philippine Commission.

Commissioners W. Cameron Forbes, president; Dean C. Worcester, Newton W. Gilbert, Frank A. Branagan, José R. Luzuriaga, Gregorio Araneta, Rafael Palma and Juan Sumulong.

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Chief Justice.

Cayetano Arellano, Philippines $10,500 Associate Justices-Florentino Torres, Philippines; Victorino Mapa, Philippines; E. Finley Johnson, Michigan; Adam C. Carson, Virginia; Sherman Morehead, New York; Charles B. Elliott, Minnesota; each.. Commissioners Resident to the United States. $7,500 | Benito Lagarda....

Manuel Quezon...




The Philippine Islands cane into the possession of the United States as a result of the war with Spain and under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. On February 4, 1899, two days before the ratification of the treaty by the United States Senate, the native forces under Aguinaldo attacked the American garrison at Manila, and an insurrection against American authority was started, which lasted for nearly two years. The islands were under military rule until July 1, 1901, when the provisional military government was superseded by a civil government. The chief officers of the latter are appointed by the President of the United States. Provincial and municipal officers are elected by the people On December 2, 1901, the Supreme Court of the United States decided that free trade must prevail between the Philippines and the United States until Congress should enact a special tariff law for the islands. Accordingly a Philippine tariff bill was introduced into Congress and became a law on March 8, 1902. It was followed on July 1, 1902, by a Civil Government act for the Philippines. (For summaries of these laws see The Tribune Almanac for 1903.)

A general amnesty for all except criminals under the common law and rebels remaining in arms was proclaimed on July 4, 1902. The vexed question of the friars' lands was amicably settled in December, 1903. After protracted negotiations, in the course of which Governor Taft visited Rome, an agreement was made with the Church authorities by which the insular government acquired the friars' holdings at a cost of $7,239,784. The purchase included 391,000 acres. These lands will be eventually sold by the insular government.

By the act of March 2, 1903, Congress provided a system of coinage for the Philippines. The unit of value is the gold peso, of twelve and nine-tenths grains of gold, nine-tenths fine. The Philippine Commission is authorized to coin $75,000,000 in silver pesos, each peɛo of 416 grains, 900 parts fine metal and 100 parts copper alloy. These silver coins are redeemable at the rate of two for one in gold pesos, and are legal tender in the Philippine Islands for all debts, public or private, unless otherwise specifically provided by contract. Some new subsidiary coins are also provided for. (For complete details of the Coinage act, see The Tribune Almanac for 1904, under title "57th Congress, Public Acts and Resolutions of Second Session.")

At the last session of the 58th Congress a new tariff for the Philippines was enacted, and a law was passed providing for railroad construction and other public improvements and amending the Civil Government act of March 8, 1902. (For details of these measures see under "58th Congress, Public Acts and Resolutions of the Third Session," pages 80-83 of this volume.) The new Philippnie tariff-on goods imported into the Philippines-went into effect on July 2, 1905. It was further amended at the first session of the 59th Congress. Congress at the same session passed a law postponing until July 1, 1909, the application to Philippine commerce of the navigation laws of the United States. At the second session of the 59th Congress a law was passed establishing a Philippine Agricultural Bank. At the extraordinary session of the Sixty-first Congress, March to August, 1909, the Philippine tariff was revised, and in the Payne tariff law, approved August 5, 1909, most of the barriers against the entry of Philippine products into the United States were removed. For the provisions of the Payne law affecting the Philippines see pages 124 and 125 of this volume.

Elections for the first Philippine Assembly were held on July 30, 1907. Eighty-one seats were allotted to the various provinces, the maximum membership of the assembly being 100. A small vote was cast, about 98,000, or only 1.4 per cent of the population. The Nationalist factions chose a great majority of the Assemblymen. Regular biennial elections are to be held hereafter, beginning with the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1909, the members chosen to hold office for two years, beginning January 1, 1910. The Assembly was opened on October 16, 1907, Secretary Taft attending the ceremony and making an address. Sergio Osmena, of Cebu, Nationalist, was chosen president of the body. To qualify as voters applicants must be males, twentythree years of age and have a legal residence in the municipality in which they desire to exercise the right of suffrage, and must not be citizens or subjects of any foreign

power, and furthermore must be comprised within one of the three following classes: (a) Those who, prior to August 13, 1898, held certain offices under the Spanish government,

(b) Those who own real property to the value of 500 pesos, or who annually pay 30 pesos or more of the established taxes;

(e) Those who speak, read and write English or Spanish.

The following tables summarize the foreign trade of the islands in recent years: Imports and Exports of Merchandise, 1899 to 1909.
















To other countries.


