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doms acknowledged Cromwell as their guardian. The Huguenots of Languedoc, the shepherds who, in the hamlets of , professed a Protestantism older than that of Augs. were secured from oppression by the mere terror of that #name. The pope himself was forced to preach humanity

moderation to Popish princes. For a voice which seldom threatened in vain had declared that, unless favor were shown to the people of God, the English guns should be heard in the Castle of Saint Angelo. In truth, there was nothing which Cromwell had, for his own sake and that of his family, so much reason to desire as a general religious war in Europe. In such a war he must have been the captain of the Protestant armies. The heart of England would have been with him.

= His victories would have been hailed with a unanimous enthu

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siasm unknown in the country since the rout of the Armada and would have effaced the stain which one act, condemned

by the general voice of the nation, has left on his splendid
fame. Unhappily for him he had no opportunity of display
ing his admirable military talents, except against the inhabit.
ants of the British isles. o
While he lived his power stood firm, an object of mingled
aversion, admiration, and dread to his subjects. Few-indeed
loved his government; but those who hated it most hated it
less than they feared it. Had it been a worse government, it
might perhaps have been overthrown in spite of all its strength,
Had it been a weaker government, it would certainly have
been overthrown in spite of all its merits. But it had modera-
tion enough to abstain from those oppressions which drive men
mad; and it had a force and energy which none but men
driven mad by oppression would venture to encounter.
It has often been affirmed, but apparently with little reason,
that Oliver died at a time fortunate for his renown, and that,
if his life had been prolonged, it would probably have closed
amidst disgraces and disasters. It is certain that he was, to
the last, honored by his soldiers, obeyed by the whole popula:
tion of the British islands, and dreaded by all foreign powers,
that he was laid among the ancient sovereigns of England
with funeral pomp such as London had never before seen
and that he was succeeded by his son Richard as quietly as
any king had ever been succeeded by any prince of Wales. So
During five months, the administration of Richard Cromwell
went on so tranquilly and regularly that all Europe believed
him to be firmly established on the chair of state. In truth


his situation was in some respects much more advantageous than that of his father. The young man had made no enemy. His hands were unstained by civil blood. The 2Cavaliers. themselves allowed him to be an honest, good-natured genile--man. The Presbyterian party, powerful both in numbers and o in wealth, had been at deadly feud with the late Protector, was disposed to regard the present Protector with favor. Thatparty had always been desirous to see the old civil polity of the realm restored, with some clearer definitions and some stronger safeguards for public liberty, but had many reasons for dreading the restoration of the old family. Richard was the very man for politicians of this description. His humanity, ingenuousness, and modesty, the mediocrity of his abilities, and the docility with which he submitted to the guidance. of persons wiser than himself, admirably qualified him to be " '


the direction of able advisers, effect what his father had attempted in vain. A parliament was called, and the writs were directed after the old fashion. The small boroughs which had recently been disfranchised, regained their lost privilege: Manchester, Leeds, and Halifax ceased to return members; and the county of York was again limited to two knights. It may seem strange to a generation which has been excited almost to madness by the question of parliamentary reform, that great shires and towns should have submitted with patience, and even with complacency, to this change: but though reflecting men could, even in that age, discern the vices of the old representative system, and foresee that those vices would, sooner-or later, produce serious practical evil, the practical evil had not yet been much felt. Oliver's representative system, on the other hand, though constructed on the soundest principles, was not popular. Both the events in which it originated, and the effects which it had produced, prejudiced men against it. It had sprung from military violence. It had been fruitful of nothing but disputes. The whole nation was sick of government by the sword, and pined for government by the law. The restoration, therefore, even of anomalies and abuses, which were in strict conformity with the law, and which had been destroyed by the sword, gave general satisfaction. Among the Commons there was a strong opposition, consisting partly of avowed Republicans, and partly of concealed Royalists; but a large and steady majority appeared to be faWOL. I. 10

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vorable to the plan of reviving the old civil constitution under a new dynasty. Richard was solemnly recognized as first magistrate. The Commons not only consented to transact ss with Oliver's Lords, but passed a vote acknowledging right of those nobles, who had in the late troubles taken side of public liberty, to sit in the upper house of parliament without any new creation. Thus far the statesmen by whose advice Richard acted had been successful. Almost all the parts of the government were now constituted as they had been constituted at the commencement of the civil war. Had the Protector and the Parliament been suffered to proceed undisturbed, there can be little doubt that an order of things similar to that which was afterwards * - established under the House of Hanover would have been es - tablished under the House of Cromwell. But there was in the state a power more than sufficient to deal with Protector and Parliament together. Over the soldiers Richard had no authority except that which he derived from the great name which he had inherited. He had never led them to victory. He had never even, borne arms. All his tastes and habits were pacific. Nor were his opinions and feelings on religious subjects approved by the military saints. That he was a good man he evinced by proofs more satisfactory than deep groans or long sermons, by humility and suavity, when he was at the height of human greatness, by cheerful resignation under cruel wrongs and misfortunes: but the cant then common in every guard-room gave him a disgust which he had not always the prudence to conceal. The officers who had the principal influence among the troops stationed near London were not his friends. They were men distinguished by valor and conduct in the field, but destitute of the wisdom and civil courage which had been conspicuous in their deceased leader. Some of them were honest, but fanatical, Independents and Republicans. Of this class Fleetwood was the representative. Others were impatient to be what Oliver had been. His rapid elevation, his prosperity and glory, his inauguration in the hall, and his gorgeous obsequies in the abbey, had inflamed their imagination." They were as well born as he, and as well educated:. they could not understand why they were not as worthy to wear the purple robe, and to wield the sword of state ; and they pursued the objects of their wild ambition, not, like him, with patience, vigilance, sagacity, and determination, but with the restlessness and irresolution characteristic of aspiring me.



diocrity. Among these feeble copies of a great original the most conspicuous was Lambert. On the very day of Richard's accession the officers to conspire against their new master. The good understan. ing which existed between him and his parliament hasten the crisis. Alarm and resentment spread through the camp.” Both the religious and the professional feelings of the army were deeply wounded. It seemed that the Independents were : to be subjected to the Presbyterians, and that the men of the sword were to be subjected to the men of the gown. A coalition was formed between the military malcontents and the republican minority of the House of Commons. It may well be doubted whether Richard could have triumphed over that coalition even if he had inherited his father's clear judgment and iron courage. It is certain that simplicity and meekness like his were not the qualities which the conjuncture required. He fell ingloriously and without a struggle. He was used by the army as an instrument for the purpose of dissolving the Parliament, and was then contemptuously thrown aside. The officers gratified their republican allies by declaring that the expulsion of the Rump had been illegal, and by inviting that assembly to resume its functions. The old speaker and a quorum of the old members came together and were proclaimed, amidst the scarcely stifled derision and execration of the whole nation, the supreme power in the state. It was at the same time expressly declared that there should be no first magistrate, and no House of Lords. But this state of things could not last. On the day on which the Long Parliament revived, revived also its old quarrel with the army. Again the Rump forgot that it owed its existence to the pleasure of the soldiers, and began to treal them as subjects. Again the doors of the House of Commons were closed by military violence; and a provisional government, named by the officers, assumed the direction of affairs. Meanwhile the sense of great evils, and the strong apprehension of still greater evils close at hand, had at length pro duced an alliance between the Cavaliers and the Presbyterians. Some Presbyterians had, indeed, been disposed to such an alliance even before the death of Charles the First; but it was not till after the fall of Richard Cromwell that the whole party became eager for the restoration of the royal house." There was no longer any reasonable hope that the old constitution could be reëstablished under a new dynas

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