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The charge of the English ordnance in the seventeenth century was, as compared with other military and naval charges, much smaller than at present. At most of the garrisons there were gunners, and here and there, at an important post, an engineer was to be found. But there was no regiment of artillery, no brigade of sappers and miners, no college in which young soldiers could learn the scientific part of war. The difficulty of moving field pieces was extreme. When, a few years later, William marched from Devonshire to London, the apparatus which he brought with him, though such as had long been in constant use on the Continent, and such as would now be regarded at Woolwich as rude and cumbrous, excited in our ancestors an admiration resembling that which the Indians of America felt for the Castilian harquebusses. The stock of gunpowder kept in the English forts and arsenals was boastfully mentioned by patriotic writers as something which might well impress neighboring nations with awe. It amounted to fourteen or fifteen thousand barrels, about a twelfth of the quantity which it is now thought necessary to have always in store. The expenditure under the head of Ordnance was on an average a little above sixty thousand pounds a year.”

The whole effective charge of the army, navy, and ordnance, was about seven hundred and fifty thousand pounds. The non-effective charge, which is now a heavy part of our public burdens, can hardly be said to have existed. A very small number of naval officers, who were not employed in the public service, drew half pay. No lieutenant was on the list, nor any captain who had not commanded a ship of the first or second rate. As the country then possessed only seventeen ships of the first and second rate that had ever been at seas and as a large proportion of the persons who had commanded such ships had good posts on shore, the expenditure under this head must have been small indeed. In the army, half pay it, and of the scandalous compliances to which they stooped in order to retain it. Even in our own age, great as is the power of opinion, and high as is the standard of integrity, there would be great risk of a lamentable change in the character of our public men, if the place of first lord of the Treasury or secretary of state were worth a hundred thousand pounds a year. Happily for our country the emoluments of the highest class of functionaries have not only not grown in proportion to the general growth of our opulence, but have positively diminished. The fact that the sum raised in England by taxation has, in a time not exceeding two long lives, been multiplied thirtyfold, is strange, and may at first sight seem appalling. But those who are alarmed by the increase of the public burdens may perhaps be reassured when they have considered the increase of the public resources. In the year 1685 the value of the produce of the soil far exceeded the value of all the other fruits of human industry. Yet agriculture was in what would now be considered as a very rude and imperfect state. The arable land and pasture land were not supposed by the best political arithmeticians of that age to amount to much more than half the area of the kingdom.” The remainder was believed to consist of moor, forest, and fen. These computations are strongly confirmed by the road books and maps of the seventeenth century. From those books and maps it is clear that many routes which now pass through an endless succession of orchards, hay-fields, and bean-fields, then ran through nothing but heath, swamp, and warren.f In the drawings of English landscapes made in that age for the Grand Duke Cosmo, scarce a hedgerow is to be seen, and numerous tracts, now rich with cultivation, appear as bare as Salisbury Plain. At Enfield, hardly, out of sight of the smoke of the capital, was a region of five and twenty miles

use of them. See also Sheffield's Memoirs, Teonge's Diary, Aubrey's Life of Monk, the Life of Sir Cloudesley Shovel, 1708, Commons' Journals, March 1 and March 20, 1683. * Chamberlayne's State of England, 1684. Commons' Journals, March 1 and March 20, 1685. In 1833 it was determined, after full inquiry, that a hundred, and seventy thousand barrels of gunpowder should constantly be kept in store; and this rule is still observed. * It appears, from the records of the Admiralty, that flag officers were allowed half pay in 1668, captains of first and second rates not till 1674. - --

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courts, must seem small indeed to the present generation. But the personal favorites of the sovereign, his ministers, and the creatures of those ministers, were gorged with public money. Their salaries and pensions, when compared with the incomes of the nobility, the gentry, the commercial and professional men of that age, will appear enormous. The greatest estates in the kingdom then very little exceeded twenty thousand a year. The Duke of Ormond had twentytwo thousand a year.” The Duke of Buckingham, before his extravagance had impaired his great property, had nineteen thousand six hundred 'a year.f George Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who had been rewarded for his eminent services with immense grants of crown land, and who had been notorious both for covetousness and for parsimony, left fifteen thousand a year of real estate, and sixty thousand pounds in money which probably yielded seven per cent. These three dukes were supposed to be three of the very richest subjects in England. The Archbishop of Canterbury can hardly have had five thousand a year.) The average income of a temporal peer was estimated, by the best informed persons, at about three thousand a year, the average income of a baronet at nine hundred a year, the average income of a member of parliament at less than eight hundred a year. A thousand a year was thought a large revenue for a barrister. Two thousand a year was hardly to be made in the Court of King's Bench, except by the crown lawyers." It is evident, therefore, that an official man would have been well paid if he had received a fourth or fifth part of what would now be

* Carte's Life of 6-mond.

t Pepys's Diary, Feb. 14, 1663.

† See the report of the Bath and Montague case, which was decided by Lord Keeper Somers, in December, 1693.

§ During three quarters of a year, beginning from Christmas, 1689 the revenues of the see of Canterbury were received by an officer appointed by the crown. That officer's accounts are now in the British Museum. (Lansdowne MSS. 885.) The gross revenue for the three quarters was not quite four thousand pounds; and the difference between the gross and the net revenue was evidently something considerable.

| King's Natural and Political Conclusions. Davenant on the Balance of Trade. Sir W. Temple says, “The revenues of a House of Commons have seldom exceeded four hundred thousand pounds.” Memoirs, Third Part.

* Langton's Conversations with Chief Justice Hale, 1672.

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* King's Natural and Political Conclusions. Davenant on the Balance of Trade. t See the Itinerarum Angliae, 1675, by John Ogilby, Cosmographer Royal. In some of his maps the roads through enclosed country are marked by lines, and the roads through unenclosed country by dots. The proportion of unenclosed country seems to have been very reat. From Abingdon to Gloucester, for example, a distance of orty or fifty miles, there was not a single enclosure, and scarcely one enclosure between Biggleswade and Lincoln. # Large copies of these highly interesting drawings are in the noble collection bequeathed by Mr. Grenville to the British Museum.

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