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pean powers, and had not yet descended to her natural position. She was induced to join on this occasion with England and the States. Thus was formed that coalition known as the Triple Alliance. Lewis showed signs of vexation and resentment, but did not think it politic to draw on himself the hostility of such a confederacy in addition to that of Spain. He consented, therefore, to relinquish a large part of the territory which his armies had occupied. Peace was restored to Europe; and the English government, lately an object of general contempt, was, during a few months, regarded by foreign powers with respect scarcely less than that which the Protector had inspired. At home the Triple Alliance was popular in the highest degree. It gratified alike national animosity and national pride. It put a limit to the encroachments of a powerful and ambitious neighbor. It bound the leading Protestant states together in close union. Cavaliers and Roundheads rejoiced in common; but the joy of the Roundhead was even greater than that of the Cavalier. For England had now allied herself strictly with a country republican in government and Presbyterian in religion, against a country ruled by an arbitrary prince and attached to the Roman Catholic Church. The House of Commens loudly applauded the treaty; and some uncourtly grumblers described it as the only good thing that had been done since the king came in. The king, however, cared little for the approbation of his parliament or of his people. The Triple Alliance he regarded merely as a temporary expedient for quieting discontents which had seemed likely to become serious. The independ... ence, the safety, the dignity, of the nation over which he presided were nothing to him. He had begun to find constitutional restraints galling. Already had been formed in the parliament a-strong connection known by the name of the country party. That party included all the public men who leaned towards Puritanism and Republicanism, and many who, though attached to the Established Church and to hereditary monarchy, had been driven into opposition by dread of Popery, by dread of France, and by disgust at the extravagance, dissoluteness, and faithlessness of the court. The power of this band of politicians was constantly growing. Every year some of those members who had been returned to parliament during the loyal excitement of 1661 dropped off; and the vacant seats were generally filled by persons less tractable. Charles did not think himself a king while an assembly of subjects could call for his accounts before paying his debts, and could insist on knowing which of his mistresses or boon companions had intercepted the money destined for the equipping and manning of the fleet. Though not very studious of fame, he was galled by the taunts which were sometimes uttered in the discussions of the Commons, and on one occasion attempted to restrain the freedom of speech by disgraceful means. Sir John Coventry, a country gentleman, had, in debate, sneered at the profligacy of the court. In any former reign he would probably have been called before the Privy Council and committed to the Tower. A different course was now taken. A gang of bullies was secretly sent to slit the nose of the offender. This ignoble revenge, instead of quelling the spirit of opposition, raised such a tempest, that the king was compelled to submit to the cruel humiliation of passing an act which attainted the instruments of his revenge, and which took from him the power of pardoning them. But, impatient as he was of constitutional restraints, how was he to emancipate himself from them P He could make himself despotic only by the help of a great standing army; and such an army was not in existence. His revenues did indeed enable him to keep up some regular troops; but these troops, though numerous enough to excite great jealousy and apprehension in the House of Commons and in the country, were scarcely numerous enough to protect Whitehall and the Tower against a rising of the mob of London. Such risings were, indeed, to be dreaded ; for it was calculated that in the capital and its suburbs dwelt not less than twenty thousand of Oliver's old soldiers. Since the king was bent on emancipating himself from the control of parliament, and since, in such an enterprise, he could not hope for effectual aid at home, it followed that he must look for aid abroad. The power and wealth of the King of France might be equal to the arduous task of establishing absolute monarchy in England. Such an ally would undoubtedly expect substantial proofs of gratitude for such a service. Charles must descend to the rank of a great vassal, and must make peace and war according to the directions of the government which protected him. His relation to Lewis would closely resemble that in which the Rajah of Nagpore and the King of Oude now stand to the British government. Those princes are bound to aid the East India Company in all

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hostilities, defensive and offensive, and to have no diplomatic
relations but such as the East India Company shall sanction.
The Company, in return, guaranties them against insurrection.
As long as they faithfully discharge their obligations to the
paramount power, they are permitted to dispose of large rev-
enues, to fill their palaces with beautiful women, to besot
themselves in the company of their favorite revellers, and to
oppress with impunity any subject who may incur their dis-
pleasure. Such a life would be insupportable to a man of
high spirit and of powerful understanding. But to Charles,
sensual, indolent, unequal to any strong intellectual exertion,
and destitute alike of all patriotism and of all sense of personal
dignity, the prospect had nothing unpleasing.
That the Duke of York should have concurred in the design
of degrading that crown which it was probable that he would
himself one day wear, may seem more extraordinary. For
his nature was haughty and imperious; and, indeed, he con-
tinued to the very last to show, by occasional starts and strug-
gles, his impatience of the French yoke. But he was almost
as much debased by superstition as his brother by indolence
and vice. James was now a Roman Catholic. Religious big-
otry had become the dominant sentiment of his narrow and
stubborn mind, and had so mingled itself with his love of rule
that the two passions could hardly be distinguished from each
other. It seemed highly improbable that, without foreign aid,
he would obtain ascendency or even toleration for his own
faith; and he was in a temper to see nothing humiliating in
any step, however unprincely or unmanly, which might pro-
mote the interests of the true church.
A negotiation was opened which lasted during several
months. The chief agent between the English and French
courts was the beautiful, graceful, and intelligent Henrietta,
Duchess of Orleans, sister of Charles, sister-in-law of Lewis,
and a favorite with both. The king of England offered to
declare himself a Roman Catholic, to dissolve the Triple
Alliance, and to join with France against Holland, if France
would engage to lend him such military and pecuniary aid as
might make him independent of his parliament. Lewis at first
affected to receive these propositions coolly, and at length
agreed to them with the air of a man who is conferring a
great favor; but, in truth, the course which he had resolved to
take was one by which he might gain and could not lose.
It seems certain that he never seriously thought of estab-