States. countries.
$1,150,613 $11,962,397 $13.113,010] $3,540.894 $8,826,018 $12,366,912
1,657,701 18,943,735 20,601,436 3,522,160 16.228.908 19.751,068
2,855,685 27,423,721 80,279,406 2,572,021 20,642,927 23,214,948
4,035,243 28,106,599 32,141,842| 7,691,743 16,235.936 23,927,679
3,944,098 29,027,784 32,971,882 13,863,059 19,258,721 33,121,780
4,633,216 28,587,545 33,220,761 11,102,775 19,147,852 30,250,627
5,761,498 25,114,852 30,876,350 15,668,026 16,684,589 32,352,615
5,458,867 21,465.373 26.924,240 12.337.927 20,337.723 32.675,650
8,661,414 17,541,775 26,203.189| 11,510,438 19,085,271 30,595,709
11,461,722 16,707.429 28,169,151 10,164,223 19.973.381 30.137.604
11,189,441 16,602,956 27,792.397| 9,433,986 21,559,577 30,993,563

1Figures of 1899 cover the period from August 20, 1898, to June 30, 1899, and subsequent figures cover fiscal year.

Population of the Philippines by Provinces.

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. Captain Edward J. Dorn (retired). U. S. N.

The Island of Guam, or Guahan, in the Marianas Archipelago, was ceded to the United States by Spain under the Treaty of Paris of December 10, 1898. It is used by the United States as a naval station, and may also afford a landing place for a transpacific cable.



Pago Pago Captain John F. Parker (retired), U. S. N. Tutulla, Manua and some insignificant islets of the Samoan group came into the possession of the United States in January, 1000, as a result of the treaty of November 14, 1899. between Great Britain and Germany, in the terms of which the United States acquiesced. Under that treaty Great Britain withdrew altogether from the Islands. Germany took the largest two, Unolu and Savall, and the United States took possession of Tutulla and Manua, the former containing at Pago Pago the finest harbor In that part of the world and the only good one in the Samoan group. A United States naval officer was appointed Governor of Tutulla and Manua in February, 1900, and possession was taken of them on Arril 17, 1900. The area of Tutulla and Manua is about 35,000 acres. The total population of the two islands is less than 6.00N.

Isthmian Canal Commissioners.-Colonel George W. Goethals, U. S. A., chairman; Lieut. Col. E. DuB. Gaillard, U. S. A.; Lieut. Col. William L. Sibert, U. S. A.; Lieut. Harry H. Rousseau, U. S. N.; Joseph C. S. Blackburn, Col. W. C. Gorgas, U. S. A.; Lieut. Col. Harry F. Hodges, U. S. A.

Secretary to the Commission.--Joseph B. Bishop, New York, $10,000.

Chief Engineer.-Colonel George W. Goethals, U. S. A.

Supreme Court of the Canal Zone.-Facundo Mutis Duran, Panama, Chief Justice; L. C. Collins, Ill., and Hezekiah H. Gudger, N. C., Associate Justices.

Note.-The compensation allowed to Colonel Goethals, the president of the commission, is $15,000, including his salary as an officer of the army; to Majors Gaillard and Sibert, Lieut. Rousseau, Col. Gorgas and Lieut. Col. Hodges, $14,000 apiece, including their salaries as officers; to the other commissioners, $14,000.

The United States Senate ratified on March 17, 1903, an Isthmian Canal treaty with Colombia, drawn to vest in the United States perpetual control for canal purposes of a strip of land 30 miles in width stretching across the Isthmus of Panama. On August 12, 1903, the Colombian Senate rejected the treaty, and on September 12 the time fixed for exchanging ratifications expired. On November 3 the Department of Panama revolted and an independent republic was proclaimed. A canal treaty between this new republic and the United States was signed on November 18, 1903, ratified by Panama on December 2, and by the United States Senate on February 23, 1904. The full text of this treaty is given under "Treaties Ratified." second session 58th Congress, Tribune Almanac for 1905. Congress passed an act, approved April 28, 1904, providing for the temporary government of the Canal Zone. Under the terms of this act the Isthmian Canal Commission was created and a temporary government was set up, with Major General George B. Davis as Governor. The Canal Commission has been three times reorganized, and after attempting to have the work done by contract under the direction of civilian engineers the government turned it over to the engineer corps of the army. An Advisory Board of Engineers met in Washington on September 1, 1905, and later made a visit to the isthmus. It reported in favor of a sea level canal. But the sea level plan was abandoned as impracticable and the 59th Congress passed an act directing the construction of a lock canal.

The Secretary of the Treasury on July 2, 1906, invited bids for $30,000,000 of 2 per cent ten year-thirty year Panama bonds, and the issue was subscribed for to the amount of $445,000,000. The average price bid for the $30,000,000 awarded was 103.95. A sale of $50,000,000 of bonds was advertised in November, 1907, but the issue was subsequently limited to $25,000,000, There were outstanding on December 1, 1908, canal bonds to the amount of $54,631,980. On December 7, 1908, $30,000,000 more of bonds were sold at an average of $102.4368. The Payne tariff law, approved August 5, 1909, Section 39, authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to issue bonds to meet canal expenses amounting to $295,569,000, in addition to the $84,631,000 already Issued, the total of $380,000,000 to cover the cost of the canal. The additional bonds are to be issued at a rate not exceeding 3 per cent. Advances from the Treasury to the canal fund in excess of $84,631,000 are to be repaid from the new issue. For text of Section 39 see page 132 of this volume.

