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CHA PTE R. II.

The Conduct of those who restored the House of Stuart unjustly

censured, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Abolition of the Tenures by Knight Service, ..................

Disbanding of the Army, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Disputes between the Roundheads and Cavaliers renewed, . . . . .

Religious Dissension, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - -

Unpopularity of the Puritans, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Character of Charles the Second, . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Characters of the Duke of York and Earl of Clarendon, ... . . . . .

General Election of 1661, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Violence of the Cavaliers in the new Parliament, ... . . . . . . . . . . .

Persecution of the Puritans, ....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Zeal of the Church for hereditary Monarchy,..................

Change in the Morals of the Community, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Profligacy of the Politicians of that Age, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

State of Scotland, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

State of Ireland, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Government becomes unpopular in England, ... . . . . . . . . . . .

War with the Dutch, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Opposition in the House of Commons, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fall of Clarendon, .........................................

State of European Politics, and Ascendency of France,.........

Character of Lewis the Fourteenth, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Triple Alliance, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Country Party, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Connection between Charles the Second and France,...........

Views of Lewis with respect to England, .....................

Treaty of Dover, . . . . . . . . . . . . . • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Nature of the English Cabinet, ..............................

The Cabal, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Shutting of the Exchequer, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..................

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167

War with the United Provinces and their extreme Danger, ..... 168

William Prince of Orange, ................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 169

Meeting of the Parliament, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Declaration of Indulgence, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

It is cancelled, and the Test Act passed, ...................... 173

The Cabal dissolved, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 174

Peace with the United Provinces; Administration of Danby, ... 175

Embarrassing Situation of the Country Party, ................. 177

Dealings of that Party with the French Embassy, ............. 177

Peace of Nimeguen; violent Discontents in England, .......... 178

Fall of Danby; the Popish Plot,. . . . . . . . . .................... 181

First General Election of 1679, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Violence of the new House of Commons, ....... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 186

Temple's Plan of Government, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Character of Halifax, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

Character of Sunderland, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

Prorogation of the Parliament; Habeas Corpus Act, ........... 193

Second General Election of 1679; Popularity of Monmouth, .... 194

Lawrence Hyde, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

Sidney Godolphin, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

Violence of Factions on the Subject of the Exclusion Bill, ...... 199

Names of Whig and Tory, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

Meeting of Parliament; the Exclusion Bill passes the Commons,. 201

Exclusion Bill rejected by the Lords; Execution of Stafford,.... 202

General Election of 1681, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Parliament held at Oxford and dissolved; Tory Reaction,....... 203

Persecution of the Whigs,........................... . . . . . . . . 206

The Charter of the City confiscated; Whig Conspiracies, ....... 206

Detection of the Whig Conspiracies; Severity of the Govern-

ment, - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

Seizure of Charters, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Influence of the Duke of York,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

He is opposed by Halifax, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

Lord Keeper Guildford, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Policy of Lewis, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

State of Factions in the Court of Charles at the Time of his

Death,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

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Great Change in the State of England since 1685, ............. 218

Population of England in 1685, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

The Increase of Population greater in the North than in the South 221

Revenue in 1685, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 223

Military System, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

The Navy, ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

The Ordnance, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

Non-effective Charge, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

Charge of Civil Government, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Great Gains of Courtiers and Ministers, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

State of Agriculture, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Mineral Wealth of the Country, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

Increase of Rent, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

The Country Gentlemen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

The Clergy, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

The Yeomanry, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Growth of the Towns; Bristol, .............................. 261

Norwich, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

Other County Towns, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

Manchester, . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . 265

Leeds, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

Sheffield, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

Birmingham, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

Liverpool, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

Watering Places; Cheltenham, Brighton, Buxton,............. 269

Tunbridge Wells, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 269

Bath,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

London, . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

The City, . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

The fashionable Part of the Capital, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Police of London,...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

The Lighting of London, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

White Friars, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

The Court,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................. 284

The Coffee-Houses, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

Difficulty of Travelling, ............ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Badness of the Roads, ....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

Stago Coaches, ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... 295

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The Newspapers, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 303

The Newsletters, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 304

The Observator, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 306

Scarcity of Books in Country Places,......................... 307

Female Education, . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

Literary Attainments of Gentlemen, ......................... 309

Influence of French Literature, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 310

Immorality of the Polite Literature of England, ............... 312

State of Science in England, ....... • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

State of the Fine Arts, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 322

State of the Common People; Agricultural Wages,............ 324

Wages of Manufacturers, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 327

Labor of Children in Factories, .......... • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

Wages of different Classes of Artisans, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 328

Number of Paupers, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 329 .

Benefits derived by the Common People from the Progress of

Civilization, . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - e - - - e - e. e. e. e - - - - - - - - 332

Delusion which leads Men to overrate the Happiness of preced-

ing Generations,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334

CHA PTER IV.

His Coronation, ............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . . . . . . . . 371

Enthusiasm of the Tories; Addresses,........................ 374

The Elections,........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375

Proceedings against Oates, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

Proceedings against Dangerfield, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - 383

Proceedings against Baxter,...... • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

Meeting of the Parliament of Scotland,....................... 388

Feeling of James towards the Puritans,............. . . . . . . . . . . 390

Cruel Treatment of the Scotch Covenanters, .................. 391

Feeling of James towards the Quakers, ..... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 395

William Penn, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 396

Peculiar Favor shown to Roman Catholics and Quakers, ........ 399

Meeting of the English Parliament, ....... • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

Trevor chosen Speaker; Character of Seymour, ......... - - - - - - 402

The King's Speech to the Parliament,......... • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

Debate in the Commons; Speech of Seymour,................ . 404

The Revenue voted,...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

Proceedings of the Commons concerning Religion,............. 406

Additional Taxes voted; Sir Dudley North, .................. 407

Proceedings of the Lords, ... . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 409

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