lishing despotism and Popery in England by force of arms. He must have been aware that such an enterprise would be in the highest degree arduous and hazardous, that it would task to the utmost all the energies of France during many years, and that it would be altogether incompatible with more promising schemes of aggrandizement, which were dear to his heart. He would indeed willingly have acquired the merit and the glory of doing a great service on reasonable terms to the church of which he was a member. But he was little disposed to imitate his ancestors who, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, had led the flower of French chivalry to die in Syria and Egypt; and he well knew that a crusade against Protestantism in Great Britain would not be less perilous than the expeditions in which the armies of Lewis the Seventh and of Lewis the Ninth had perished. He had no motive for wishing the Stuarts to be absolute. He did not, regard the English constitution with feelings at all resembling those which have in later times induced princes to make war on the free institutions of neighboring nations. At present a great party, zealous for popular government, has ramifications in every civilized country. Any important advantage gained any where by that party is almost certain to be the signal for general commotion. It is not wonderful that governments threatened by a common danger should combine for the purpose of mutual insurance. But in the seventeenth century no such danger existed. Between the public mind of England and the public mind of France, there was a great gulf Our institutions and our factions were as little understood at Paris as at Constantinople. It may be doubted whether any one of the forty members of the French Academy had an English volume in his library, or knew Shakspeare, Jonson, or Butler, even by name. A few Huguenots, who had inherited the mutinous spirit of their ancestors, might perhaps have a fellowfeeling with their brethren in the faith, the English Roundheads; but the Huguenots had ceased to be formidable. The French, as a body, attached to the Church of Rome, and proud of the greatness of their king and of their own loyalty, looked on our struggles against Popery and arbitrary power, not only without admiration or sympathy, but with strong disapprobation and disgust. It would therefore be a great error to ascribe the conduct of Lewis to apprehensions at all resembling those which, in, our age, induced the Holy Alliance to interfere in the Internal government of Naples and Spain.

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Nevertheless, the propositions made by the court of Whitehall were most welcome to him. He already meditated gigantic designs, which were destined to keep Europe in constant fermentation during more than forty years. He wished to humble the United Provinces, and to annex Belgium, Franche Comté, and Loraine to his dominions. Nor was this all. The King of Spain was a sickly child. It was likely that he would die without issue. His eldest sister was Queen of France. A day would almost certainly come, and might come very soon, when the House of Bourbon might lay claim to that vast empire on which the sun never set. The union of two great monarchies under one head would doubtless be opposed by a continental coalition. But for any continental coalition France single-handed was a match. England could turn the scale. On the course which, in such a crisis, England might pursue, the destinies of the world would depend; and it was notorious that the English parliament and nation were, strongly attached to the policy which had dictated the Triple Alliance. Nothing, therefore, could be more gratifying to Lewis than to learn that the princes of the House of Stuart needed his help, and were willing to purchase that help by unbounded subserviency. He determined to profit by the opportunity, and laid down for himself a plan to which, without deviation, he adhered, till the revolution of 1688 disconcerted all his politics. He professed himself desirous to promote the designs of the English court. He promised large aid. He from time to time doled out such aid as might serve to keep hope alive, and as he could without risk or inconvenience

spare. In this way, at an expense very much less than that

which he incurred in building and decorating Versailles or Marli, he succeeded in making England, during nearly twenty years, almost as insignificant a member of the political system of Europe as the republic of San Marino.

His object was not to destroy our constitution, but to keep the various elements of which it was composed in a perpetual state of conflict, and to set irre concilable enmity between those who had the power of the purse and those who had the power of the sword. With this view he bribed and stimulated both parties in turn, pensioned at once the ministers of the crown and the chiefs of the opposition, encouraged the court to withstand the seditious encroachments of the parliament, and conveyed to the parliament intimations of the arbitrary designs of the court.

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