According to the report of the Isthmian Canal Commission for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1909, the total amount excavated from the canal prism during the year amounted to 18,442.624 cubic yards place measurement, of which 12,291,472 cubic yards were of rock. At the close of the fiscal year 43,574,954 cubic yards remained to be removed in order to complete this portion of the canal. On April 28 the report showed a total of 33,699 men actually working for the commission and the Panama Railroad, the largest force of record. A revised estimate of cost was prepared and submitted at a hearing before the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives in February, 1909. This estimate shows that nearly 50 per cent more work is necessary in order to complete the canal than was contemplated by the original estimate, and that the unit prices, due to labor conditions, cost of materials and gratuities given the employes, have been increased about 20 per cent. The estimate, as prepared, shows that the total cost of engineering and construction alone sums up to $297,766,000, to which, if the purchase price and the estimated cost of sanitation and civil government is added, there results the sum of $375,201,000 as the total cost of the canal.

Among the residents of the zone nearly fifty nationalities are represented. Great Britain and its possessions lead in the number of inhabitants, a table presented by the Isthmian Canal Commission showing that in September, 1909, approximately 19,000 of the Canal Zone residents were British subjects. Of the 24,963 persons employed by the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad Company, only 4,655 were from the United States, while 11,925 were from Great Britain or British possessions. A majority of the British subjects are from the West Indies, and are in the class of laborers. The United States, exclusive of Alaska, Porto Rico and Hawaii, was represented by a population of 6,937, while France and its possessions were represented by about 3.000, Panama by 11,411 and Spain by about 4.500. The total population was 50,003.

On November 9, 1909, the Secretary of War appointed a board of officers to prepare plans for fortifying the canal. On it were Brigadier Generals Arthur Murray, chief of artillery; William Crozier, chief of ordnance; W. L. Marshall, chief of engineers; Bliss and Wotherspoon, of the General Staff of the army; Major Hann, of the coast artillery; Commander Rogers, of the General Naval Board, and Captain Staunton, of the Army and Navy War College.

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| AARON S. WATKINS, of Ohio. Populist-April 3.

SAMUEL W. WILLIAMS, of Indiana. Socialist Labor-July 5.


I DONALD L. MUNRO, of Virginia.
Independence-July 27-29.

THOMAS L. HISGEN, of Massachusetts. | JOHN TEMPLE GRAVES, of Georgia.


The Republican National Convention was held in Chicago, June 16-19. Nine hundred and eighty delegates were admitted under the terms of the National. Committee's call. Julius C. Burrows, of Michigan, was chosen temporary chairman on June 16, and Henry Cabot Lodge, of Massachusetts, permanent chairman on June 17. On June 17 a report from the committee on rules was adopted, which allotted representation in the next convention to the territories and dependencies as follows: Arizona, 6 delegates; Hawaii, 6; New Mexico, 6; Alaska, 2; the District of Columbia,2; Porto Rico, 2; the Philippines, 2. A minority resolution, offered by Representative Burke, of Pennsylvania, sought to establish an entirely new basis of representation. It provided that each state should hereafter be entitled to four delegates-at-large and one additional delegate for every ten thousand Republican votes polled, or majority fraction thereof, for Republican electors at the last preceding Presidential election. It gave four delegates apiece to Arizona, Hawaii and New Mexico and two apiece to Alaska, the District of Columbia, Porto Rico and the Philippines. This minority resolution was defeated by 506 votes to 471, three delegates not voting.

The platform, published in full below, was adopted without division on June 18, after a minority report, offered by Representative Cooper, of Wisconsin, had been rejected. Separate votes were taken on three planks in the minority report. That recommending the passage by Congress of a law requiring national committees to make public campaign contributions as received during a national campaign was rejected by 880 votes to 94. That favoring a physical valuation of the railroads by the Interstate Commerce Commission was rejected by 917 votes to 63. That approving the popular election of Senators was rejected by 866 votes to 114.

On June 18 William H. Taft, of Ohio, was nominated for President on the first ballot. He received 702 votes, to 68 for Philander C. Knox, of Pennsylvania; 67 for Charles E. Hughes, of New York, 58 for Joseph G. Cannon, of Illinois; 40 for Charles W. Fairbanks, of Indiana; 25 for Robert M. La Follette, of Wisconsin; 16 for Joseph B. Foraker, of Ohio, and 3 for Theodore Roosevelt, of New York. One delegate from South Carolina did not vote. The vote by states was:

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Taft. Hughes.] Cannon. banks. Knox. Follette. Foraker velt.




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